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Full text of "An itinerary vvritten by Fynes Moryson gent. first in the Latine tongue, and then translated by him into English: containing his ten yeeres travell throvgh the tvvelve domjnions of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzerland, Netherland, Denmarke, Poland, Jtaly, Turky, France, England, Scotland, and Ireland. Diuided into III parts Volume 4"

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The Itinerary 

Fynes Moryson 

In Four Volumes 

Volume IV 






Containing His Ten Yeeres Travell through 
the Twelve Dominions of Germany, Bohmer- 
land, Sweitzerland, Netherland, Denmarke, 
Poland, Italy, Turky, France, England, 
Scotland & Ireland 

Written by 


James MacLehose and Sons 
Publishers to the University 


The Contents of the severall Chapters contained 
in the Second Booke of the Third Part 


Of Germany, Bohmerland and Sweitzerland, touching the 
Geographicall description, the situation, the fertility, 
the trafficke, and the diet. 



Of the united Provinces in Netherland, and of Denmark 
and Poland, touching the said subjects of the precedent 
third Chapter. 


Of Italy touching all the subjects of the third Chapter 
going before.. 



The Contents of the severall Chapters contained 
in the Third Booke of the Third Part. 


Of the geographicall description of Turk)-, the situation, 
fertility, trafficke and diet. 

o 4 


The Contents of the severall Chapters--Continued. PAGE 
for Horse, Foot, and Navy, the Courts of Justice, rare 
Lawes, more specially the Lawes of inheritance and of 
womens Dowries, the Capitall Judgements, and the 
diversitie of degrees in Families, and in the Common- 
wealth., z38 

CHAP. I11I. 

Of the particular Commonwealths, as well of the Princes of 
Germany, as of the free Cities, such of both as have 
absolute power of life and death. 


Of the Commonwealth of Sweitzerland, according to the 
divers subjects of the third Chapter.. 


Of the Netherlanders Commonwealth, according to the 
foresaid subjects of the third Chapter. 




The rest of this Worke, not as yet fully finished, 
treateth of the following Heads. 

Chap. . Of the Commonwealth of Denmarke, under 
which title I containe an historicall introduction, the 
Kings Pedegree and Court, the present state of the 
things, the Tributes and Revenewes, the military power 
for Horse, Foot, and Navy, the Courts of Justice, rare 
Lawes, more specially those of Inheritance and Dowries 
and Contracts for mariage, the Capitoll or Criminall 
Judgements, and the diversitie of degrees in Families 
and the Commonwealth. 

Chap. z. Of the Commonwealth of Poland, under which 
title, &c. 


The Contents of the severall Chapters--Continued. 
Chap. 3- Of the Commonwealth of Italy, touching the 
historicall introduction, the Princes pedegrees, the 
Papall dominion, and the late power of the King of 
Spaine, with some other subjects of the first Chapter. 


Chap. 4- Of the particular Commonwealth of Venice, 
touching most of the foresaid subjects. 

Chap. 5. Of the Commonwealth of the Duke of Florence, 
the Cities of Lucca and Genoa, with the Dukes of 
Urbino and of Mantoua. 

Chap. 6. Of the Commonwealth _of Italy in generall: 
touching the rest of the heads which belong to the 
generall State of Italy, rather then of any part thereof. 

Chap. 7- Of the Commonwealth of the Turkish Empire, 
under which title &c. as followeth in the first Chapter. 
Chap. 8. Of the Commonwealth of France, under which 
title, &c. 
Chap. 9" Of the Commonwealth of England, under 
which title, &c. 
Chap. IO. Of the Commonwealth of Scotland, under 
which title, &c. 
Chap. I. Of the Commonwealth ot Ireland, under 
which title, &c. 
Chap. z. Of Germany touching Religion. 
Chap. x3- Of Bhemerland, Sweitzerland, the united 
Provinces of Netherland, of Denmark and Poland, 
touching Religion. 
Chap. 4. Of Italy touching Religion. 
Chap. 5. Of the Turkish Empire touching Religion. 

Chap. 6. Of France, England, 
touching Religion. 

Scotland and Ireland 

The Fourth Volume 
The Itinerary of Fynes Moryson 

I605-I 7. 



verticall point (that is the point right over head) of each 
place, whether the Sunne being come by his accidentall 
motion (in each day) it makes noone above the Horizon, 
and midnight under the Horizon (or with the Antipodes3 
The Circle in the convex or bending of the earth, direc.tly 
and perpendicularly under this circle Meridian, passing 
by the extreme points of the earth that are under the 
Poles, and by any appointed place in the superficies (or 
upper face) of the earth, is called a Meridian of the earth. 
And because there is no certaine number of particular 
places on the earth, it follows that the Meridians are 
innumerable, so as every place distant from another 
towards the East or West, hath his owne peculiar 
Meridian, divers from the Meridian of another place. 
Yet for making of maps, and like uses, the Geographers 
appoint one hundred eighty Meridians, namely, ninty 
Easterly, and nintie Westerly. 
The lesser circles are called Paralells, that is, equally 
distant, because having relation one to the other, or to 
any of the great circles, they are in all parts equally 
distant. For al lesser circles have relation to one of the 
greater, and are called the paralells of this or that greater 
circle. But here onely mention is made of the Paralells 
referred to the /Equator, which are lesser circles drawne 
neere the/Equator, from East towards West, or contrary, 
by the vertical points of several places in heaven, or 
by the places themselves in the upper face of the earth, 
& they are the greater, the neerer they are to the/Equator, 
the lesser, as they are more distant from the same towards 
either Pole, and the Geographers call them Northerne 
Paralells which are neare the /Equator in the Northerne 
.Hemisphere, and Southerne Paralells, which are so drawne 
in the Southerne Hemisphere. Also as there is no 
certaine number of particular places, so the Paralells 
are innumerable, insomuch as each place upon the 
upper face of the earth, distant from another towards 
the North or South, hath his pecular verticall Paralell. 
Yet usually the Geographers number I8o Paralells, 


from the same towards the Southerne Pole. Also the 
Longitude in like sort, but imaginarily, is said to be 
Easterly & Westerly, beginning at the first Meridian. 
The places situated under the ]Equator, are said to have 
no latitude and the places under the first Meridian, no 
Zons. longitude. The Zones compassing the earth like girdles, 
according to the Longitude thereof, devide it by the 
]Equator, and foure paralells into five parts, whereof two 
are temperate, and three intemperate. One of the 
intemperate, being the middle, lies under the ]Equator, 
betweene the two Paralells called Tropici, and this is 
called the Torride or burnt Zone, because it being under 
the Ecliptick line, of the Sunnes yeerely course, is con- 
tinually burnt with the beames thereof. This Zone in 
the Superficies or upper part of the earth, containes the 
greater part of Affrick towards the South, yea, almost 
all Affrick, (excepting Egypt, and Mauritania, towards 
the Northerne Pole, and the furthest parts of Affrick 
towards the Southerne Pole), and it containes the chiefe 
Ilands of the East Indies. Next to this middle torride 
Zone towards the North, lies one of the temperate 
Zones, seated betweene the two Paralells, called the 
Tropick of Cancer, and the Artick circle, and it containes 
the greatest part of America, the Northerne part of 
Affrick and almost all Europe and Asia. The other 
temperate Zone lies by the middle torride Zone, on the 
other side of the ]Equator, towards the South, seated 
betweene the two Paralells, called the Tropick of Capri- 
corn, and the Antartick circle, and containes the part of 
America called Peru, and the extreme Southerne parts of 
Affrick, and great part of the Southerne World as yet 
undiscovered. Next to these temperate Zones lye the 
other two Zones called intemperate for cold, as the first 
are for heate, and one of them lies under the Northerne 
Pole of the World, containing Noruegia, and the part 
of Tartaria lying within the Artick circle, the other lies 
under the Southerne Pole, which part of the World is 
not yet discovered. 


Clymes are tracts compassing the earth circularly from 
the West to the East, and they are much more narrow 
then the Zones, and not of equal Latitude among them- 
selves, but as Zones are the greater, the neerer they are to 
the/Equator, and the narrower, the more they are distant 
from the /Equator, towards either of the Poles, so are 
the Clymes. The Latitude of each Clyme is so great, 
as from the beginning to the end of it, the greatest 
Solstitial day may increase halle an hower. And because 
this variation of the day, in parts most remote from the 
/Equator, happens in shorter distances of the earth, there- 
fore the Clymes also most remote from the /Equator, 
are made more and more narrow. In our age wherein 
great parts of the World are discovered, which were 
of old unknowne, this distribution of the earth from the 
Artick circle to the Antartick, may be made into 2 3 clymes, 
the Equinoctial clyme not being numbred. But this 
property must ever bee observed, that the Solstitiall day 
of the following clime, is ever half an hour longer, then 
the solstitial day of the foregoing clime. The first clime 
aswell from the Equator towards the North, as from it 
towards the South is placed, where the greatest day con- 
taines I2 houres & a halfe, & that is next to the/Equator 
on either side. The second where the greatest day con- 
taines 13 houres. The third where it containes 13 houres 
& an halle. The fourth where it containes 14 houres. 
And so forward, till you have numbred the 0--3 clime, 
making the day of 2 3 houres & a halle, & so come to one 
of the said circles, Arctick towards the North, or Antartick 
towards the South, where in the Solstitial day of the one 
half of the yeere, the Sun shines 2 4 houres above the 
Horizon, & the night is but a moment, & on the contrary, 
in the solstitial day of the other halle of the yeere, the 
Sun is hidden 4 hours under the horizon, & the day 
is but a moment: but beyond these circles, this distri- 
bution of the earth into climes ceaseth, because after the 
day is no more increased by halle houres, but the oblique 
horizon on both sides, hideth certaine portions of the 


[III. ii. 77-] 


7 The Countries of Bavaria, and of the Bishopricke 
of Saltzburg, were of old called Vindelicia Noracum, and 
the Inhabitants thereof, Taurisci, and it hath these Cities, 
Scherdung, Saltzburg, and Lintz. 
Suevia stretcheth into old Vindelicia, and that which at 
this day is so called, containes the greater part of Rhetia 
and Vindelicia. The Suevians (vulgarly Schwaben) of 
old forsooke their dwelling upon the River Elve, and 
invaded upper Rhetia, which to this day they hold. The 
Cities thereof are Nerlingen, Gepingen, and the foresaid 
Ulme and Augsburg. 
9 Helvetia (or Sweitzerland) was of old part of Gallia 
Belgica, now is reckoned as part of Germany. The head 
spring of the Rheine, (the second River of Germany, next 
in greatnesse to the Danow), is in the highest Alpes of 
Helvetia, where it riseth in two heads, and the Northerly 
head fallin from the Mountaines Furca and Gotardo, is 
called the fore Rheine, and the Southerly head, falling 
from the Lepontine Mountaines, is called the hinder 
Rheine, both which running towards the East, are united 
at Chur, and then with the name of Rheine, it fals towards 
the North violently from the Mountaines. Helvetia hath 
many and very famous Cities, namely, Schaffhusen, (as the 
houses of boats or ships) Constantia (vulgarly Costnetz), 
Tigurum (vulgarly Zurech) Solodurum (or Solothurn), 
Bern, Lucern, & Geneva, with Losanna, which two last 
of old were reckoned in Savoy, but now are confederate 
with the Sweitzers. The Inhabitants of Helvetia are 
commonly called Sweitzers, and among themselves they 
will be called Eidgenossen, that is; partakers of the 
sworne league. The part of Helvetia betweene the 
Rheine and the lake of Constantia, is called Brisgoia, 
vulgarly Brisgaw, (Bris signifies a price, and Gaw a 
meadow), and therein is the spring-head of the River 
Danow, and the Townes thereof are Rotwill, Brisach, 
Friburg, (an University) Basil (a famous University), of 
old belonging to Alsatia, now confederate with the 

I005-17 . 

o Alsatia, so called of the river Ilia running through 
it, is divided into the upper & the lower: The upper 
from Basil to Strasburg is called Singaw, and the Inhabit- 
ants of old were called Tribocchi, and Tribotes: some 
hold Strasburg of old to have beene the chiefe City 
thereof, but it hath now three Cities, Basil, Selestade, 
and Rusach. The lower lying above Strasburg to the 
Mount Vogasus, hath these Cities, Haganaw and Sabern. 
I I. For the Tract upon the Rheine: first, above 
Alsatia towards Metz, the Nemetes (whose chiefe City is 
Spira), and the Vangiones (whose chiefe City is Worms), 
possesse the West side of the Rheine. The tract adjoyn- 
ing is called Vetus Hannonia (vulgarly Alt-henegaw.) 
Something further from the Rheine towards the 
Dukedome of Luxenburg, are these Provinces. The 
County Sweybrucken (also called Bipontanus in Latin, 
of two Bridges), and the Cities are Sweybrucken and 
Sarbrucken. Secondly, Austracia (vulgarly Uestreich, as 
a vast Kingdome.) Thirdly, the Territory of the Elector 
Bishop of Trier, whereof the chiefe Citie is Treveris 
(vulgarly Trier.) 
On the other side of the Rheine towards the East, the 
Marquisate of Baden lyes next to Helvetia, whose 
inhabitants of old were called Vespi. Next lies the 
Dukedome of Wirtenburg, the Cities whereof are 
Tubinga and Sturcardia, whereof the former is an 
Universitie. Then followes the Palatinate of Rheine, 
the Inhabitants whereof were of old called Intuergi & 
Phargiones, and are now called Phaltzer, and Heidelberg, 
seated upon the River Neccar is the chiefe Citie, and the 
seate of the Palatine Elector. 
The lower Germany is devided into nineteene Pro- I9 Prorinces 
vinces, Franconia, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Saxonia, oflooer 
Lusatia, Misnia, Turingia, Marchia, the Dukedome of araong,hich 
Brunswicke, the Dukedome of Meckleburg, Hassia, Bokeraiais 
Juliacum, Clivia, Vrestphalia, Frisia Orientalis, Pomer- reckoned. 
ania, Borussia, & Livonia, (for I omit Gallia Belgica to be 
handled in his proper place.) 

Jill ii. 75-] 


x Franconia is an ancient and noble Nation, the 
inhabitants wherof driving the Romans out of Gallia, 
possessed the same, and gave the name of France to that 
Kingdome. This Province hath old and faire Cities, 
namely, Bamberg (a Bishops seate), Rotenburg, Francfort 
(famous for the yeerely Marts or Faires), Wirtzberg (a 
Bishops seate), Mentz or Metz (the seate of the chiefe 
Elector Bishop), and Nurnberg (a famous City, which 
some hold to be in Bavaria, but the Citizens doe more 
willingly acknowledge themselves to be Franckes.) All 
the Province (excepting the free Cities, and the three 
Cities belonging to Bishops) is subject to the Margrave 
of Brandeburg. 
o Bohemia hath a language proper to it selfe, and hath 
two Provinces belonging to it, Moravia (having his 
proper language), and Silesia (using the Dutch tongue) 
and these three make a Kingdome, which is subject to 
the Emperour, and it is joyned by Geographers to the 
Provinces of Germany, because the same compasseth it 
almost round about. Bohemia is not devided into 
Counties, but according to the Teritories, belonging to 
the King, or to Noble men and Gentlemen; this being 
called the Kings land, that the land of the Baron of 
Rosenberg, or the land of the Popells, and so of the 
rest. The chiefe City and seate of the Emperour their 
King, is Prage. The River Elve hath his head spring 
in Bohemia, being the third River of Germany, and it 
runs through Saxony to Hamburg, and after falls into 
the sea. The inhabitants of Bohemia came out of 
Dalmatia, as their language witnesseth. 
3 Moravia was of old inhabited by the Marcomanni, 
and had subject to it Bohemia, Silesia, and Polonia: but 
at this day it is onely a Marquisate, subject to Bohemia, 
and hath the name of the River Morava. The chiefe 
City thereof is Bromia, vulgarly Prim. 
4 The inhabitants of Silesia were of old called Lugii, 
Dantuli, and Cogni. The River Viadrus, or Odera, 
runnes through it into Pomerania, and so falles into the 



sea. Silesia is annexed to Bohemia, and so is likewise 
subject to the Emperour, as King of Bohemia, and the 
chiefe City thereof is Uratislavia, vulgarly Bressell, and 
the inhabitants of this Province are Germans, as well in 
language as manners. 
5 Saxony containes all that lies betweene Hassia, 
Silesia, Polonia, Bohemia, and the Baltick sea, so as at this 
day, Lusatia, Misnia, Turingia, both the Markes, and the 
Dukedomes of Brunswick, and of Meckleburg, are con- 
tained therein. 
6 Lusatia is a little Region, annexed to the Kingdome 
of Bohemia. In the upper part are the Cities Gurlitz 
(an University), and Pautsan, and Siltania. In the lower, 
Soravick and Cotwick, and the River Sprea runnes 
through them both. 
7 Misnia was of old inhabited by the Hermonduri, 
and Sorabi, of the Sclavonian Nation. It is a fertill 
Region, and therein begin the Mountaines which 
Ptolomy calles Suditi, in which are mines of mettals, and 
especially of silver. The Cities thereof are Misnia 
(vulgarly Misen), Torg, Leipzig, and Witteberg (two 
Universities), Fryburg (the fields whereof have rich mines 
of silver), Dresden (the seate of the Saxon Elector), 
Remnitz, and Suicania. 
8 The Province of Turingia is said of old to have 
been inhabited by the Gothes, because the chiefe City is 
called Gota. The Metropolitan City is Erford, being 
large and ancient, and one of the free Cities of the 
Empire. This Province is subject to the Duke of 
Saxony, with the title of Langrave, as Misnia is also, 
with the title of Marquis. 
9 The River Odera hath his head spring in Marchia, 
and runnes through it, deviding it into the new Marke, 
and the old. The chiefe Citie of the old is Franckford 
upon the Odera, (so called in difference of the more 
knowne Franckford upon the Maene). The new Marke 
hath these Cities, Berlin, the seate of the Elector, and 
Brandeburg, of which the Elector of Brandeburg hath 


Jill. ii. 76.] 


that stile, and both the new and old are subject to the 
said Elector. 
x c) Brunswick gives the name to that Dukedome, and 
hath the name of Bruno that built it, and is a free Citie 
of the Empire, strongly fortified, and not any way subject 
to the Duke of Brunswick, though upon some old title 
hee hath the name thereof, and possesseth the rest of the 
Dukedome, holding his Court at Wolfenbeiten, not farre 
distant from Brunswick. 
x The Dukedom of Meckelburg, was of old 
inhabited by the Pharadini, as Ptolomy writes. It hath 
two Cities, both on the Seaside, Wismar, and Rostoch (an 
 2 Hassia is a mountanous Country, in which Ptolomy 
placeth for old inhabitants the Longobardi, the Chatti, 
the Teucteri, and the Chriones. At this day it is subject 
to the Family of the Landgraves of Hassia. It hath 
these Cities, Casseils (the chiefe seat of the elder brother 
of that Family) Hersphild, and Marpurg (an Universitie.) 
The tract upon the River Lovia, is derided into the 
County of Nassaw (whereof the chiefe Towne is Dillen- 
berg) and the County of Catzmelbogen (so called of the 
Chatti inhabitants, and Melibots a famous Mountaine.) 
The Bishoprick of Colen gives title to one of the Clergie 
Electors, and was of old inhabited by the Ubii, of whom 
the chiefe Citie was first called Ubiopolis, which Marcus 
Agrippa repaired, and called it Agripina Augusta: but 
Marcomirus King of the Francks or French, conquering 
it, called it Colonia. It is a small Country, and the 
Bishop Elector hath most part of his revenues from other 
13 Juliacum is a little Region, and hath title of a. 
x 4 The Dukedom of Cleve was of old inhabited by the 
Usipetes, and the City Cleve is the seate of the Duke. 
5 Westphalia is a large Region, inhabited by the 
Cherusci, Teucteri, Bructeri, and the Vigenones, and it 
hath these Cities, Padeborn, Munster (which the Ana- 


baptists held in time of Luther), Breme (a free city of the 
Empire, fairely built upon the River Visurgis), and Mindawe. 
I6 Easterly Freesland lyes upon the River Amesus, 
vulgarly Emms, and is a County, subject to the Count of 
Emden, who hath his name of the chiefe Citie Emden : 
but of late upon some difference he was for a time driven 
out of that City, so as it seemes hee hath not absolute 
power over it. 
7 Pomerania was of old inhabited by the Hermiones, 
and lies upon the Baltike sea or Oest sea, and is subject 
to the Duke thereof. It hath these Townes, Stetin, 
Coberg, (both on the Sea-side), Sund, Stutgard, and 
Grippwalt (which lies also on the sea, and is an old Uni- 
versitie, but hath few or no Students.) 
8 Borussia or Prussia, is at this day subject to the 
King of Polonia, by agreement made betweene the 
Polonians and the Knights of the Teutonick order, but 
the inhabitants are Germans, both in speech and manners. 
The chiefe Cities are these, Dantzk (a famous Citie, 
acknowledging the King of Poland for tributes, yet so, 
as they will not receive him into the Citie, but with 
such a traine as they like.) Another Citie is Konigsperg 
(the seate of the Duke of Prussen, who is of the Family 
of the Elector of Brandeburg, but hath the Dukedome 
in Fee from the Kings of Poland, to whom it fals in want 
of heires males.) The other Cities are, Marieburg, Elb- 
ing and Thorn (which lies upon the confines of Poland, 
and witty Copernicus was borne there.) 
I9 Livonia is a part of Germany, but hath neither the 
speech nor the manners thereof. It was subdued some 
two hundred yeeres past, and was brought from the 
worshipping of Idols and Devils, to Christian Religion, 
yet in the Villages they have not at this day fully left 
their old Idolatrie. It is inhabited by the old Saxons, 
and hath these Cities, Refalia (on the sea-side) Derbt 
(within land), and the Metropolitan Citie Riga (on the, which the Duke of Moscovy hath often, but 
In valne, attempted to subdue.) 


I605-I 7. 
The situation Old Writers affirme (as Munster witnesseth) that the 
of Germany. Germanes had perpetuall Winter, and knew not Harvest 
for want of fruites. This opinion no doubt proceeded 
rather from their neglect or ignorance of tyllage and 
husbandrie, then from the indisposition of the ayre or 
soyle. Yet I confesse that they have farre greater cold 
then England lying more Northerly, especially in lower 
Germany and the Provinces lying upon the Baltick or 
Oest Sea, more especially in Prussen (part of that shoare, 
which the more it reacheth towards the East, doth also 
more bend towards the North) where in September my 
selfe did feele our Winters cold. 
And since the Baltick sea is little subject to ebbing 
and flowing, and the waters therof are not much moved, 
except it bee upon a storme, it is daily seene, that in 
winter upon a North or North-West wind, this sea for a 
good distance from the land is frosen with hard yce, to 
which the inland Rivers are much more subject, which 
[III. ii. 77-] argues the extreme cold that this part of Germany 
suffereth. Also neare the Alpes, though Southerly, that 
part of Germany, having the said Mountaines interposed 
betweene it and the Sunne, and feeling the cold winds 
that blow from those Mountaines perpetually covered 
with snow, doth much lesse partake the heat of the 
Sunne, then others under the same paralell, having not 
the said accidents. Upon these Alpes (whereof I have 
formerly spoken in this booke) the snow lyes very deepe, 
and covers all the ground for nine moneths of the yeere, 
yet notwithstanding the vallyes and discents of them 
lying open to the South Sunne, and taking life from the 
heate thereof, are very fi'uitfull. Lastly, in generall 
through all Germany, the aboundance of Lakes and 
Mountaines, doth increase this cold of the aire in divers 
places, except they bee something defended from the same 
by Woods adjoyning, and in some places (as namely at 
Heidelberg) where the Cities are almost fully inclosed 
with Mountaines, the cold windes in Winter doe more 
ragingly breake in on that side the Mountaines lye open, 


the more they are restrained and resisted on the other 
sides. _As likewise by accident the Sunne beames in 
Summer reflecting against those Mountaines (though in 
a cold Region) are so violently hot, as the Cities at that 
time are much annoyed with multitudes of flies, which 
not onely vex men, but so trouble the horses, as they 
are forced to cover them with cloathes from this ann.oy- 
ance. The foresaid intemperatenesse of cold pressing 
great part of Germany, in stead of tier they use hot 
stoves for remedie thereof, which are certaine chambers 
or roomes, having an earthen oven cast into them, which 
may be heated with a little quantity of wood, so as it 
will make them hot who come out of the cold, and incline 
them to swetting if they come neare the oven. And as 
well to keepe out cold as to retaine the heate, they keepe 
the dores and windowes closely shut ; so as they using not 
only to receive Gentlemen into these stoves, but even to 
permit rammish clownes to stand by the oven till their 
wet clothes be dried, and themselves sweat, yea, to indure 
their little children to sit upon their close stooles, and 
ease themselves within this close and hot stove (let the 
Reader pardon my rude speech, as I bore with the bad 
smell), it must needes be, that these ill smelles, never 
purged by the admitting of any fresh ayre, should dull 
the braine, and almost choke the spirits of those who 
frequent the stoves. When my selfe first entred into 
one of them, this unwonted heate did so winde about 
my legges, as if a Snake had twined about them, and 
made my head dull and heavy: but after I had used 
them, custome became another nature, for I never in joyed 
my health in any place better then there. This intem- 
peratenesse of cold, is the cause that a Lawrell tree is 
hardly to be found in Germany, and that in the lower 
parts towards Lubeck, .they keepe Rosemary within the 
house in eartherne pitchers filled with earth, as otherwhere 
men preserve the choice fruits of the South, yet can they 
not keep this Rosemary (when it prospers best) above 
three yeeres from withering. For this cause also, they 

[III. ii. 78.] 


have no Italian fruits in Germany, onely at Prage I did 
see some few Orange trees, preserved in pitchers full of 
earth, by setting them fourth in the heate of the Summer 
dayes, and after drawing them into houses, where they 
were cherished by artificiall heate. And the like fruits 
I did see at Heidelberg in the Pallatine Electors Garden, 
growing open in Summer, but in winter a house being 
built over them, with an oven like a stove, and yet these 
trees yeelded not any ripe fruit, when as at London and 
many parts of England more Northerly then those parts 
of Germany, we have Muske Mellons, and plenty of 
Abricots growing in Gardens, which for quantitie and 
goodnesse are not much inferiour to the fruits in Italy. 
Also this cold is the cause, that in Misen (where they 
plant vines) and in the highest parts of Germany on this 
side the Alpes (where they make wine thereof) the Grapes 
and the wine are exceeding sower. Onely the wines upon 
Neccar, and those upon the West side of the Rheine, are 
in their kinds good, but harsh and of little heate in the 
The cherries called Zawerkersen, are reasonable great, 
but sower. And the other kind called Wildkersen, is 
little and sweete, but hath a blacke juyce, unpleasing to 
the taste. They have littIe store of peares or apples, and 
those they have are little, and of small pleasantnesse, 
onely the Muskadel peare is very delicate, especially when 
it is dried. And the Germans make good use of those 
fruits they have, not so much for pleasure when they are 
greene, as for furnishing the table in Winter. For their 
Peares, and Apples, they pare them, and drie them under 
the Oven of the stove, and then dresse them very savorly 
with Cynamon and Butter. In like sort they long 
preserve their cheries drie, without sugar, and the greater 
part of their cheries they boyle in a brasse cauldron, full 
of holes in the bottome, out of which the juce falles into 
another vessell, which bein,, kept, ,rowes like marmalade, 
and makes a delicate sauce for all roasted meates, and 
wilI last very long, as they use it. The Italians have a 


Proverb, Dio du i panni secondo i freddi; that is, God 
gives cloathes according to the colds, as to the cold 
Muscovites bee hath given furres, to the English wooll 
for cloth, to the French divers light stuffes, and to 
Southerlie people stoore of silkes, that all Nations abound- 
ing in some things, and wanting others, might be taught, 
that they have neede of one anothers helpe, and so be 
stirred up to mutuall love, which God hath thus planted 
betweene mankind by mutuall trafficke. For this must 
be understood not onely of clothes, but also of all other 
things necessary for human life. 
Germany doth abound with many things necessary for 
life, and many commodities to be transported. For great 
Cities, and Cities within land (of which Germany hath 
store) those argue plenty of commodities to bee trans- 
ported, and these plenty of foode to nourish much people. 
And since that paradox of Cicero is most true, that small 
causes of expence rather then great revenues, make men 
rich, surely by this reason the Germans should bee most 
rich. They never play at Dice, seldome at Cardes, and 
that for small wagers. They seldome feast, and sparingly, 
needing no sumptuary Lawes to restraine the number or 
costlinesse of dishes of sawces. They are apparrelled 
with homely stuffes, and weare their clothes to the utter- 
most of their lasting, their houshold stuffe is poore, in 
gifts they are most sparing, and onely are prodigall in 
expences for drinking, with which a man may sooner 
burst, then spend his patrimony. They have Corne 
sufficient for their use, and the Merchants in the Cities 
upon the sea coast, export Corne into Spaine, aswell of 
their owne, as especially of that they buy at Dantzke. 
They want not Cattle of all kinds, but they are commonlie 
leane and little, so are their horses many in number, and 
little in stature, onely in Bohemia they have goodly horses, 
or at least great and heavy, like those in Freeseland : but 
I remember not to have seene much cattle, or great heards 
thereof, in the fields of any Towne. the reason whereof 
may be gathered out of the following discourse of the 
1I. IV I 7 B 

6o5-I 7. 

The fertility 
oJ- Germany. 

[III. ii. 97-] 


Germans diet. Their sheepe are very little, bearing a 
course wooll, and commonly blacke, which they export 
not, but make course cloath thereof for the poorer sort, 
the Gentlemen and for the most part the Citizens wearing 
English cloath. The libertie of hunting commonly 
reserved to Princes, and absolute Lords, and they have 
great store of red Deare, feeding in open Woods, which 
the Princes kill by hundreds at a time, and send them 
to their Castles to be salted, using them in stead of beefe 
for the feeding of their families. They have no fallow 
Deare, except some wild kinds upon the Alpes. They 
have great store of fresh fish in Lakes, Ponds, and Rivers, 
among which the Lakes of Sweitzerland are most com- 
mended. At Hamburg they catch such plentie of 
Sallmons, as it is a common report, that the servants 
made covenant with their Masters, not to bee fed there- 
with more then two meales in the weeke, and from thence 
great plentie of Sturgeon is exported. Either the cold 
drives away birds, or else they labour not to take them; 
for I did seldome see them served at the table, but onely 
Sparrowes, and some few little birds. 
In all their Rivers I did never see any Swannes, yet 
they say, that at Lubeck, and about private Castles of 
Gentlemen, they have some few. They say that they 
have some mines of Gold: but surely they abound with 
mines of Silver above all Europe, and all mettals where 
so ever found, are by a Law of the Golden Bull appropri- 
ated to the Emperour, and to the Electors, in their severall 
dominions. Also they abound with copper and brasse, 
wherewith they cover many Churches, but within forty 
yeeres past, the English have brought them Leade, which 
they use to that and other purposes. Also they have 
great plenty of Iron, and they have Fountaines yeeldin 
most white Salt, in Cities farre within the land, which 
Cities are commonly called Halla. Austria beyond the 
Danow yeelds excellent Saffron, and at Judiburg in Styria 
growes store of Spica Celtica {'as the Latin Herbalists call 
it.) In the season of the yeere yellow Amber is plenti- 


fully gathered upon the Sea coast of Prusia and 
Pomerania. The Germans export into forraigne parts, 
and there sell many curious and well prised workes of 
manuall Art. And it is worth the consideration, that 
the Citizens of Nurnberg, dwelling in a sandy and barren 
soile, by their industrie, and more specially by their skill 
in these manuall Arts, live plentifully, and attaine great 
riches, while on the contrary, the inhabitants of Alsatia 
the most fruitfull Province of all Germany, neglecting 
these Arts, and content to enjoy the fatnesse of their 
soyle in slothfull rest, are the poorest of all other Germans. 
Moreover, the upper part of Germany abounds with 
\X, roods of Firre, which tree (as the Lawrell) is greene 
all Winter, and it hath many Okes also upon the Alpes, 
and not else where, and lower Germany, especially towards 
the Baltick Sea, aboundeth with Woods of Oke. They 
convey great store of wood from the Alpes into the lower 
parts, by the River Rheine, cutting downe whole trees, 
and when they are marked, casting them one by one into 
the River, to be carried downe with the violent streame 
thereof, or otherwise binding many together, to floate 
downe, with men standing upon them to guide them. 
And at many Cities and Villages, they have servants, 
which know the trees by the markes, and gather them 
up in places, where they may best be sold. 
The Cities that are on the Sea-coast on the North Ofte traflck 
side of Germany, have very great ships, but more fit for of Germany. 
taking in great burthen, then for sayling or fighting, 
which the Netherlanders more commonly fraught with 
their commodities, then the Germans themselves, neither 
are the German Marriners much to bee commended. 
The German Sea in good part, and the Baltick Sea 
altogether, are free from Pyrats, which is the cause that 
their ships are little or not at all armed, onely some few 
that trade into Spaine, carry reat Ordinance, but are 
generally made large in the ribs, rather fit for burthen, 
then fight at Sea. I never observed them to have any 
common prayers morning or evening as our English ships 


an unspeakable quantity of Beere with great gaine, which 
yeelds great profit to private Citizens, and to the Princes, 
or publike Senate in free Cities, there being no Merchan- 
dize of the World that more easily findes a buyer in 
Germany, then this. For the Germans trafficke with 
strangers, I will omit small commodities (which are often 
sold, though in lesse quantitie, yet with more gaine then 
greater) and in this place I will onely speake of the com- 
modities of greater moment, aswell those that the Country 
affords, as those that buy in forraigne parts to be trans- 
ported in their owne ships. The Germans export into 
Italy, linnen clothes, corne, wax (fetcht from Dantzk and 
those parts) and coyned silver of their owne, which they 
also exchange uncoined with some quantity of gold. Into 
England they export boards, iron, course linnen clothes 
(and of that kind one sort called Dyaper, wrought in 
Misen), and bombast or cotton. Into Spaine they export 
linnen cloth, wax, brasse, copper, cordage, Masts for 
shippes, gun-powder, bombast or cotton, and Nurnberg 
wares (so they call small wares.) Againe, they receive 
all kinds of silkes from Italy, whereof they use little 
quantity for their owne apparrell, but send great store 
over land, to those Cities on the Sea-coast, where the 
English Merchants reside, to be sold unto them. 
For the English Merchants had their Staple first at 
Emden, the Count whereof used them well, yet in the 
warre betweene England and Spaine, this place grew 
dangerous for them, for the enemie often tooke their 
goods, and made them prisoners, at the very mouth of 
the Harbour. Whereupon they removed to Hamburg, 
where being oppressed with new impositions, and being 
denied the publike exercise of their Religion, they went 
from thence, and settled their Staple at Stoade. In like 
sort the English Merchants trading for Poland and those 
parts, first had their Staple at Dantzk in Prussen (by 
Staple I meane their residence in a City, giving them 
priviledge to stop any forraigne wares, intended to be 
carried further, and to force the Merchant to sell them 


.shippes, boards and timber for building, Linnen cloathes, 
Wax, minerall Salt (which in Poland they dig out of pits 
like great stones, and the same being put to the fire is 
made pure, and being blacke, his colour is rnore durable, 
and lesse subject to giving againe, then our boiled salt.) 
Also they bring from thence pine ashes for making of 
Soape, and great quantity of Corne. Yet the English 
seldome have neede of their Corne for the use of England, 
which many times of their owne they transport to other 
Nations, but they buy it as the free Cities doe, to transport 
it to others, and the Low-Countrey men buy it as well 
for themselves, as to serve Spaine therewith, so as great 
quantity thereof is distracted into all parts of E.urope. 
The Amber that is brought from these parts, is not 
gathered at Melvin or Dantzke, but on the sea side of 
Konigsperg (where the Duke of Prussen holds his Court), 
and all along the Coast of Curland, where howsoever it 
lies in great quantity scattered on the sand of the Sea, 
yet is it as safe, as if it were in warehouses, since it is 
death to take away the least peece thereof. When it is 
first gathered, it is all covered over with drosse, but after 
it is polished, becomes transparantly bright. At Dantzke 
I did see two polished peeces thereof, which were esteemed 
at a great price, one including a frogge with each part 
cleerely to be seene, (for which the King of Poland then 
being there, offered five hundred dollers), the other 
including a newt, but not so transparant as the former. 
Some thinke this Amber to be a gumme distilling from 
trees, and by these peeces falling upon frogges and like 
things, this opinion should seeme true, but those trees 
from which they hold this Amber to distill, abound in 
Germany, yet Amber is onely found upon this Coast of 
the Balticke Sea. Others thinke rather that Amber is 
generated by the Sea, and it is most certaine that Marriners 
sounding farre from the Land, often find sand of Amber 
sticking to their plummets, whereof my selfe was an eye 
witnesse. And Munster holds them to be deceived, who 
.thinke Amber to be a gumme distilling from trees, and 

[III. ii. 8.] 

t6o5-I 7. 

The Germans 


because it is fat, and burnes being put to the tier, concludes 
it to be a fat clay, or bituminous matter, affirming that 
it is not onely found upon the Sea Coast, but often caught 
at Sea in nets, and he adds that being liquid, it often 
fals upon, and includes little beasts, which growe with 
it to the hardnes of stone, and that it smels of mirh. 
The diet of the Germans is simple, and very modest, 
if you set aside their intemperate drinking: For as they 
are nothing sumptuous, but rather sparing in their apparell 
and houshold stuffe, so they are content with a morsell 
of flesh and bread, so they have store of drinke, and 
want not wood to keepe their stoaves warme. And in 
generall, since they affect not forraigne commodities, but 
are content with their own commodities, and are singular 
as well in the Art as industry of making manuall workes, 
they easily draw to them and retaine with them forraigne 
Coynes. The free Cities use to have alwaies a yeeres 
provision of victuals laid up in publike houses, to serve 
for homely food for the people, in case the City should 
happen to be besieged. They commonly serve to the 
Table sower Cabbages, which they call Crawt, and beere 
(or wine for a dainty) boyled with bread, which they call 
Swoope. In upper Germany they moreover give veale 
or beefe in little quantities, but in lower Germany they 
supply the meale with bacon and great dried puddings, 
which puddings are savory and so pleasant, as in their 
kind of mirth they wish proverbially for Kurtz predigen, 
lange worsten, that is ; Short sermons and long puddings. 
Sometimes they also give dried fishes, and apples or peares 
first dried, then prepared with cinamon and butter very 
savourily. They use many sawces, and commonly sharpe, 
and such as comfort the stomacke offended with excessive 
drinking: For which cause in upper Germany the first 
draught commonly is of wormewood wine, and the first 
dish of little lampreys, (which they call nine augen, as 
having nine eyes) served with white vinegar; and those 
that take any journey, commonly in the mornin drlnke 
a little Brant wein, (that is, their Aquavita) anl] eate a 


peece of Pfeffer kuchen, (that is, Ginger-bread) which 
useth to be sold at the gates of the City. They have a 
most delicate sawce (in my opinion) forrosted meats, of 
cherries sod and brused, the juice whereof becomes hard 
like Marmalade, but when it is to be served to the Table, 
they dissolve it with a little wine or like moisture. And 
as they have abundance of flesh fish in their Ponds and 
Rivers, so they desire not to eate them, except they see 
them alive in the Kitchen, and they prepare the same very 
savourly, commonly using anniseeds to that purpose, 
especially the little fishes, wherof they have one most 
delicate kinde, called Smerling, which in Prussen I did 
eate, first choked, then sodden in wine, and they being 
very little, yet sixty of them were sold t'or nineteene 
grosh. The foresaid sawce of cherries, they thus prepare 
and keepe, They gather a darke or blackish kind of cherry, 
and casting away the stalkes, put them into a great 
cauldron of brasse set upon the tier, til they beginne to 
be hot, then they put them into a lesse cauldren full of 
holes in the bottome, and presse them with their hands, 
so as the stones and skinnes remaine in this cauldron, 
but the juice by the foresaid holes doth fall into another 
vessell. Then againe they set this juyce upon the tier, 
continually stirring it, lest it should cleave to the bottome, 
and after two bowers space, they mingle with it the best 
kind of peares they have, first cut into very small peeces, 
and so long they boile it and continually stirre it, till it 
waxe hard, and notwithstanding the stirring beginne to 
cleave to the vessell. This juyce thus made like a 
Marmalade, may long be preserved from moulding .in 
this sort. They which desire to have it sweete, mlxe 
sugar with it, and others other things according to the 
taste they desire it should have. Then they put it into 
earthen pitchers, and if it beginne at any time to waxe 
mouldie, they put these pots into the Oven, after the 
bread is baked and taken out. Also these pitchers must 
be close stopped, that no aire may enter, & must be set 
where no sunne or continuall heate comes. Lastly, when 

[III. ii. 82.] 


they will make ready this sawce, they cut out a peece of 
the said juice, and mingle with it a little wine to dissolve 
it, (with vineger, or sugar, or spices, according to their 
severall appetites), and so boile it againe some halle bower. 
In Saxony, Misen, and those parts, they sometimes 
serve to the Table a calves head whole and undevided 
into parts, which to us strangers at the first sight seemed 
a terrible dish gaping with the teeth like the head of a 
Monster, but they so prepare it, as I never remember to 
have eaten any thing that more pleased my taste. They 
use not for common diet any thing that comes from the 
Cow, neither have I observed them to have any butter 
in Saxony, or the lower parts of Germany, but they use 
a certaine white matter called smalts in stead of it, not 
tasting like our butter. They doe not commonly eate 
any cheese, neither remember I that I ever tasted good 
cheese there, excepting one kind of little cheese made of 
Goats milke, which is pleasant to eate : but salt and strong 
cheeses they sometimes use to provoke drinking, for which 
purpose the least crum is sufficient. These Cheeses they 
compasse round with thred or twigges, and they beginne 
them in the midst of the broade side, making a round 
hole there, into which hole, when the cheese is to be set 
up, they put some few drops of wine, that it may putrifie 
against the next time, when they eate the mouldy peeces 
and very creeping maggots for dainety morsels, and at 
last the cheese becomes so rotten and so full of these 
wormes, that if the said binding that compasseth it chance 
to break, the cheese fals into a million of crums no bigger 
then moates. They have a kind of bread brownish & 
sowrish, and made with anniseeds, which seemed very 
savoury to me. They serve in stead of a banquet, a kind 
of light bread like our fritters, save that it is long, round, 
& a little more solid, which they call Fastnacht kuchen, 
Shroftide baking, because then and upon S. Martins day, 
and some like Feasts they use to make it. They use not 
in any place almost, to offend in the great number of 
dishes, onely some few Innes of chiefe Cities give plenti- 


full meales. And for the Saxons, they for the most part 
set on the pot or roast meate once for the whole weeke : 
Yet in the golden bull they have a law, that Hosts shall 
not serve in more then foure dishes, the price of them 
to be set by the Magistrate, & that they should not gaine 
in the reckoning more then the fourth or at most the 
third penny, and that the guests should pay severally for 
their drinke, the Germans drinking so largely as it was 
unpossible to prescribe the rate thereof. It were to be 
wished by strangers, that not onely drinke should be 
paid for a part from meate, but that each man should pay 
the share himselfe drinkes, and no more, so the charges 
of sober passengers in Germany, having all th!ngs reason- 
ably cheape, would not m such measure increase, as 
otherwise they doe through their companions intemper- 
ancy. The said Saxons set the dishes on the Table one 
by one, for the most part grosse meates, whereupon I 
have heard some merrily compare them to the Tyrants 
of Sicily, of whom one being dead, stil a more terrible 
Monster succeeded him. Here & in these parts o c the 
lower Germany, they use to serve in sower cra,t or 
cabbage upon a voide circle of carved Iron standing on 
three feete, under which they serve in one large dish, 
roast flesh and pullets, and puddings, and whatsoever they 
have prepared, which dish a Countryman of mine did 
not unproperly compare to the Arke of Noah, containing 
all kinds of Creatures. Also in Saxony, for the first dish 
they serve in stewed Cherries or Prunes, then tosted or 
sodden Pullets, or other flesh, and last of all Bacon to 
fill his bellie that hath not enough. Almost all their 
Tables are round, and of so great a compasse, as each 
dish being served one by one, (not as we use to have the 
Table fully furnished with meate), they that sit at the 
corners of the Table, are forced to stand on their feete 
as often as they cut any meate. The Germans seldome 
breake their fasts, except it be in iournies, with a little 
Ginger-bread and Aquavity. They sit long at Table, 
and even in the Innes as they take iournies, dine very 

III. ii. 83. ] 


largely, neither will they rise from dinner or supper, till 
though slowly, yet fully they have consumed all that is 
set before them. And they cannot speak more reproch- 
fully of any Host, then to say; Ich hab reich da nicht 
satt gefressen, that is, I did not eate my belly full there: 
Yea, at Berne, a Citie of Sweitzerland, they have a Law 
that in Feasts they shall not sit more then five howers 
at the Table. And at Basell, when Doctors and Masters 
take their degrees, they are forbidden by a Statute, to 
sit longer at Table, then from ten of the clocke in the 
morning, to sixe in the evening, yet when that time is 
past, they have a tricke to cozen this Law, be it never 
so indulgent to them, for then they retire out of the 
publike Hall into private Chambers, where they are 
content with any kinde of meate, so it be such as pro- 
voketh drinking, in which they have no measure, so long 
as they can stand or sit. Let the Germans pardon me 
to speake freely, that in my opinion they are no lesse 
excessive in eating, then drinking, save that they onely 
protract the two ordinary meales of each day, till they 
have consumed all that is set before them, but to their 
drinking they can prescribe no meane nor end. I speake 
of their ordinary diet, especiallie at Innes by the way as 
they travell: In Feasts their provision is rather full then 
sumptuous. At Leipzig for meere curiositie, I procured 
my selfe to be invited to a marriage Feast, in one of the 
chiefe Citizens houses, the marriage was in the afternoone, 
and at supper they served in a peece of roasted beefe 
hot, and another cold, with a sawce made with sugar and 
sweet wine, then they served in a Carpe fried, then Mutton 
roasted, then dried Peares prepared with butter and 
cinamon, and therewith a piece of broiled Salmon, then 
bloted Herrings broiled, and lastly a kind of bread like 
our fritters, save that it is made in long roules, and more 
drie, which they cal Fastnacht kuchen, that is, Shroftide 
baking, together with Cheese. And thus with seven 
dishes a Senators nuptiall Feast was ended, without any 
flockes of fowle, or change of fishes, or banquetting stuffe, 


which other Nations use, onely there was endlesse drink- 
ing, whole barrels of Wine being brought into the 
Stoave, and set by us upon a Table, which we so plied, 
as after two howers, no man in the company was in case 
to give account next morning, what he did, said, or saw, 
after that time. To nourish this drinking, they use to 
eate salt meats, which being (upon ill disposition of my 
body) once displeasing & unholsome for me, and I com- 
plaining therof to my Host, he between jeast and earnest 
replied, that the use of Salt was commended in Scriptures, 
alleadging that text: Let all your speeches be seasoned 
with salt, and then said he much more should our meates 
be thus seasoned. Salt thus pleaseth their pallat, because 
it makes the same dry, and provokes the appetite of drink- 
ing. For which cause also, when they meet to drink, 
as they dine with dried pork, and beefe heavily salted, 
together with cheese sharpe like that of Parma, so when 
the cloth is taken away, they have set before them rawe 
beanes, waternuts, (which I did see onely in Saxony), 
and a loafe of bread cut into shives, all sprinckled with 
salt and pepper, the least bit whereof will invite him to 
drinke that hath least need. And to say truth, Porke 
dried, or Bacon, is so esteemed of the Germans, as they 
seeme to have much greater care of their Hogges then 
of their Sheepe, or other Cattle. For in the morning 
when they turne them forth, they scratch them with their 
fingers, as Barbers doe mens heads; and blesse them 
that they may safely returne, and in the evening when 
they are to come backe with the Heard, a servant is 
commanded to attend them, who washeth the dust from 
them as they passe by the fountaine, and so followes them 
till they come home of their owne accord, without any 
beating or driving. The price of a fat Sow is at least 
five, sometimes foureteene Guldens, yea, at Heidelberg, 
it was credibly told me, that a Sow, being so fat, as shee 
could not at one feeding eate a raw egge, all her intrels 
bein closed up with fat, had lately beene sold for fifty 
Guldens. With this fat they larde many rosted and 

[III. ii. 84.] 


take in good part what is set before you, demanding 
nothing for your owne appetite. The shot demanded, 
must be paid without expostulation, for the Hosts seldome 
deceive strangers or others, and never remit one halle 
penny of that they demand. Above the table hangs a 
bell (especially through all lower Germany), by sounding 
whereof they call the servants to attend. And at Nurn- 
berg there hangs such a little bel under the table, which 
they sound if any man speake immodestly of love matters 
or any like subject, and it bee done in sport, yet 
it serves to remember a wise man of his errour. In 
lower Germany after supper, they leade the guests into 
a chamber of many beds, and if any man have no com- 
panion, they give him a bed-fellow. Lastly, all things 
must be desired and intreated, as if the guests were 
intertained of free cost, for the Host thinkes you beholden 
to him for your intertainement, without any obligation 
on his part. 
Through all Germany they lodge betweene two fether- 
beds (excepting Sweitzerland, where they use one bed 
under them, and are covered with woollen blankets) and 
these fetherbeds for softnesse and lightnesse are very 
commodious, for every winter night the servants are called 
into the warme stove, whereof such fethers as are reserved, 
they pull the fethers from the quill, using onely the softest 
of them for making of beds. The bed lying under is 
great and large, and that above is narrow and more soft, 
betweene which they sleepe aswell in Summer as Winter. 
This kind of lodging were not incommodious in \Vinter, 
if a man did lie alone: but since by the high way they 
force men to have bedfellowes, one side lies open to the 
cold, by reason that the upper bed is narrow, so as it 
cannot fall round about two, but leaves one side of them 
both open to the wind and weather. But in Summer 
time this kind of lodging is unpleasant, keeping a man 
in a continuall sweat from-head to foote. Yet in Country 
Villages, and many parts of Saxony, passengers have no 
cause to complaine of this annoyance, since all without 


6o5-I 7. 

The Lodging 
of Germany. 

[III. ii. 8S. ] 


exception, rich and poore, drunken and sober, take up 
their lodging among the Cowes in straw, where some- 
times it happens, that hee who lying downe had a pillow 
of straw under his head, when hee awaketh finds the same 
either scattered or eaten by the Cowes: yea; where they 
have beds, I would advise the passenger to weare his 
owne linnen breeches, (or their sheets are seldome or never 
cleane. They advise wel, who wish passengers to offer 
the servant drinking mony, that he may shew them the 
best bed, yet when that is done, this best bed will prove 
farre unfit to be entered naked, though perhaps the servant 
will judge it very pure and cleanly. This by experience 
I often found, once with extreme laughter observing the 
servants speciall curtesie to me, who taking my reward, 
brought me to a bed with cleane sheetes as he called them, 
wherein he swore deeply that no body had lien but his 
owne mother, which was an old trot of 9c yeeres age. 
These servants in Innes expect as it were of duty drinking 
money from all passengers, and boldly demand it, as if it 
were their right whether the passenger will or no, which 
they doe rudely in the lower parts of Germany, by offering 
them a pot to drinke at parting, and more civilly in the 
upper parts, the maide servants offering a nosegay to 
each severall guest. This is peculiar to the Germans, 
none serve or attend more rudely, none more boldly 
challenge reward. 
I have formerly advised English Travellers, first to 
passe by Germany, that they may there learne patience 
by serving themselves. For if you come to a shop to 
buy shooes, the Master bids you to find out your selfe 
those that will fit you, and then to put them on your 
selfe, which done, he askes the price, whereof he will not 
bate one halle penny, and when you have paid his asking, 
then the Prentices challenge drinking money as of duty, 
and the like manner is observed in all other shops, wherein 
you buy any thing. In the meane time, if in your Inne, 
you bid the servant reach any thing to you, the same 
man that when you take horse will in this sort exact 


shall with no other quality make so many friends as with 
this, so as he that wil be welcome in their company, or 
desires to learne their language, must needs practice this 
excesse in some measure. When they drinke, if any 
man chance to come in and sit in the roome, though he 
be a stranger of another Nation, they doe not onely 
conjure him to pledge them by the bond of friendship, 
of his Fathers Nobility, and his Mothers chastity, but 
(if need be) compell him by force therunto, vulgarly 
crying, Kanstunight sauffen und fressen, so kanstu keinem 
bern wol dienen; If thou canst not swill and devoure, 
thou canst serve no Master well. In the meane time, 
they like not to drinke great draughts, wherein our 
Countrey-men put them downe, but they will spend an 
Age in swoping and sipping. Their Coachmen are in 
this kind so tender hearted to their Horses, that out of 
a fellow feeling of thirst, they will suffer them to drinke 
in standing water, scarce covering their shooes, when they 
sweat by the high way. The Germans repute it such 
honour to them to have abundance of wine, as the very 
Princes strive, as for a Princely perheminence, who shall 
have the hugest and most capable vessels in his Cellar. 
Some of these vessels containe more then a thousand 
measures, each of seventy Cans or Pots, and are ascended 
by twenty or thirty staires. Out of this vessell they daily 
draw wine, and being halfe emptied, they fill it up againe : 
but at the birth of a child, or any like feast, they turne 
this Monster loose for all commers to tame it, and drinke 
it out to the bottome. Passengers in the Innes of lower 
Germany, so make their reckoning at dinner, as they 
reserve a great proportion to drinke before they take 
Coach. Once I observed that my selfe and seven consorts 
after dinner upon a full gorge, had sixteene great pots 
to drinke at parting, at which time one of our consorts 
being a Horseman, and not fit to ride, was taken into our 
Coach, and sitting by me, now laughing, then weeping, 
and often knocking his head against mine, at last defiled 
me by casting his stomacke in my bosome, with no 

Princes strie 
for the hugest 

[III. ii. 87. ] 


reproch to himselfe among his Countreymen, but un- 
speakeable offence to me. When they are sit downe to 
drinke, if any man come in by chance, each one at the 
Table salutes him with a Cup, all which garausses he 
must drinke as for a fine, before he can be admitted into 
their number, for they are very jealous that any man 
being sober, should behold their quaffing, so as a man 
had better fall among the thickest of his enemies fighting, 
then into the company of his friends drinking. He that 
reades this, would thinke that they drunke sweet Nectar 
at the least, or some like drinke inviting excesse; but 
in lower Germany, sometimes and rarely they drinke 
Rhenish \Vine, commonly Beere, and that so thicke and 
ill smelling, and sometimes medicinall, as a stranger would 
think it more fit to be eaten (or cast into the sinke), then 
to be drunke, wherof a drop once falling on my hand, 
seemed to me foule puddle water. Their \Vines in 
generall are sharpe, and those of the Rheine small, which 
are to be had in their Cities, and when I first passed to 
Leipzig, and being ignorant of the language, was forced 
to commit my selfe to a Conducter, and after my covenant 
with him for my diet, desired him to carry some glasse 
bottels of wine in our Coach, yet he could not in the 
way use it temperately, but either would allow us no 
wine at all, or at one meale drunke off a whole great 
bottell, as if he thought it a shame to taste it, and not 
drinke all out at once. Thus as often it fals out in Princes 
Courts, that a stranger may die of thirst, but he that is 
acquainted in Court, shall hardly escape sober, so he gave 
me either no wine, or too much. In upper Germany for 
the most part they drinke wine, and that with some lesse 
excesse, then is used in the lower parts, yet so as in this 
vice they degenerate not from their Countreymen. The 
Germans of Prussia formerly praised by me, must pardon 
me if I taske them with this vice as much as the rest. 
When I passed from Melvin to Dantzke, my companion 
by the way shewed me a Tower called Groske, where 
certaine Husbandmen being upon a wager to drinke 


twelve measures of wine, which we call lasts, and use for 
proportions of Merchants wares, not for wine or beere, 
did roast upon a spit one of their consorts, because he 
left them before the taske was performed, and to save 
their lives for this murther, paid their Prince as many 
silver grosh as could lie betweene that Tower & the City 
of Dantzke. In generall, the Germans want not many 
exemplary punishments and effects of this vice: For Punishments 
many quarrelling in drink are killed, and he that kils, and ects of 
never escapes if he be taken. I remember that a Gentle- crinkig. 
man of Brunswicke, riding from Hamburge to his home, 
when he was extremely drunken, was next day found 
torne in many peeces, by the striking o( his Horse when 
l'.e fell out of the saddle, which was a miserable and 
exemplary kinde of death. And the like mischiefe befell 
another while I was at Torge in Misen. And a Physician 
a familiar friend of mine, tolde mee that many Germans 
dying suddenly upon excesse of drinking, were ordinarily 
(for hiding of the shame) given out to die of the falling 
sickenesse. In their drinking they use no mirth, and 
little discourse, but sadly ply the buisinesse, sometimes 
crying one to the other, Seyte frolich, Be merry, Drinke 
aus, Drinke out, and as (according to the Proverbe) every 
Psalme ends in Gloria, so every speech of theirs, ends 
in Ich brings euch, I drinke to you. For frolicks they 
pinch, and that very rudely their next Neighbours arme 
or thigh, which goes round about the Table. So for 
.equality they drinke round, especially in Saxony, except 
an curtesie they sometimes drinke out of course to a 
Guest; and this eqv.all manner of drinking, they say 
had his first originall from a pleasant or rather wicked 
Act, of an undutifull Sonne, who receiving a boxe of the 
eare from his Father, and daring not strike him againe, 
did notwithstanding strike his next Neighbour as hard 
a blow as hee received, desiring him to passe it round 
about the Table as a frolicke, in these wordes: Lasset 
umb gehen, so kriagt der ratter auch was; Let it goe 
round, so my Father shall have it in his course, and so 



[III. ii. 88.] 


more modestly or lesse wickedly hee revenged himselfe. 
While all drinke in this manner circularly out of one 
and the same pot, they scoffe at him that drinkes the last 
remainder, saying proverbially that hee shall marry an old 
trot. At Nurneberg, and some other Innes of higher 
Germany, each guest hath his peculiar drinking glasse set 
by his trencher, which when he hath drunke out, if he 
set it downe with the mouth upward, it is presently filled 
againe, (in which filling the servants use a singular 
dexterity, standing in great distance from it), but if bee 
turne the mouth downeward, they expect till in signe 
of thirst it bee turned upward; for they are such 
Masters in this Art of drinking as they are served by 
dumbe signes without speaking a word. In Saxony two 
use to begin a pot to two, and when each receives the 
pot, or gives it to his fellow, they curiously looke upon 
certaine pegs or markes set within of purpose, that they 
may devide the drinke by the equall ballance of Justice. 
Sometimes they take three glasses at once upon 3 fingers, 
and beginning to another, drinke them all of at once, 
which kind of karaussing they call the crowning of the 
Emperor. If you begin to any man, you must fill the 
cup for him with your owne hands, or at least deliver 
it to him your self, or otherwise for a penalty you must 
drinke it againe, and some doe willingly make these errors, 
that they may seem to be compelled to this pleasing 
penalty. When they are extraordinarily merry, they use 
a kind of garaussing, called kurlemurlebuff, wherein they 
use certaine touches of the glasse, the beard, some parts 
of the body, and of the Table, together with certaine 
whistlings, and phillippings of the fingers, with like rules, 
so curiously disposed in order, as it is a labour of Hercules 
to observe them. Yet he that erres in the least point of 
ceremony, must drinke the cup of againe for penalty. 
They hold it a point of reputation, if themselves having 
sense and memory, can send their guests home voide of 
sense or reason, or full (as they more gently call drunken- 
nesse); and the better to performe this, they will now 


T& trade of 

[III. ii. 89. ] 


bewray their dispositions, which they can cloake and 
dissemble when they are sober. And they find by 
experience, that in drinke cholerike men are prone to 
quarrels, sanguine men to dancing and imbracing, men 
possessed with melancholy to teares and complaints, and 
they who are flegmatike to dull astonishment and spewing. 
The trade of brewing is more commodious among the 
Germans, then any other tracke. So as at Torg, (where 
the best beere is brewed and from thence distracted to 
other Cities) onely the Senate hath the priviledge to sell 
the same by small measures (as also to sell wine), and 
in the rest of lower Germany, as onely the Senate buies 
and selles wine, so the chiefe Citizens by turnes brew 
beare, admitting troopes of poore people into their houses 
to drinke it out. As the gaine of brewing is great, so 
Princes raise great impositions from it, and the most rich 
Citizens or Aldermen (as I said) not onely disdaine not 
to brew, but even greedily expect their turne, at which 
time they also sell it by cannes, and have their lower 
roomes full of drinking tables for the common people, 
where every man payes for his drinke before his canne 
be filled, that at least their purse may teach them measure, 
which otherwise they cannot observe. Yea, my selfe, 
not without wonder, have seene in a Senators house, 
poore soules pawne their cloths for drinke, and goe home 
halfe naked, yet sufficiently armed with drinke against 
the greatest cold. 
The beere of Torge is most esteemed in hi.her Saxony, 
and the most part at Leipzig drinke no other, yet for 
their servants brew a small beere called beerd of the 
covent, and a kind of most small beere, which the students 
call Rastrum, that is rake. There is an Imperiall Law 
in the golden Bull against Hosts, Mariners, and Carters, 
who either in Cellers, or Carriage by the high-way, mingle 
brimstone or water with wine, wherein notwithstanding 
they daily offend, putting in brimstone to make it heady 
strong, and water to fill up the measure. There be in 
the same golden Bull many Lawes made against drunken- 


nesse, at such time as the Germans having warre with the 
Turkes, beganne to looke into themselves, for reforming 
of notorious vices; wherein it is decreed, that Courtiers 
given to this vice, should be expelled the Courts of 
Princes, and that all Magistrates should search out 
drunkards, and severely, punish them: But give me one 
Prince free of this vce, who may thus punish his 
Courtiers. My selfe being at a great Dukes funerall, 
did see a Prince his neere cozen, drinke so stiffely to 
expell sorrow, as all his sences and almost his spirits were 
suffocated therewith, and of many Princes there present, 
(pardon me to speake truth) I did not see one sober at 
this funerall Feast, what would these Princes have done 
at a Marriage? Princes have a custome to drinke by 
Attourney, when they are sickely or ill disposed, and 
many times they reward this substitute strongly bearing 
much drinke, as for a good service to the Common-wealth, 
yet except they be very sicke, few are found which will 
not in person performe their owne taske. Give me one 
Magistrate of so many thousands, who with his owne 
innocency is armed with boldnesse to punish others. Give 
mee one, (I am ashamed to say it,but truth is truth); I 
say give me one Minister of Gods Word, who preacheth 
against excesse of drinking. My selfe have heard some 
hundreths of their Sermons, yet never heard any invective 
against this vice. 
Turpe est Doctori, cure culpa redurguit ipsum, 
The teacher needs must be ashamed, 
Who for the same offence is blamed. 
Onely the Weomen of Germany are most temperate 
in eating and drinking, and of all I did ever see, most 
modest in all kinds of vertue: yet the Weomen of 
Bohemia use as great (or little lesse) excesse in drinking, 
as Men, not without a staine to their reputation of 
chastity. The Weomen of" Germany have a custome to 
helpe their Husbands or Friends, by sipping of the cup; 
but I did never see any chast woman, (as most of them 


Lawes made 

Princes drinke 
by 4 ttourncy. 

The 14reomen 
of Germany 

16o5-I 7. 

/ldite to 

llll. ii. 90.] 


are) drinke largely, much lesse to be drunken: But for 
Men of all sorts whatsoever. 
Si quoties peccant, toties sua fulmina mittat 
Princeps, exiguo tempore inermis erit: 
If the Prince smite, as oft as they offend, 
His Sword and Arme will faile him ere the end. 
Thus howsoever the Germans be honest, deceiving 
neither stranger nor Countreyman, and have abundance 
of all things to sustaine life, yet strangers, by reason of 
the generall intemperance of the Nation, are either allured 
to participate this vice of drinking with them, or at least 
by ill custome are drawne to partake their punishment 
in paying of the shot, and through their churlish rusticity 
are ill entertained, and yet forced to reward the servants, 
whose attendance deserves nothing lesse. 
It remaines that I should enforme p.assengers how to 
apply themselves to the Germans m this drinking 
custome, so as at least with lesse hurt or offence, they 
may passe through their territories. For those who passe 
suddenly through the same without long abode in any 
place, nothing is more easie then to shunne all participa- 
tion of this vice, by consorting themselves with fit 
companions in their journey, so as they being the greater 
part as well in the Coach, as at the Table, may rather 
draw the lesser part to sobriety, then be induced by them 
to excesse. But they who desire to converse with the 
Germans, and to learne their language, cannot possibly 
keepe within the bounds of temperance, and must use 
art to shunne great or daily excesse. Such a passenger 
sitting downe at Table, must not presently drinke of all 
the Cups begunne to him from others: for the Germans 
are so exceeding charitable to all Men, as they will furnish 
him presently with new Cuppes on all hands for feare 
that hee should suffer thirst. He shall doe better to set 
the cups in order before his trencher, and first to drinke 
of', those of" lesser quantity, but ever to keepe one or 
two of the greatest, to returne in exchange to him that 


drinkes to him. For this kind of revenge (as I may terme 
it) the Germans feare, more then the Irish doe great 
gunnes, and to avoide the same, will forbeare to provoke 
him with garausses. For they love not healths in great 
measures (which they call In floribus), but had much 
rather sip then swallow. In this kinde I remember a 
pleasant French Gentleman much distasted them, who 
invited to a feast, and admonished that bee could not 
possibly returne sober, did at the very beginning of 
supper, drinke great garausses, of himselfe calling for 
them, besides the small healths commended to him from 
others, which unwonted kind of skirmishing when they 
disliked, he presently replied: Why should we leese 
time? since we must be drunken let us doe it quickly, 
the sooner, the better; and therewith hee so tyred those 
at the table, as bee found no man would in that kind 
contend with him. But to the purpose. If the cuppes 
set about his trencher increase in number, he may easily 
finde occasion (as when his consorts goe out to make 
water) either to convey some of them to their trenchers, 
or to give them to the servant to set away : After supper 
he may nod and sleepe, as if he were drunken, for, 
Stultitiam simulare loco prudentia summa. 
Sometimes the foole to play, 
Is wisdome great they say. 
And so hee shall bee led to a bed, which they have in 
all their stoves, and call the Faulbett, that is, the slothfull 
bed. Otherwise bee may faine head-ach, or feare of an 
ague; or if these excuses prevaile not, as seldome they 
doe while bee staies in the roome, because they cannot 
indure to have a sober man behold them drinking, then 
as if bee went out to make water, or speake with some 
friend, bee shall doe best to steale away, and howsoever 
bee have confidently promised to returne, yet to come 
no more that night, no not to fetch his cloake or hat, 
which are alwaies laid up safely for him, especially if bee 
foresee the skirmish like to bee hot. But above all, let 




Of both in 


him take heede of the old fashion to take leave of his 
companions and bid them good night, for the Germans 
upon no intreaty or excuse will suffer any man to goe 
to bed so sober. If there bee musicke and dancing, 
their dances being of no Art and small toyle, hee had 
much better daunce with the women till midnight, then 
returne to the table among the drinkers, for one of these 
foure he must doe, drinke, sleepe, daunce, or steale away, 
no fifth course remaines. Lastly, let him warily chuse 
his companions of that Nation, with good triall of their 
honest dispositions. But with strangers, as English, 
French and Polakes, let him carefully eschew excesse of 
drinking. For these, and especially the English, when 
they are heated with drinke, are observed to bee mad in 
taking exceptions, and in the ill effects of fury, being 
more prone to quarrels then the Dutch, and having no 
meane in imitating forraigne vices or vertues, but with 
Brutus, that they will, they will too much. 
Boemerland For Bohemia and Switzerland, that seated in the center 
andSweitzer- of Germany, this on the Northwest side of the Alpes, I 
land. . 
have contained their Geographicall description m that 
of Germany, and have spoken something of them in 
this discourse of Germany. It remaines to adde some- 
thing of them, touching the particular subjects of this 
Chapter. The Bohemians drinke the Wines of Hungarie, 
being much better then those of Germany, and have 
much better Beere, in regard they have great plenty of 
Corne, and the Sweitzers drinke the delicate Wines of 
Italy. Neither of their traffickes is comparable to that 
of Germany, because Bohemia is farre within land and 
hath no great commodities to bee .exporte.d, and Sweitzer- 
land is addicted to the mercinane serwce of forraigne 
Princes in their warres, changing their cattell for the 
Wines of Italy, and content with their owne, so they want 
not plenty of good drinke. 
Some Cantones of the Sweitzers make great gaine of 
spinning wooll, whereof they make pieces of cloth some 
r34 elles long, and lest covetousnes of private men might 

I605-I 7. 


and their women swill Wine and Beere daily, and in 
/reat excesse, which to the Germans is most reprochfull. 
In the lnnes they give large dyer for some five Bohemish 
grosh a meale, and upon the confines of Germany towards 
Nurnberg, for some twenty creitzers a meale. But the 
Bohemians eate often in the day, and sit almost continually 
at the Table, and since at Prage, and in many other 
places, all things are sold out of the Innes, at'ter the maner 
of Poland, the Bohemians seldome eat at an ordinary, 
but demand what meate they will upon a reckoning. For 
the rest, Boemerland and Sweitzerland little differ from 
Germany, for the diet, the Hosts, the Innes, excesse of 
drinking, or any like things. 

Chap. IIII. 
Of the united Provinces in Netherland, and of 
Denmarke and Poland, touching the said sub- 
jects of the precedent third Chapter. 
Of the Unitcd  He longitude of Netherland lyes, or 
Pt'oince.  extends seven degrees and a halle, from 
the Meridian of twenty two degrees 
and a halle, to that of thirty degrees, 
and the Latitude lyes or extends five 
degrees, from the paralell of fort)" eight 
degrees and a halle, to that of fifty three 
degrees and a halle. It is called Netherland, as a Country 
lying low, and the people for language and manners hath 
great affinitie with the Germans, both being called Dutch- 
men by a common name. Of old this Country was a 
part of Gallia transalpina (that is, beyond the Alpes 
from Italy) which was subdevided into Comata and 
Narbonensis, and againe Comata (so called of the peoples 
long haire) was subdevided into Aquitanica & Celtica, or 
Lugdunensis, and Belgica. This part called Belgica, con- 
taines the Lowcountries, whose dominion hath been by 
[III. ii. 9z.] marriage derived from the Burgundian family to that of 
Austria, and some divide this Countrie into seventeene 



Provinces, whereof some still remaine subject to the King 
of Spaine, others (of which I am to speake) being united 
in league, have recovered their libertie by the sword, 
and at this time did make warre with the Spaniard about 
the same. But some Maps, among these seventeene 
Provinces reckon the County of Valkenburg, which is 
part of the Dukedome of Limburg, other Maps make 
Mechlin and Antwerp to bee Provinces, which are both 
contained in the Dukedome of Brabant. Therefore I 
better approve those, who divide the whole Country into 
fifteene Provinces, namely, the Counties of Artois, of 
Flanders, of Hanaw, of Zeland, of Holland, of Zutphan, 
and of Namurs, and the Dukedomes of Luxenburg, of 
Brabant, of Limburg, and of Gelderland, and the terri- 
tories, of West-Freesland, of Groning, of Utrecht, & of 
t The County of Artois hath many faire Cities, whereof 
Arras is the chiefe, giving the name to the Province, and 
to those rich hangings, wherwith our great men adorne 
their Pallaces. 
2 Flanders is the largest County, the chiefe Cities Of Flanders 
whereof are Ghant (where the Emperour Charles the particularly. 
fifth was borne), and Bruges (whether great concourse 
of Merchants was made of old, so as the strangers hearing 
no other name but Flanders, did by custome impose the 
name of Flanders on all the fifteene Provinces, and the 
name of Flemmings on all the inhabitants.) Flanders 
hath other Cities, namely, Calleis, Dunkerk, Ostend, and 
Sleuse, all lying on the Sea coast; whereof Sleuse is a 
Municipall Village of Bruges, but at this time was it 
selfe strongly fortified, and Ostend taken from the 
Spaniards by the States of the united Provinces, was at 
this time committed by them, and under their pay, to 
the custody of an English Garrison under Sir Edward 
Norreys Knight. This Province yeelds plenty of Corne 
and Flax, and is very rich with making Linnen and 
Woollen Cloathes. It hath excellent pastures, and is 
inriched with Cheese, Butter, Oy|e made of Rape-rootes, 

Of the Cowty 
of Zeland. 


Salt, and the fishing of Herrings, but it yeelds no Wine. 
The famous \,Tood Ardvenna lies in the confines thereof 
towards land, where it aboundeth with Wood, but towards 
the Sea they burne Turfe, made of earth, and also burne 
Cow dung. 
3 The County of Hanaw hath the Principality of 
Arscot, united to the Dukedome of Brabant, by which 
the Dukes sonne hath the title of Prince. The chiefe 
Cities of this County are Mons and Valinciennes. It 
hath mines yeelding Leade and Marble of many colours, 
and a good kind of Coales. 
4 The County of Zeland is by situation, the first of 
the United Provinces, consisting of many Ilands, whereof 
seven are principall, and the chiefe is Walcherne, the chiefe 
Citie whereof is Midleburg, famous for trafficke, and the 
Staple for Spanish and French Wines. Neere that is the 
City Vlishing, strongly fortified, being the chiefe of the 
Forts then ingaged to the Crowne of England, and kept 
by an English Garrison, under the command of Sir Robert 
Sidney Knight (for the second Fort ingaged to England, 
lyes in another Iland, and is called Brill, being then kept 
by an English Garrison, under the command of the Lord 
Burrows.) All these Ilands are fertile, and yeeld excellent 
Corne, more plentifully then any other Province, so as 
one aker thereof is said to yeeld double to an aker of 
Brabant. But they have no sweete water, nor good aire, 
and for want of wood burne turffe. They take plenty 
of sea-fishes, which they Salt, and carry into other 
Countries. Madder for dying of wooll, growes there 
plentifully, which likewise they export, and grow rich 
by selling these commodities, as likewise Spanish and 
French Salt, and like trafficke. 
5 The County of Holland called of old Battavia, and 
inhabited by the Chatti (as Tacitus writes), is in situation 
the second of the united Provinces, but the first in 
dignity. The Cities whereof are Amstelrodam (famous 
for trafficke), Rhoterodam (where Erasmus was borne), 
Leyden (an University), Harlem, Dort (the staple for 


are Germanes, but they of the lower parts, are like the 
French in language and Manners. 
9 The Dukedom of Brabant hath faire Cities, namely 
Antwerp, most famous before the civil War, because 
Maximilian, of Austria, brought thither from Bruges in 
Flanders, the famous traffique of all Nations, by a ditch 
drawne to Sluce (onely to bee sailed upon at the flowing 
of the Sea tides). At this day forsaken of Merchants, 
it lies overgrowne with grasse, and the said trafficke 
inricheth Holland and the united Provinces. The next 
City is Brissell, of old the seate of the Dukes, and now 
of the Spanish Governours. Then Lovan a famous 
University. Then Mechlin subject to the united States. [HI. ii. 94.] 
Then Bergen-ap-zome a fortified City, at this time com- 
mitted to the custody of Sir Thomas Morgan Knight, 
with an English Garrison. The Inhabitants of this Duke- 
dome were of old called Tungri. 
to The Dukedome of Limburg hath Mastricht for 
the chiefe City, & the Bishoprick of Liege pertaines to 
it, wherein the City of Liege is the Bishops seate, and 
the territory thereof yeelds a little quantity of a small 
wine, and hath Mines yeelding a little Iron, some leade, 
and brimstone, and a very little quantity of good gold. 
The Mountaines yeeld a black Alablaster, with marble 
and other stones, especially stony coales in great quantity, 
which being there found at first, are now called generally 
Liege Coales. 
 t The Dukedome of Gelderland, was of old inhabited 
by the Menapii and Sicambri, and aboundeth with 
excellent pastures and meadowes, so as great Heards of 
Cattle brought thither out of Denmarke to be sold, 
are for great part fatted there. The chiefe City is 
Nimmengen, the second Harduike, a fortified City subiect 
to the united States, and the third Arnheim, also subiect 
to them. 
t2 The Territory of WTest-Freesland is divided, as 
Holland, with artificiall ditches, and aboundeth with 
excellent pastures for fatting of the greatest heards of 

I6O5- 7. 

['he ituation. 


Cattle, and yeeldeth it selfe all kinds of cattle of extra- 
ordinary bignesse, as Horses of Freesland vulgarly 
knowne. It hath many Cities, whereof the chiefe are 
Lewerden, Dockam, Fronikar (an University) and 
Harlingen, not to speake of nine other Townes, fortified 
with wals and ditches. This Territory is subject or 
associated to the united States. 
3 The Territory of Groningen, made part of Frees- 
land by Cosmographers, is also subject to the States, and 
hath the name of the chiefe City, strongly fortified and 
seated in a fenny soyle. 
4 The Territory of Utrecht is also associated under 
the same united States, whose chiefe and very pleasant 
City is called Utrecht. 
5 The Territory of Transisole, vulgarly called De 
land over Yssell (the Land beyond Yssell) is also associ- 
ated to the united States, whereof the chiefe City is 
Deventry, which besieged by the States Army in the yeere 
i59 I, was then subdued, and it lies neerer to the Sea. 
It hath another City called Swoll. 
The united Provinces of Netherland, (through which 
onely I did passe) have a most intemperate Aire, the 
Winter cold. being excessive, and the Summers heat farre 
exceeding the ordinary heate of that clime. The reason 
of the cold is, that the Northerne winds of themselves 
ordinarily cold, doe here in a long course on all sides 
glide upon the German Sea, thereby gathering farre 
greater cold, and so rush into those plaine Provinces, 
no where stopped either by mountaines or woods, there 
being no Mountaines, scarce any hils, no woods, scarce 
any groves, to hinder them from violent passage with 
their uttermost force. Like reason may be given for the 
heate: For the same open Plaine, no way shaddowed 
from the beames of the Sunne by opposition of Woods 
or Mountaines, must needs in Summer be subject to the 
heate of the Sunne and winds from land. Adde that 
in Winter the frequent Rivers, Lakes, and Pooles or 
standing waters, infinitely increase the coldnesse of the 


aire. These waters aswell running as standing, are almost 
all Winter frosen over with a thicke ice, so as they will 
beare some hundreths of young men and women, sliding 
upon them with pattins, according to their custome. Yea, 
the Arme of the Sea called Zwidersea, lying within land, 
betweene Holland and Freseland, though it be large and 
deepe, having only two flats or shoales, yet being com- 
passed with Ilands and the Continent, is many times in 
Winter so frosen over, as Victualers erect Tents in the 
middest of it, having Beere and Wine, and tier made 
upon iron furnaces, to refresh such as passe upon sledges, 
or sliding upon iron pattens from one shoare to the other. 
This cold is the cause, why their sheepe and cattell are 
kept in stables, to bring forth their young. And how- 
soever the same be done in Italy, subject to great heate, 
yet it is not of necessitie, as here, but out of the too 
great tendernesse of the Italians, towards the few cattle 
they have. And this is the cause, that howsoever they 
use not hot stoaves, as the Germans doe, yet the \Teomen, 
as well at home, as in the Churches, to drive away cold, 
put under them little pannes of tier, covered with boxes 
of wood, boared full of holes in the top. And this 
sordid remedy they carry with them, by the high way in 
waggons, which the Danes or Moscovites use not, though 
oppressed with greater cold: onely some of the more 
noble Weomen, disliking this remedy, choose rather to 
weare breeches, to defend them from the cold. 
In this distemper of Aire, it cannot be expected that 
there should be plenty of flowers and summer fruites. 
No doubt, in regard of the fatnesse of the soile, watered 
with frequent ditches, and through the foresaid heat of 
the Summer, they might have plenty of flowers and fruits, 
were it not impossible or very difficult to preserve them 
from perishing by the winters cold, and were not the 
Inhabitants carelesse of such dainties, though in later 
times, as they have admitted forraigne manners, so luxury 
hath more power with them, then formerly it had. I 
have oft seene one Apple sold for a blancke, and those 

[III. ii. 95-] 

The fertilily 
of the tmited 


great Cherries which are brought into England, grow 
not here, but in Flaunders, and the Territories within 
Land. They have abundance of Butter, Cheese, and 
Rootes, and howsoever they have not of their owne full 
sufficiency of other things to maintaine life, yet they 
abound with the same brought from other parts. Some 
provinces, (as the Bishoprick of Utrecht) yeeld come to 
be transported, but in generall the united Provinces (of 
which only I discourse in this place) have not sufficient 
corne for their owne use, yet by traffick at Dantzke, they 
furnish themselves & many other nations therewith. They 
have little plenty of River fish, excepting onely Eales, 
but in the Mosa, as it fals from Dort to the sea, they 
have plenty of Salmons, and other fish, which fishing did 
of old yeeld great profit to the Prince and Merchants. 
And for Sea fishes salted and dried, they make great 
trafficke therewith. My selfe lying for a passage in the 
Iland Fly, did see great quantity of shell-fish sold at a 
very low rate. Great heards of Oxen and Calves, are 
yeerely brought into these parts out of the Dukedome 
of Holst, united to the Kingdome of Denmarke, (in 
which parts they feed most on dry and salt meates), and 
these Heards are fatted in the rich pastures of Gelderland 
and Freesland. There is great abundance of Sea Fowles, 
(especially in West-Freesland) and they want not land 
Fowles. They carefully nourish Storkes, as presaging 
happinesse to an Aristocraticall governement, making 
them nests on the tops of publike houses, and punishing 
any that drive them away, or trouble them. In which 
kind also they preserve Hernes making nests in those 
groves, which are onely in few Cities. They have a race 
of heavy Horses, and strong, which they sell in forraigne 
parts, using onely their Mares to draw Waggons, and 
for like uses at home. The Provinces on the Sea Coast 
(as I formerly said) burne their owne earth, by the frequent 
digging whereof, they say the Sea or lake at Harlem was 
first made. And of these turffes they make tiers, both 
cleere and of good smell, without smoke, and com- 


modious to dresse meat, to starch linnen, and like 
They are notable 1Marriners, yet in that to be blamed, 
that being at Sea, they use no publike prayers, that ever 
I heard: And severall Cities have great numbers of 
ships, wherein they trade with such Industry and subtilty, 
as they are in that point envied of all Nations. 
The very Italians, who in foreseeing wisdome, would 
bee accounted Promethei, were by them made Epimethei, 
wise after the deed, too late repenting, that when they 
came first to settle their trade in Flaunders, they tooke 
young youths of that Nation to bee their Cassiers, who 
by writing letters for them, learned the secrets of that 
trade, and after, to the Italians great prejudice, exercised 
it themselves. Some three Flemmings, brethren or 
partners, use to settle themselves in as many Cities of 
great trade, where they keepe such correspondency, as 
by buying all things at the well head, where they are 
cheapest, and transporting them farre off, where they are 
dearest, and especially by living sparingly, both in dyet 
and apparrell, and not shaming to retaile any commodity 
in small parts (which great Merchants disdaine to sell, 
otherwise then by whole sale), they have attained the 
highest knowledge and riches of trading. Thus they buy 
rawe silke of the Turkes, and weave the same into divers 
stuffes in Italy, which they sell not there, but transport 
them into England, and the Northerne parts, where they 
beare h!ghest price, and there retaile them by the smallest 
proportions. They have of their owne, very fine Linnen, 
and Woollen cloathes, of divers kindes, and many clothes 
of Cotton, Arras hangings, plenty of Hops (aswell on 
the Sea-coast of Brabant, as in the East part of Holland) 
and great store of Butter, Cheese, and Fish salted and 
dryed, all which they transport. Againe they bring from 
Dantzke store of Hemp, whereof themselves make Ropes 
and Cables, neither transport they any rude matter, but 
by working it at home, inrich many populous Cities. 
Also fi'om Dantzke they bring corne, all kindes of pitch, 

t6o5- 7. 

The tafl,ke. 

[III. ii. 96.] 

OJ the olde 
trade of 


and other commodities of that place, and from Italy many 
kindes of silke stuffes. Also by the diligent fishing, 
especially of Herrings, on the Sea-coast of England, they 
grow rich, selling the same to all Nations, and to the very 
English, who are not so industrious in that trade. Lastly, 
they draw the commodities of all Nations to them, and 
fetch them from the very Indies, and in like sort they 
transpor.t them to the remotest parts, where they yeeld 
most game. 
It is not amisse to adde the very words of Marchantius, 
writing of the olde trade of Bruges in Flanders, since 
what I have written, is onely to bee understood of the 
united Provinces. Thus he saith. Lodovicus Crassus in 
the yeere 323. granted a staple to Bruges, which his 
sonne Malanus confirmed. The Staple is a priviledge 
of stayin lorraine Commodities in the place, except the 
seller and bringer chuse rather to returne whence they 
came. Bruges hath a Market place, with a house for 
the meeting of Merchants at noone and evening, which 
house was called the Burse, of the houses of the extinct 
Family Bursa, bearing three purses for their Armes, 
engraven upon their houses. The Marchants of England, 
Scotland, France, Castilia, Portugal, Aragon, Navar, 
Catalania, Biscaia, the Hans Cities of Germanie ; (namely 
Lubeck, Hamberg, Rostoch, Dantzke, Riga, Revel, and 
divers other Cities,) the Marchants of Venice, Florence, 
Genoa, Luca, and Milan (namely fifteene Nations,) had 
each their Colledge or house here. The Italians 
Chamblets and Grograms, made of Goates hayre, m 
Galatia a province of the Lesser Asia, they brought Hides, 
thred of Silke, of Silver, and of Gold, and cloathes made- 
of them, they brought Jewels, Wines of Candia, Allure, 
Brimstone, Oyle, Spices, Apothecary Wares, Mithridate, 
Rhebarb, Mummy, Sena, Cassia, and the soile of Brasse. 
The French brought Salt, Red and white W'ines, Oyle, 
and Paper. The English brought Wooll, Leade, Tynne, 
Beere, Woollen cloathes, especially those to make vailes 
for the Low countrey women. The Scots brought skinnes 
5 6 


of sheepe Conneys and other, and course woollen cloathes. 
The Spaniards and Portugals, brought graine t'or Scarlet 
Dye, Gold, Silver, raw Silke, thred of Silke, the wood 
Guiacum, Salsaparilla, Unicornes Horne, and Spices. 
The Germans, with the Danes and Polakes, brought 
Honey, Waxe, Corne, Salt-Peter, Wooll, Glasse, rich 
Furs, Qfick-silver, Armes, Rhenish Wines, Timber for 
building. Againe, they exported out of Flanders, faire 
and great Horses, fat Beeves, Butter, divers kindes of 
Cheese, pickeld and fumed Herrings, divers Sea-fishes 
salted, Woollen and Linnen clothes, Tapestry o.f great 
variety and beauty, rare pictures, and all manuary workes. 
Thus Flanders gave the name to all Netherland. Bruges 
in the yeere 1414. got a priviledge, that they who were 
free of that Citie, by Birth, Gift, Buying or Marriage, 
should be free from all confiscation of their goods, which 
exceedeth the priviledges of any other Citie in Netherland, 
for those of Ypre having the like, yet loose it upon any 
Force offered to the Prince. The trade at Bruges beganne 
to decay in the yeere 1485, partly for the narrownesse 
and unsafety of the Port of Sluce and the River leading 
from thence to Bruges, partly by the Fame of the large 
and commodious River Scaldis at Antwerp, and partly 
by the civill Warres. For first the Portugals having 
taken Callicut in the East Indies, carried their famous 
Spices to the Fayre of Antwerp in the yeere 15o 3. and 
contracting with that Citie, drew the Fuggari and Welfari 
German Merchants thither. And after the Merchants of 
Florence Lucca, and the Spinole of Genoa, and those 
of other Nations (excepting part of the Spaniards) leaving 
Bruges, seated themselves at Antwerp about the yeere 
1516. And they were invited thither by the priviledge 
of Marriage Dowries, which became shadowes to many 
frauds. For when Husbands either breake in life time, 
or be found banckerouts at death, the Wives are preferred 
to all debters in the recovery of their dowry. Notwith- 
standing Bruges at this day by the third generall taxe of 
Flaunders yet in use, payes something more then Ghant 

[Itl. ii. 97.] 

especially in baking of Venison; yet to my knowledge 
they have no red Deare in these Provinces, neither have 
[IiI. ii. 98.] they any inclosed Parkes for fallow Deare, nor any Conny- 
grees. Onely Count Mauritz hath of late had out of 
Englan.d some Buckes and Does of fallow Deare, which 
runne In the grove at the Hage, and there be some 
Connies neere Leyden upon the sandy banke of the Sea, 
which are not sutZficient to serve the Inhabitants of those 
parts, but are accounted good and pleasant to eat. Neither 
in forraigne parts doe they much desire to feed on Connies, 
either because they are rare, or because the flesh is not 
savoury. They use to eate early in the morning, even 
before day, and the cloth is laid foure times in the day 
(or very servants, but two of these times they set before 
them nothing but cheese and butter. They seeth all 
their meate in water falling of raine, and kept in Cesternes. 
They eate Mushromes and the hinder parts of frogges 
for great dainties, which frogges young men use to 
catch and present them to their Mistresses for dainties. 
I have seene a hundreth of Oysters in divers Cities 
sold sometimes for eight or twelve, yea for twenty 
or thirty stivers. They dresse fresh water fish with 
butter more then enough, and salted fishes savourly 
with butter & mustard: where they eate not at an 
Ordinary, but upon reckoning (as they doe in Villages 
and poorer Innes), there they weigh the cheese when it 
is set on Table, and taken away, being paid by the waight ; 
and I have knowne some waggish Souldiers, who put a 
leaden bullet into the Cheese, making it thereby weigh 
little lesse then at first sitting downe, and so deceiving 
their Hosts: But in the chiefe Innes, a man shall eate 
at an Ordinary, and there Gentlemen and others of 
inferiour condition sit at the same Table, and at the same 
The Inner. The Innes are commodious enough, and the Cities 
being frequent scarce some eight miles distant one from 
the other, commodities of lodging are as frequent, yea, 
they hang out signes at the doore, (which fashion is not 


in use in many Cities of Germany, in Denmarke, Poland, 
Scotland, and Ireland, where the Innes are onely knowne 
by time) ; and this made me marvell, that notwithstanding 
this signe obliging them to lodge strangers, my selfe 
though well apparelled, have divers times beene refused 
lodging in many of those Innes, which seemed to me a 
scorne and flat injury. At the faire City of Leyden not 
wanting many faire Innes, I was refused lodging in sixe 
of them, and hardly got it in the seventh, which made 
me gather that they did not willingly entertaine English- 
men: neither did I attribute this to their inhospital 
nature, but to the licentiousnesse of our Souldiers, who 
perhaps had deserved ill of them thereby, or perhaps by 
ill payment, for which I cannot blame the English in that 
case, but rather the unequall Law of England, giving all 
to the elder brothers, lying sluggishly at home, and 
thrusting the younger brothers into the warres and all 
desperate hazards, and that in penury, which forcibly 
driveth the most ingenious dispositions to doe unfit 
things. By reason of the huge impositions (especially 
upon wines,) the passengers expence is much increased, 
for the exactions often equall or passe the value of the 
things for which they are paid. And though a man drinke 
beere, subject to lesse imposition and lesse deere then 
wine, yet he must understand that his companions drinke 
largely, and be he never so sober in diet, yet his purse 
must pay a share for their intemperance. After supper 
passengers use to sit by the tier, and passe some time in 
mirth, drinking upon the common charge, and to warme 
their beere till it have a froth: yet doe they not use 
these night drinkings so frequently nor with such excesse, 
as the Germans doe. 
I remember that having beene at Sea in a great storme 
of wind, thunder, and lightning, about the moneth of 
November, when such stormes are rare, and being very 
wearie and sad, I landed at Dockam in West-Freesland, 
where at that time some yong Gentleweomen of that 
Countrey, passing through that City towards Groning, 

I605-I 7. 


[6o5-I 7. 

[III. ii. oo.] 


degrees and a half, from the Meridian of 27 degrees 
and a halfe, to that of 36 degrees. And the latitude 
extends I o degrees, from the paralell of 58 degrees, to 
that of 68 deg..rees. The Kingdome of Denmark is 
divided into slxe parts, Finmark, Norway, Gothia, 
Scandia, Seland and Jutland. 
 Finmark reacheth towards the North, beyond the 
Artick circle, to the Castle Warthouse, and therefore must 
needs be desart and barren. 
2 Norway in the Germans tongue signifies the way 
to the North, and it is so large, as of old it had and still 
retaineth the name of a Kingdome, and towards Finmark 
it reacheth to the Artick circle. The Cities are named, 
Anstou not farre from the narrow Sea, called Der Soundt, 
and Nidrosia, formerly called Trondia, lying upon the 
same sea, and Bergis the seate of a Bishop, and Salzburg 
a Citie of traffick. In Norway they catch great store 
of Stockfish, which they beate with cudgels, and dry with 
cold, and great store of a fish, from the Greeke word 
called Plaise, for the bredth thereof, and they sell great 
quantity of this fish to the German Cities upon the sea, 
which they keep to feede the people, in case the cities 
should be besieged. 
3 The Iland Gothia is annexed to the Crowne of 
Denmark, yet the Succians tooke it in our time, but the 
Danes recovered it againe. Histories report, that the 
Gothes came out of this Iland, yet old Writers under 
the name of Scandia containe all the tract of the neck 
of Land, lying from the Hiberborian Sea, betweene the 
Northerne Ocean, and the Bodick Gulfe; from whence 
it is more probable, that the Gothes came out, then onely 
from this little Iland, who after seated themselves upon 
the Euxine sea, and the banke of Danow, and from thence 
made incursions upon the Roman Empire. And here- 
upon the said tract, containing not onely Scandia and 
Gothia, but all Norway and Succia, was by old Writers 
called the shop and sheath of Nations. The Iland Gothia 
yeelds the rich Furres called Sabels. 


4 The Iland Scandia is also called Scondia, and Scandi- 
navia, and Schonlandia, that is, faire land, the beauty 
whereof the Danes highly extoll, and for the firtiltie 
preferre it to Sealand, though it passe the same in the 
buildings of the Kings Court and other houses. The 
Cities thereof are Helsenburg, Lanscron, and London the 
Metropolitan Citie. 
5 The Iland of Seland, (whence they hold the Zelanders 
of Netherland to have come into those parts), is beautified 
with the City Copenhagen (that is, the Haven of Mer- 
chants) where the King hath his Court, and there is an 
University. It hath also the strong Castell Cronemburg, 
built in the Village Elsenar, and the City Roschild, so 
called of a Fountaine, being the seate of a bishop, where 
the Kings are buried. Betweene the Castle Cronembirg 
in Seland, and the Castle Helsenburg in Scandia, is the 
famous straight of the Sea, called Der Soundt, by which 
the ships enter into the Baltick Sea, and returning from 
Dantzk and Righa, laded with precious commodities, pay 
great tributes to the King of Denmarke, both at the 
entrie and going fourth of that Straight. 
6 Jutland signifying a good land in the German 
language, is the Northerne part of the Cimbrian Cher- 
sonesus (that is, necke of land) whence the Cimbri came, 
who made war upon the Romans. And this Jutland with 
the foresaid Seland, are properly called Denmarke, the 
other parts being peculiar Regions, at divers times 
annexed to that Crowne. The chiefe Townes of Jutland, 
are Aleburg, Nicopia and Wiburg. The rest of the tract 
of the Cimbrian Chersonesus, containes the Dukedome 
of Holst, vulgarly called Holstein, which of old was part 
of Saxony, but so, as the Danes often forced it to the 
paying of tribute, and at last about the yeere 465 they 
fully subdued it. Part of this Dukedome lying upon 
the Brittan Sea, betweene the Brooke Idera and the River 
Elve, is called Ditmarcia, all fenny, so as by casting downe 
certaine bankes, they may drowne al the Countrie, and 
by this strength, the inhabitants keeping their enemies 
. v 6 5 . 


The lland of 


TAe ,ituation. 

The Fertilty. 

[III. ii. o.] 

The traffcke. 


out, long preserved a rude or rurall liberty, but at last 
in our time, Frederike King of Denmarke, upon advan- 
tage of a great frost in those Fennes, suddenly assailed 
and subdued them, joyning that Country to the said 
Dukedome of Holst. Of which Dukedome the chiefe 
Townes are Flensburg, Slesvick (where of old the Dukes 
held their Court) being seated on the Sea towards the 
East, and Gottorp, and Meldorp in Ditmarcia upon the 
Sea towards the \Vest. Upon the confines of Hoist lye 
the faire _rmperiall free Cities Lubeck and Hamburg, to 
the freedome whereof the Dukes of Hoist were great and 
neere enemies, challenging the same to bee built in their 
soyle, for which cause the Kings of Denmark possessing 
that Dukedome, are much suspected by these Cities, 
whom they more and more feare, as their power more 
increaseth. Some reckon the Ilands Orcades for part of 
I)enmarke, and they say, that the inhabitants speake the 
Gothes language : but Histories witnesse, that howsoever 
of old they belonged to the Danes, yet they have long 
been subject to the Kingdome of Scotland. 
Denmarke lying neere the Artick circle, must needs 
be subject to great cold, howsoever the mistie aire, caused 
by the frequent Iles, doth in some sort mitigate the 
extremity thereof. 
In regard of the clime, it cannot be expected, that 
fruites should grow here, which are onely ripened by the 
heate of the Sunne. They have corne sufficient for their 
own use, and plenty thereof (as of all other commodities) 
is brought to them from Dantzk and all other parts, by 
reason of the frequent concourse of Merchants into the 
Soundt, which they injoy at good rates, and with much 
The Danes exchange great plenty of dried and salted 
fishes, and of other smal commodities, for necessaries to 
clothe and feede them; and being in both these kinds 
frugal and sparing (as the Germans are), they also attaine 
to some small riches by this poore traffick. And since 
they feede for the most part on dried fishes, bacon, and 


salt meates, and little use flesh meates as veale and 
mutton, they carry great heards of oxen and calves out 
of Holst into Netherland. Lastly, since they have no 
other commodities of their owne to transport, and Mer- 
chants that passe the Baltike Sea, of necessity landing 
at Elsenar, bring them all necessaries from forraigne parts, 
and also take of them such comrnodities as they can spare, 
surely howsoever the ships of Denmark are in strength 
sayling and lasting next to the English, yet their 
Merchants seldome make any other voyages then towards 
the Northerne Iles to take fish. In diet they are much 
like the Germans, and especially the neighbouring Saxons. 
Their dainties are bacon and salt meats, but the common 
people feeds much on divers kinds of dried fishes, which 
at the first view of them a stranger may wel perceive, 
by their leane and withered faces, and they likewise feede 
on bread very black, heavy and windy. I did see no 
common Innes at Copenhagen, Elsenar, or Roschilde, but 
some are there licensed to keepe Taverns for selling of 
wine, where the common table for that purpose is alwaies 
ready covered with linnen. But passengers must obtaine 
diet and lodging with some Citizen, and in their houses 
they shal find honest manners, moderate diet, and cleane 
beds and sheets. To conclude, the Danes passe (if it 
be possible) their neighbour Saxons in the excesse of their 
Poland hath the name of Fole in that language 
signifying a plaine, and is a vast kingdome. The 
longitude thereof extends i6 degrees from the Meridian 
of 38 degrees, to that of 54 degrees, and the latitude 
extends 9 degrees from the paralel of 47 degrees to that 
of 56 degrees. It is divided into the greater and the 
i Of the greater Poland these are the chief'e townes 
Bosnau seated on the Brooke Barta, and Genesua, and 
Ladislauia seated upon the River Vistula or Wexel. 
2 The lesser Poland lies towards the South, wherein 
is Cracouia (vulgarly Crakaw) the seat of the Kings. The 

The diet. 



inhabitants come of the Scithians, and the manners of 
the common people at this day little differ from the old 
Sarmatians. This Region is fenny, and great part thereof 
is woody, but it so aboundeth with corne and pastures, 
as it supplies all Europe with corne, and the neighbour 
Countries with heards of Cattell. It hath no vines, but 
it yeelds plenty of pit coale, and much wax and hony, 
and it no lesse aboundeth with many kinds of the said 
cattell, aswell wilde as tame. 
Other Provinces are annexed to this Kingdom, namely, 
Samogitia, Massovia, Lithuania, Volhinia, Russia, and 
Podolia, for I omit Borussia, though subject to this King- 
dome under a free yoke, because I formerly said, that it 
is numbred among the Provinces of Germany, the 
inhabitants being Germans in language and manners, and 
because I have in that place formerly described the same. 
3 Samogitia hath no walled Towne, but the people 
live in Cottages, and being rude and of great stature, 
only apply themselves to the plough, and feeding of cattle, 
not knowing any use of mony, scarce the service of 
4 The Metropolitan City of Massovia is Warsovia 
(vulgarly Warsaw), where the Parlaments of the King- 
dome are held. 
5 Lithuania gives the title of Great Duke, and is a 
most large Province, fenny and woody, so as in Summer 
there is no passage into it, but in winter when the Fenns 
are frozen, Merchants trade with the inhabitants. Vilna 
is the Metropolitan city, and seate of the Bishop. It hath 
very few Townes, and the Villages are commonly distant 
2o German miles one from the other. They have plenty 
of hony, wax, a kind of beast like an oxe called AIce, 
wilde beasts and rich furres, but they scarce know the use 
of mony. 
6 Volhinia is the most fertile province of that King- 
dom, and fullest of faire townes and Castles. 
7 Russia or Reutenia hath many Townes, whereof the 
most knowne is Leopolis (vulgarly Leimpurg) and it is 


famous for swift and good horses, not to speake of the 
rich furres and other commodities. 
8 Lastly, Podolia aboundeth with excellent Pastures, 
but hath few Cities or Townes. 
In general, Poland is subject to as great cold, as the The ituation. 
lower part of Germany, lying under the same Paralell, 
and the Countries, as they lie more Northerly, so they 
suffer more cold; for the coast of the Baltike Sea, the 
more it lyes towards the East, the more it still bends to 
the North, besides that, the plainenes of the Countrie, 
and the frequency of Lakes and Fennes, doe more increase 
the cold. They use stoves heated with earthen ovens, 
for remedy against cold, as the Germans doe. 
The revenews of the King and Gentlemen are moderate, Thefertilty. 
scarce sufficient to maintaine a plentiful table, and to 
exchange with Merchants for Wines and Spices (which 
they much use, especially in dressing of fish) and 
forraigne Stuffes and Clothes of Silke and Wooll. Poland 
aboundeth with beasts, aswell wild as tame, and yeeldeth 
excellent horses, not great, but quicke and stirring. 
Neither doe the Gentlemen more delight in any thing, 
then in their horses, so as they hang gold chaines and 
Jewels at their eares, and paint them halle over with 
exquisite colours, but in that uncomely, that they are 
not naturall for horses, as the Carnatian colour, and their 
hinder parts they adorne with rich Furres and skinnes 
of Lions and Leopards and the like, aswell to terrifie 
their enemies, as to adorne and beautifie their horses. 
Poland likewise aboundeth with Flesh, Whittmeate, Birds, 
fresh-water Fish (it being farre within land), and al kind 
of Pulse, as Pease and the like. It hath some, but very 
few mines of Gold and Silver towards the Carpatian 
Mountaines of Hungary, and of Iron and Brimstone. 
It abounds with Hony, which they find in hollow trees 
and caves of the earth, besides the Husbandmans hives. 
It yeelds great quantity of Wax, Flax, Linnen clothes 
made thereof, Hempe, Pich of both kinds, Masts for 
shippes, Boards and Timber, rich Furres, Salt digged out 

Te t,'nffick. 


of pits, Amber, Soape-ashes, and all kinde of Graine, 
especially Rye, which hath made Daniske famous, for 
relieving all Nations therewith in time of dearth. 
No marvell then if Merchants bring unto them Silkes 
of Italy, Cloth of England, Wine of Spaine, and the 
very Spices of India, with most remote commodities, 
since they not onely sell them at what price they list, but 
also bring from thence such precious foresaid commodities. 
Poland is all farre within land, excepting Borussia 
(vulgarly Prussen), which with immunities is subject to 
this Kingdome, though I have described it among the 
Provinces of Germany, because the people are Germans 
in language and manners. And the very inhabitants of 
Borussia have but few ships, using strangers to export 
their commodities. Poland aboundeth with the foresaid 
most necessary commodities, and the people live content 
with their owne; yet are they not rich, because they 
want the foresaid forraigne commodities farre brought, 
and so deare. And they have so little Gold and Silver, 
as despising all in respect of it, they sell all commodities 
at a most low rate, especially those which are for daily 
foode, and unfit to be exported. 
And in truth, my selfe having in Poland and Ireland, 
found a strange cheapenesse o fall such necessaries, in 
respect they want, and so more esteeme Silver, this obser- 
vation makes me of an opinion much contrary to the 
vulgar, that there is no more certaine signe of a flourishing 
and rich commonwealth, then the deare price of these 
things (excepting the yeeres of famine), nor any greater 
argument of a poore and weake State, then the cheape 
price of them, and it makes me confident to conclude, 
that old wives snared with papisticall superstition, doe 
foolishly attribute the late deare prices to the change of 
Religion in our time, while they ignorantly extoll former 
times, wherein twenty foure Eggs were sold for a penny: 
for in our Age, our Kings have more royall Tributes, 
our Nobles farre greater revenews, our Merchants much 
greater wealth, then ever our progenitors had, and this 


is the cause that all things for diet and apparrell, and our 
very wanton desires, are sold at much higher prices then 
in former ages, because our riches make us not able to 
want any thing to serve our appetite, at what price soever 
it is set. Againe for Italy, it hath no great store of flesh, 
birds, fish, and like things for food, in regard of the 
populousnesse thereof, yet the Inhabitants holding it no 
disgrace to be spa.ring in diet, and modest in apparell 
(so it be clenly), n regard of this generall temperance, 
and that the Nobility disdaineth not to weave silkes, and 
trade for them, being the sinew of that Countrey, howso- 
ever all things are sold there at most deare prices, yet 
no Princes (considering things to be considered) no 
Gentlemen, no Merchants of the universall World, have 
greater treasures and wealth, then those of Italy. I have 
said that Poland doth abound with all kinds of flesh, 
whitmeates, fresh water fish, and all things necessary for 
foode, and that it yeelds no Wine, which the Inhabitants 
seldome drinke, but in place thereof they use Beere, which 
they of Dantzk brew very strong and good, and they 
make a drinke of Hony, which they esteeme almost as 
much as wine, and the best composition thereof is made 
in the Province of Massovia. They have such store of 
Butter, as I have seene them anoint Cart wheeles there- 
with, but it is more white and lesse savoury then ours. 
This Kingdome hath few Cities; and if a stranger will 
for a time sojourne in any of them, he shall easily find 
a German or Netherlander to be his Host, who will 
entertaine him more commodiously then any of that 
Nation, though perhaps at extraordinary rates, as my selfe 
found, abiding with a Netherlander at Crakaw. 
The Innes in the chiet'e Cities, affoord convenient beds, 
and plenty of flesh and fresh water fish. And these fish 
they dresse with pepper and spice more then enough, 
for which kinde of Cookery, the Polonians are praised 
above the Germans or any other Nation, yet the spice 
being farre brought and deerely sold, makes the sawce 
farre more costly, then the fish it selfe. There is scarce 

[lII. ii. 

The lnnes. 

t6o5-I 7. 

Fictuah at a 
low rate. 


any Gentleman who hath not the skill, and doth not use 
to dresse fish for his owne eating. In Villages and small 
Cities, by the high way a passenger shall find no bed, 
but he may carry a bed in his Coach, and sit upon it 
conveniently. Others use to sleepe upon straw, lapped 
with a furred horsemans coate, which they use to weare, 
and if they have no such coate, they must be content to 
sleepe upon cleane straw: And all the passengers lie 
together in the warme stoave, with those of the Family, 
both Men and Weomen. Neither shall they find in such 
places any Wine or choice meates, which they use to bring 
fi'om Cities in their Coaches. For the Innes in such 
places are poore naked houses, having nothing to sell, 
but close by them are the shambles, the Bakers & Brewers 
houses, where the passengers buy beere & such meat as 
they like, and bring it to the Inne, which a poore Hostesse 
will dresse, affoording them onely tier, and a course Table- 
cloth. And it seemed to me, that the Lord of the place 
useth to impose upon some vassall this charge to entertaine 
strangers: for the Hostesse will give her labour for 
nothing, except in curtesie you desire her to eate with 
you, and if you freely give her a small reward, as three 
pence for the whole Company, shee will thinke you deale 
bountifully with her, but shee will aske you nothing. 
Also you may freelie carrie away in your Coach, flesh, 
bread, wine, or anie thing that remaines, which I have 
seene done many times. No Countrey in Europe 
affoordes victuals at a lower rate. My selfe and a Com- 
panion, did in a Countrey Towne invite two Guests, 
and our dinner for foure persons came but to foure Grosh 
and a halle. I have formerly set downe the ordinary 
expences generally, in a Chapter treating of that Subject 
in the first Booke of this thirde Part, and particularlie, 
in the journey through Poland in the first Part. Now 
I will onelie adde, that in the Villages and little Cities 
by the high way, I have bought tenne Egges for one 
Grosh, a Goose for three, a Partridge for two, a loine of 
Mutton for two, a Pigge for three Grosh, and all like 


things at a very small price. So as if a passenger have 
a Cooke in his companie, or have himselfe any skill to 
dresse meate for his owne appetite, I thinke hee shall 
there want nothing for necessary or delicate foode. But 
hee may not expect, that a Countrey Hostesse should 
seeke out, or curiously dresse any daineties for him. 
Lastly, the Polonians are as stout drinkers as the 
Germans, and passe them all, excepting onely the Saxons, 
yea above all that ever I observed given to this vice, 
they seemed to me to be mad in this kind, that in 
drinking they are prone to quarrels, brawling and 
fighting. Give me leave to adde one observation, 
which to rile seemed very strange. At 1Malvin and 
Dantzke in Prussen, betweene Michaelmas and Christ- 
mas, the Country people bring in slcdges laded with 
dead Hares, all frozen over, which are so preserved 
aswell and better, then if they were powdred with Salt, 
till our Lady day in Lent, about which time the frost 
begins first to breake. And if they will eate a Hare in 
the meane time, they thaw it at the tier, or the oven of 
the warme stove, or by casting it into water, and so they 
presently set it to the tier, either to be rosted or boyled. 
In like sort they preserve Phesants, or any kind of flesh, 
being frozen over, aswell as if they were salted. And 
if any man thinke this a Travellers fiction, let him know, 
that a most credible person told mee, of his certaine 
knowledge and experience, that the Moscovites in Russia, 
bring the dead bodies of men in winter thus frozen over, 
and so lay them on heapes in the Bellfrees of the Churches, 
where they lie without rotting, or ill smell, till about 
our Lady day in Lent the Snow begins to thaw, and 
the earth to be fit for digging (for till that time the earth 
is covered with deepe and hard snow, and if it were not 
so covered, yet is so hard by continuall frosts, as it cannot 
bee digged.) And at that time each family takes the 
bodies of their dead, and takes care to burie them. 

[Chap. V. 

[III. ii. to4. ] 
The drinking. 

I6O5-I 7. 


Of Italy 

Chap. V. 
touching all the subjects of the third 
Chapter going before. 
He Longitude of Italy extends fourteene 
degrees and a halfe from the Meridian 
of twenty seven degrees and a halle, to 
that of forty two degrees. And the 
Latitude extends eight degrees from the 
paralell of thirty eight degrees to that 
of t'orty sixe degrees. Italy of old was 
Janicula, Oenotria, and Ausonia, and lastly 

called Saturnia 

it had the name of Italy. It was called Saturnia of 
Saturne, who banished from his Country, taught the 
Inhabitants of this Country the Art of Husbandry, as 
Poets t?tble, and is accounted the first King of this people, 
then called Aborigines, as borne there, not comming from 
any forraigne part to inhabite there. It was called 
-- av 
Janicula of Janus or Noha, whom they affirme to h e 
come thither after the deluge, and to have taught them 
the art to plant vines and sow corne, & to have built the 
Citie Janua, now called Genoa. It was called Oenotria, 
either of the excellent wines, or of Oenotrius King of 
the Sabines, as likewise it had the name Ausonia of 
Ausonius, the sofa of Ulisses. Lastly, it was called Italy 
of Italus King of Sicilie, or of an old Greeke word signi- 
fying oxen, and shewing the inhabitants to have been 
Heardsmen. Ptolomy describes it in the forme of a 
Chersonesus (that is, necke of land) or Peninsula (that 
is, almost an Iland), and Pliny in the forme of an Oaken 
leafe, but others more aptly compare it to a mans leg, 
from the thigh to the sole of the foote. 
Old Writers dividing Italy from Gallia Cisalpina, or 
togata, inclose Gallia with a line drawne from the River 
Varus beyond Genoa, by the Apenine Mountaine to the 
Brooke Rubico, where it falles into the Sea neere Ravenna, 
and this line is obliquely stretched from the East to the 


West, and so they divide it from Italy, and make Pie- 
mount, the Dukedome of Milan, the Dukedome of Ferrara, 
the Trevisau Marquisate, and all Histria, to be a peculiar 
part of Europe. But these Provinces being at this time 
part of Italy, it is better inclosed and confined by a line 
drawne from the head of the Brooke Varus, through the 
Coccian Alpes to the Mountaine Adula, (which lies upon 
the Alpes of Furca or Mount Gothard) and so through 
the Rhetian Alpes towards the East, to the Brooke Arsia, 
(confining Histria); and the rest of Italy is compassed 
with the Sea. Also the Mount Appenine derived from 
the Alpes, runnes all the length of Italy, in the forme 
of a fishes backe bone, and almost in the midst devides 
it into two tracts, one lying towards the upper or Adri- 
aticke Sea, the other towards the nether or Tyrrhene 
Sea. For howsoever the Appennine about Ancona, 
seemes to bend towards the Adriaticke Sea, and there to 
end; yet after it turnes from thence, and devides the 
rest of Italy, till it ends upon the straight of the Sicilian 
Sea. Italy worthily called the Qeene of Nations, can 
never be sufficiently praised, being most happy in the 
sweete Ayre, the most fruitfull and pleasant fields, warme 
sunny hils, hurtlesse thickets, shaddowing groves, Havens 
of the Sea, watering brookes, baths, wine, and oyle for 
delight, and most safe forts or defences as well of the 
Sea as of the Alpes. Neither is any part of Europe more 
inhabited, more adorned with Cities and Castles, or to 
be compared thereunto for tillage and husbandry. 
The Provinces thereof are numbred 4- First beyond 
the Appenine towards the Tyrrhene Sea, lie five Provinces, 
Liguria, Tuscia, Campania, (subdevided into Umbria, 
Latium, and Campania, the happy): Lucania (vulgarly 
Basilicata), and Calabria, (the upper and the lower). Also 
on this side the Appenine towards the Adriaticke Sea, 
lie five Provinces, (going backe from the East to the 
West), Salentinum, Apulia, Samnium, (vulgarly Abrotzo), 
Picamum, (vulgarly Marca Anconitana) and Flaminia, 
(vulgarly Romandiola), whereof part beyond the brooke 

[III. ii. tos. ] 


C ampania. 


Rubico, reacheth into Gallia Cisalpina. Againe in the 
part called of old Gallia Cisalpina, are foure Provinces, 
Lombardia, Marca, Trevisana, Forum Julii, and Histria. 
 The chiefe City in Liguria, is Genoa, a free City, 
(or at least having the shew of liberty), to which all this 
Province is subject, which lieth all upon the Tyrrhene 
Sea, and is now vulgarly called La Riviera di Genoa, 
being of all Italy the most rocky and barren tract: yet 
whether by Husbandmens art and labour, or by lying 
upon the South Sun, I know not; but sure I am, and 
well remember, that passing that way in the beginning 
of Winter, I tooke great pleasure in the plenty and good- 
hesse of the fi'uites thereof: Besides that, all Men extoll 
the fertility of Mount Ferrate, (a part of Liguria, inclosed 
and watered by the Rivers Tanoro and Po.) 
z Tuscia had the name of Franckensence, which they 
used for Incense, and was formerly called Hetruria, at 
this day named Toscana. It was an old Dukedome 
erected by the Longobards, and after was devided into 
many territories of fi'ee Cities and Commonwealths, the 
liberty whereof (namely of Florence, Pisa, and Sienna) 
the Family of Medici, invaded in the time of the 
Emperour Charles the fifth, and now possesseth all 
Toscany with title of great Duke, onely the City of Lucca 
still preserving the old liberty of that Commonwealth. 
It hath very many Cities, of which these are the chiefe; 
Florence, Pisa, (an University), Sienna, and Lucca, (which 
still is a free City). 
3 Campania (vulgarly Campagna) is subdevided (as I 
said) into Latium, Umbria, and Campania the happy. 
Latium hath the name of the Fable of Saturne, lurking 
there in banishment, and it is the Fountaine of the famous 
Latin tongue, and the head City thereof is Rome, which 
City together with the whole Province, is at this day 
subject to the Pope, & the Province is vulgarly called 
Campagna di Roma. The second part is Umbria, which 
was held part of Latium, & lieth beyond Rome, amidst 
the Mount Apenine of whose shaddow it had the name 


of Umbria, but is now called the Dukedome of Spaleto, 
to which dignity it was raised of old by the Lombards, 
and it is subiect to the Pope of Rome. The Cities 
thereof are Volgineum, Assisium, Spoletum, Perusium, 
and Otricoli. The third part is Campania the happy, 
vulgarly called Terra di Lavorr, having the name of the 
most fertile Plaine of Capua, seated upon the banke of 
the River Volturnus; and to that Citie it was of old 
subject, but at this day it is the chiefe Province of the 
Neapolitan Kingdome, the head Citie whereof is Naples, 
of old called Parthenope, and Dystarchia, now adorned 
with stately Pallaces, of Dukes, Earles, and Gentlemen, 
especially those of the Duke of Gravina, and the Prince 
of Salerno, these Noble men dwelling there the greatest 
part of the yeere. The Capuan delights, corrupting the 
Army of Hanniball, are knowne to all the World. This 
Province is an earthly Paradise, where Bacchus and Ceres 
strive for principalitie. I passe over Cuma, of old a 
famous Citie, and Linternum, famous for the banishment 
and of Scipio. the Africane, since at this day 
onely remalne some rumes of Cuma, and scarce any 
memory of Linternum. Neere Suessa, is the Mountaine 
Valerius or Falernus, famous for the wine it yeeldeth, 
and the famous Mountaines Gaurus, Massicus and 
Vesuvius. The Mountaine Vesuvius is now called 
Somma, out of the top whereof, of old great flames 
broke out, burning the neighbour places, in which flames 
Pliny (living in the time of Traian ) was choaked and 
perished, while hee curiously searched the cause of those 
flames. In our age this Mountaine burned, and now 
daily fire breakes out of it. Here the beautie of all the 
World is gathered as it were into a bundle. Here be 
the famous dwellings of the Romans, in the Territorie 
of Naples. Here are the Acherusian Fennes, the Lake 
of Avernus, the Ditch of Nero, the Bridge of Caligula, 
and other wonders celebrated by Poets. The Kingdome 
of Naples is subject to the King of Spaine, which togethe.r 
with the Dukedome of Milan, also subiect to him, Is 

[III. ii. to6.] 


I6O5-I 7. 








thought to containe more then halle Italy, besides the 
Iland of Sicily, annexed to this Kingdome, whereof this 
is the chiefe Province, and the bounds of it reach to the 
Sea, and so lye backward on this side the Apennine 
towards Samnium, where it is confined, and divided from 
the Mark of Ancona, by the Brooke Truento. 
4 Lucania, vulgarly Basilicata, is a small Territory, the 
Cities whereof are Folia and Laina. 
5 Calabria a Province of this Kingdome, is divided 
into the upper and the lower. The upper is called great 
Greece, being of old inhabited by the Greekes, and using 
still that language corrupted with the Italian. The Cities 
thereof famous of old, are Rudia (where Ennius was 
borne), Croto (where Milo was borne, who carried an 
Oxe), Tarentum now the chiefe City, and Locris. The 
lower Calabria is called Brutium, the chiefe City whereof 
is Reghio, so called, because Sicily is said to have been 
there divided from Italy by an Earthquake. 
6 Salentinum vulgarly Terra di Ottranto hath the 
Cities Ottranto, and Brundusium. 
7 Apulia vulgarly Puglia, is divided into Pencetia and 
In Pencetia or Mesapia, vulgarly called Terra di Barri, 
are the Cities Basigno and Bitonto. In Daunia, vulgarly 
called Puglia Piana, are the Cities Mansfredonia, Bene- 
venture (made a Dukedome by the Lumbards), Asculum, 
and the Village Canne, famous by the old defeate of 
the Romans. And here is the Mountaine Garganus, 
vulgarly called Sant' Angelo. 
8 Samnium of old called Aprusium, at this day hath 
the name of Abrozzo, where is Sulmo, in which Ovid 
was borne, and here the Kingdome of Naples is confined 
on this side the Apenine Mountaine. 
9 Picrenum, vulgarly Marca Anconitana is subject to 
the Pope, and hath the name of the chiefe City Ancona, 
so called of the crookednesse of the Haven, which is 
held the best Haven of Italy. Persaurum, vulgarly 
Pesaro, belongs to this Province. 

o Flaminia or Romandiola, vulgarly Romagna, hath Flarainia. 
faire Cities, Urbi,aum, subject to the Duke thereof (which 
some make part of Picanum), Rimini, Bologna, subject 
to the Pope, and ancient Ravenna, which with the greatest 
part of this Province is subject to the Pope, who erected 
Urbine from a County to a Dukedome, with covenant 
of vassalage (which the Popes seldome omit) yet some 
part of the Province is subject to the Venetians. 
 Lombardy of old was part of Gallia Cisalpina, Loratardy. 
which the River Padus (vulgarly Po, and of old called 
Eridanus) divides into Cispadan (on this side the Po) 
and Transpadan (beyond the Po.) Cispadan (of old 
called Emilia, now vulgarly di qua del' Po) containes 
Piemont (so called, as seated at the foote of the Moun- 
taines), whereof the chiefe Citie is Turin (of old called 
Augusta Taurinorum), and this Province is subject to 
the Duke of Savoy, Also it containes the Territory of 
Parma, subject to the Duke thereof, wherin are the cities 
Parma & Piacenza. Transpadane, vulgarly di la de1' Po, 
containes the Dukedom of Milan, the chiefe City whereof [III. ii. ,o7. ] 
is Milano, and it hath other Cities, namely Como, where 
both Plinies were borne, seated on the most pleasant 
Lake Larius ; vulgarly di Como, abot, nding with excellent 
fishes. Also Ticinum vulgarly Pavia, (where the French 
King Francis the first, was taken prisoner by the Army 
of Charles the fifth). Lastly, Cremona, among other 
things famous for the Tower. This Dukedome is the 
largest and richest of all other, (as Flaunders is among 
the Counties) and it is subject to the King of Spaine. 
2 Also Transpadane Lombardy containes the Duke- Transpadane 
dome of Mantua, (subject to the Duke thereof) and Lombar, ty. 
Marca Trevisana, or Trivigia,aa (subject to the State of 
Venice). Mantua is the chiefe City of the Dukedome, 
and Marca Trevisana hath the famous Cities, Venice, 
Padoa, Ttevijo, Verona, Vicenza, Brescia, and Bergamo. 
The Tyrrheni of old inhabited all Cisalpina Gallia, who 
gave the name to the Tyrrhene Sea, and were expelled 
by the Galles, and of them the Insubres inhabited the 


Forum Jui. 


The situation. 


Transpadan part, and there built Milano, and the Senones 
inhabited the Cispadane part. 
x3 Histria is devided into Forum Julii, and Histria, 
properly so called. Forum Julii vulgarly Frioli, and 
Patria (because the Venetians acknowledge they came 
from thence), was a Dukedome erected by the Lombards, 
the chiefe City whereof is the most ancient Aguilegia 
adorned with the title of a Patriarchate, which at this 
day is almost fallen to the ground. Neere that City is 
a Towne, in which they write that S. Marke penned his 
Gospell: Now the chiefe City is Frioli. The confines 
of this Region lie upon Marca Trevisana, and all the 
Province to the River Tagliamonte, is subject to the State 
of Venice. The other part is subject to the Arch-Dukes 
of Austria. Here growes the wine Pucinum, now called 
Prosecho, much celebrated by Pliny. 
4 Histria, properly so called, is almost in the forme 
of a Peninsule, (almost an Iland) and the chiefe City is 
Justinopolis, vulgarly Capo d' Istria, and all the Province 
is subject, to the State of Venice. 
Italy m Winter time, (namely the moneths of 
December, January, and February) hath a temperate 
cold, with little or no frosts or Ice: And howsoever 
nay selfe did see, not onely the Rivers of the State of 
Venice, but the very Inland Seas of Venice, frozen and 
covered with thicke yce, for the space of three weekes, 
yet the Venetians said it was a rare accident. In Summer 
the heate is excessive, and the dew falling by night is 
very unwholsome, as also thunderings and lightnings are 
frequent, which doe great hurt both to man and beast 
then abroad, as sad experience often shewes them. But 
in the Dog-dales no man is so hardy as to put his head 
out of his dores, or to goe out of the City. For they 
proverbially say; Q._uando il Sole alberga in Leone, chi 
so mantiene sano, guadagna assai: that is, When the 
Sunne lodgeth in the Signe of the Lion, he that preserves 
his health, gaines enough. This excesse of heate they 
carefully avoid, by inhabiting upon the sides of the 


mies, Gardens, Water Conduits, Men good and ill, 
learned and unlearned, more you cannot see in the 
universall World, then be content, and stay at home. 
And so he restrained the young Man in his desire to 
travell, wherein perhaps he rather sought to get liberty 
then experience. This I write, to shew that the Italians 
are so ravished with the beauty of their owne Countrey, 
as having by sharpenesse of wit more then the true value 
of things, magnified and propounded to strangers admira- 
tion, each Brooke for a River, each vice for the neighbour 
vertue, and each poore thing, as if it were to be extolled 
above the Moone, they have more wronged 
themselves then us. For we passing thrbugh Italy, 
though we find our selves deceived in the fame of things, 
yet still we heare and see many things worthy to be 
observed ; but of the Italians, holding Italy for a Paradice, 
very few sharpen their wits with any long voyage, and 
great part of them have not seene the Villages and Cities 
within ten miles of their dwellings. Hence it is that 
great part of the Italians have nothing to boast of, but 
their naturall wit, while our Nations beyond their Alpes, 
besides naturall gifts, have wisdome gained by experience. 
Italy is most populous, so as Gentlemens Palaces & Lands 
belonging to them, are commonly confined within some 
few inclosures. The Castles, Cities, Villages, and Pallaces, 
are most frequent, whence it is, that the Land being 
narrow, and not well capable of so much people, they 
plant and sow in the very ditches of the high wa, yes, in 
the furrowes of Land, upon the wals and ditches of Cities 
and Castles, yea, to the very dores of private houses, 
fitting each least corner, as well to profit as beauty. 
Onely Lombardy hath large and open fields, with pastures 
to feed Sheepe and Cowes, and with plenty of whitmeats : 
For they have delicate Butter, which is not otherwhere 
to be found, except in the valey of Pisa, (or of the River 
Arno), all other places using Oyle in stead of it. Neere 
Parma and Piacenza, it yeelds excellent Cheese, much 
prized of very Princes in forraigne parts, whether great 


quantity thereof is transported, and greater extracted into 
other parts of Italy. 
Lombardy also affoords sheepe to Toscany, and other 
": parts of Italy, as Sicily doth Corne, whereby of old it 
: deserved to be called the Garner of Rome. Italy hath 
- great store of Goates, the milke whereof is so nutritive, 
as they give it to the weakest bodies for a restorative. 
:. Great Heards of cattle are brought into Italy out of Cattle. 
 Hungary, and from divers Countries of the Alpes, but 
:: the Hungarian Oxen growing leane with driving farre, 
- and finding in Italy no Pastures wherein they may be 
'. fatted, this makes Italians basely to esteeme of Beefe. 
Out of Lombardy the Italians have few or no Catle, all 
" Italy being like a most pleasant G,a.rden, and having few 
Pastures: And this makes the Italians so tender towards 
the few Cattle they have, as for feare of cold forsooth 
in that hot Clime, they leade them into stables, when 
they are to bring forth their young. In the tlaine 
Countrey of Lombardy they use Horses, and especially 
Mares, (of an exceeding little race) to ride upon, and 
:. for bearing of burthens; and Oxen to draw Carts, and 
.. sometimes Caroches, (vulgarly Carozzi): but in the 
L Mountaines and hilly Countries they use Asses and 
Mules, seldome Horses to ride upon, and for burthens. 
In the Roman territory I have seene many Beasts called 
Buffoli, like Oxen, but greater and more deformed, having Btli. 
great hornes with foule nostrels cast up into the Ayre: 
::. It is a slow and dull Beast, yet being provoked, hath 
:? malice enough, and the backe thereof is commonly bare 
of haire, and ever almost galled. They eate not the 
:.. flesh thereof, but trade vith the hides, as with those of 
:.-. Oxen, and this beast is held commodious for Husbandry 
.- and patient of labour. They have no race of Horses 
-r for beauty or service, but onely in the Kingdome of 
i Naples. Asses are commonly sold for c crownes a peece, 
 and a Mule for 5c or 6c gold crownes, which Beasts are 
onely used in all Italy, excepting onely Lombardy. Of 
.: the Mule I observed, that he will goe under a heavy [III. ii. o9. ] 

6o5- 7. 



burthen from day-breake in Summer, to darke night, 
without any bating or rest by the way, onely his meate 
is tied in a net before his mouth, so as he eates while he 
goes, and his pace is slow, and when his burthen is taken 
off at night, he tumbles and rubs his backe in the dust 
to coole it, and is thereby more refreshed from wearinesse, 
then a Horse can be with lying halfe the night, otherwise 
he lies not downe in the stable scarcely once in sixe 
moneths. A Mule is begotten betweene a Horse & a shee 
Asse, but a Mule mounting a she Mule, an Asse, 
or any beast whatsoever, doth never ingender of them, 
and the heate of his seed is yeelded for cause thereof. 
Narrow Italy cannot beare red or fallow I)eare, onely the 
woods of Toscany yeeld some few wild Boares, which are 
preserved for the great Dukes game, otherwise a few wild 
beasts might soone make great spoile in so rich and well 
tilled fields, as be these of Italy. 
The hils and mountaines thereof lying upon the South 
Sunne, are in generall most fertile or fruitfull of all other, 
such are the fields and hils of the Neapolitane territory, 
such are the mom:aines and hils of Liguria, lying upon 
the Tyrrhene Sea, such is the territory about the Lake 
of Gardo, (vulgarly I1 lago di Gardo) lying at the feete 
of the South-side of the Alpes. The fields of Lombardy 
are lesse happy in yeelding fruites, but give excellent 
pasture and corne, where the Husbandman makes use of 
the very furrowes betweene the Akers, for as in the Aker 
he soweth Corne, so in the furrowes he plants Elme 
Trees, the loppings whereof serve him to burne, and 
likewise plants Vines, which shoote up in height upon 
the bodies of those trees, but these vines yeeld but a small 
wine, by reason they grow so high, and in a plaine 
Country. In the upper part of Italy, they plant in one 
and the same field, Olive and Almond trees, and under 
them sow Corne, and in the furrowes plant Vines, which 
shoote up, resting uppon sfiort stakes, and yeeld strong 
wine of divers sorts, because they grow not high, and 
the ground being hilly, hath more benefit from the Sunne 


beating upon it. The soyle of Toscany being hilly and 
stony, seemed to me at the first sight to be barren, but 
after I found it not onely to yeeld fruites plentifully, 
but also good increase of Corne, as of one measure sowed, 
commonly eight or ten measures, often fourteene, and 
sometimes twenty five ; neither doe they give the ground 
rest by laying it fallow, as we doe, but each second yeere 
they sow part of it with Beanes and Pulse, yeelding plenti- 
full increase, and then burying the stubble to rot in the 
ground, make it thereby fat to beare wheate againe. My 
selfe observed, that at the foot of the South-side of the 
Alpes, they gather Wheate and Rie in the moneth of 
June, and then sow the same fields with lighter kinds of 
Graine, which they gather in the moneth of October: 
yet by reason of the multitude of the people, and the 
narrownesse of the Land, the Italians not onely carry not 
any grane into forraigne parts, but also the Merchants 
bringing grane to them, are cherished by the Princes, 
with faire words and rewards, that they may come againe, 
more specially by the Duke of Florence, who takes care 
to provide for his Countrey, not onely grane from Sicily 
and all other parts, but also sheepe out of Lombardy, 
which he devides among his Subjects, at what price he list, 
taking this charge upon him to see that his people want 
not victuals, as wel for the publike good, as his owne 
great gaine. Italy yeelds plenty of Oranges, which Tree 
is most pleasant to behold, yeelding fruit three times each 
yeere, and bearing at one time ripe and greene Oranges, 
and buds. They have like plenty of Citron, Limon, and 
Cedar trees, which in Lombardy grow upon the bricke 
wals of Gardens, as Vines doe with us, and are kept in 
earthen vessels, but upon the mountaines and hils of upper 
Italy, the fields abound with these Trees, which both in 
body and fruit are as bigge as our Apple-trees, and they 
transport great store of these fruites into forraigne parts. 
There be many woods of Chesnuts, which they little 
esteeme, onely poore people eating them, and with the 
rest they feed Hogges, as with Acornes. The Chesnut 


[III. ii. , o.] 


tree is not unlike the Oake tree, but that it is more 
small, high, and straight. There be some woods of Pine 
trees, which are high, without any boughs or leaves to 
the very top, where they have a round tuft, and they 
beare at one time the fruit of three yeeres, one pine 
Apple round and sharpe at the top, having some hundreth 
or more knobs like hasell nuts, in which knob the kernell 
is of little bignesse, but of such vertue to provoke wanton- 
hesse, as they serve it at all feasts. All the fields are full 
of figtrees, not small as with us, but as big in the body 
as some Appel-trees, and they have broad leaves. The 
fruite hath the forme of a long peare, and a blacke skinne, 
and a red juyce, being to be sucked like sugar in taste. 
Neither doe I thinke any fruite to bee more pleasant 
then this pulled from the tree, I say pulled from the 
tree, because the drie figges exported, are not in taste 
comparable thereunto. In the fields of upper Italy 
are great plenty of Almond trees, so as you would say, 
that a whole Province is but one Garden. Like plenty 
have they of Olive trees, which yeeld a sweet oyle, 
used by them in stead of butter, and in forraigne 
parts for wholsomnesse, yet I cannot think that it can be 
wholesome when it is heated, as the Italians use it to fry 
meates. They have some, but not so great plenty of 
Pomegranates, which tree is not unlike that of the white 
Rose, but the leaves are little, and the flovers and the 
buds of a red colour. The Husbandmen make ditches 
about the rootes of all these fruite trees, and the 
inhabitants of pleasant Italy are notable in all kind of 
Husbandrie. The Cypresse, Pople, and Oake trees, grow 
in many places, but are little esteemed, as bearing no 
fruite. Italy upon the Hilles and Mountaines lying 
towards the Sunne, yeelds rich Wines, and very nourish- 
ing, yet some out of experience say, they are not wholsome 
for fat men, as causing obstructions, and hindring the 
passage of the urine, and other evacuations: but I am 
sure they are more pleasant in taste, then any other wine 
whatsoever brought into England that ever I tasted. 


But of all the kinds of Wine to be named in my following 
discourse, I have spoken more at large in the first Part, 
writing my journall through Ytaly. 
I have seene Pease, Attichokes, cloved Gilly flowers, 
and other flowers of the best kinds, sold in the Market- 
place of Saint Marke in Venice all the moneth of Feb- 
ruarie, but they had not the odoriferous smell of Summer 
flowers. Also at Genoa in the moneth of December, I 
did see the same flowers and fi'uits sold, and many of 
them for one bolineo, yea the flowers were odoriferous 
in smell, and newly gathered, which made me thinke, that 
those I did see at Venice, were preserved by Art, and 
not newly" gathered. And they of Genoa acknowledge, 
that they learned the art to make flowers grow in Winter, 
of Cowes by" chance nipping of some budds in Summer, 
which they observed to bud and put forth agaire in 
Winter: for the Gardners upon this observation, did 
themselves nip of some buds newly put forth in Summer, 
and forbearing to water that roote all Summer time, did 
upon approch of Winter digge about the roote, and sow 
cloves about it, to make the Winter flowers have the 
better smell, and then covering the roote with earth, began 
daily" to water it, and with this Art sooner or later used, 
they make the earth yeeld Roses, or any flowers in what 
moneth of the yeere they will, so that the ground lye 
upon the South Sunne, and fenced from cold windes. 
The Gulfe of Venice affoards fishing to serve that City 
in good plenty, the Sea of Rome affoards lesse, and that 
of Genoa none at all. But in the Sea of Genoa neare 
the Ilands Sardinia and Corsica, they fish Corals, sold at 
Genoa for three lyres the ownce. In the markets at 
Venice they" have great oysters, but in no great plenty, 
and divers kinds of shell-fish, as Cockles, Scalops, and 
Rasers, called in the Italian tongue Cape tonde, (round 
Cape) Cape Sante (holy Cape) and Cape longe (long Cape), 
and these they have in more plenty, then in most parts 
of England : but the Oysters are very deare, some twenty 
for a lyre ; and I doe not remember to have seene shelfish 

Tte traflicl. 

8ilk warmes. 


in any other City of Italy, but onely in Venice. Neither 
have the Italians any store of fresh-water fish, so as most 
of their Markets are furnished in very Lent-time with 
salted and dried fishes, or at least newly dead, which the 
Germans cannot indure, using to see them alive before 
they will eate them. They have at certaine times of the 
yeere reasonable plentie of birds, but not great in number 
or variety of kinds, but Hens, and especially those of 
Turkey or the Indies seeme more plentifully served in 
the Markets, because the common sort feedes onely upon 
rootes, divers kinds of pulse, hearbs, and small meates 
dried or salted. I remember not to have seene any 
Storkes in Italy, no not in the free Cities and States, 
where fabulous Writers say, they most willingly live, as 
under more just Lords and Governours. The Italian 
Gentlemen much delight in the art to catch birds, and 
in Gardens fitted to that purpose, with nets, bushes and 
glades, sparing no cost or industrie in that kind. 
Not onely the Gentlemen, but even the Princes of 
Italy openly professe to be Merchants (which our men, 
with leave may I say, foolishly disdaine) and onely permit 
the retailing of their goods to men of inferiour sort, 
keeping all trade in grosse or whole sale to themselves, 
or at least by their treasures (commonly great) and 
authoritie (such as it is) drawing the chiefe profit thereof 
into their owne purses. And by this course they keepe 
the Patrimonies discending from their Ancestors, and daily 
increase them (while our Gentlemen p.rodigall in expence, 
and ashamed to make honest gane, destroy their 
Families.) But of all trades, they are most inriched by 
silke and clothes made of it, especially they of Florence 
and Lucca, where the Gentlemen for exercise of this trade, 
keepe open shops. 
The Silke-wormes are vulgarly called Farfalli, which 
infold themselves in a piece of silk they weave of an 
ovall forme and yellow color, and some of them so 
infolded, are let out for preservation of the kind, by 
clipping that piece of silke they weaved ; the other pieces 


The Greekes 

[III. ii.  I3. ] 


bouring shoares, and every night put into some Haven 
or Baye. The Italians are so much inamored of their 
owne land, as they desire to see no other soyle, and abhorre 
from venturing themselves at Sea, so as they seldome 
prove expert in Navigation, never bold. The Venetians 
have a Law, that every ship shall carry a young Gentleman 
of Venice in it, allowing him diet and a stipend, and also 
shall bring up a Venetian boy in it. Thus their wise 
Progenitors tooke care, that neither Gentlemen, nor the 
inferiour sort should be ignorant in Navigation. But 
the Gentlemen at this day so they may have the benefit 
of the Law, by receiving the stipend and the value of 
their diet for the Voyage, care not for the experience, 
and rather desire to stay at home, then trouble the ship 
any further. And for this cause the Venetians altogether 
use Greekes aswell for common Marriners as for Officers 
and Masters of their ships. And these Greekes (as I 
have often found by experience) except they can see the 
shoare (which by reason of the narrownesse of the Sea, 
and frequent Iles, may often be seene), are often in doubt, 
sometimes ignorant where they are, and the least storme 
arrising, make such a noise and confusion, as they bewray 
their ignorance and want of courage. Our English ships 
comming forth of the Harbour of Venice together with 
a Venetian ship, will saile into Syria and returne backe 
againe, before the Venetian ship can come thither. 
Whereof two reasons may be given. One that the 
English Marriners are paide by the voyage, not by the 
dayes or moneths of absence, contrarily the Greekes are 
paide by the Italians after the dayes of absence not alter 
the voyage. The other reason is, that not onely the 
Italian ships are huge and great and slow of saile, but 
also the Masters, upon the first change of wind, or fore- 
seeing of ill weather, either for feare, or because they 
are paid by the day not by the voyage, presently put into 
some Haven, whence commonly they cannot come forth, 
but with one or very few windes, whereas the English 
on the contrary have not onlie nimble swift ships, but 
9 2 

4 paradox. 

[III. ii., 4-] 


any, they make them sumptuous, and that much more 
then ours, alwaies making the comparison equal of one 
degree against the other. And this is most certaine, that 
they infinitely passe us in the expences about their 
Gardens, in fitting places for birding, in drawing water 
to them, and adorning the Conduits head with Imagry, 
in Chapels, and other buildings, of which thins some 
yeeld them ffuite, the other last perpetually: for they 
bestow their money in stable things, to serve their pos- 
teritie, where as our greatest expences end in the casting 
out of excrements, which makes me lesse commend our 
expences in great provisions of meate, as well at feasts 
as daily diet. 
And give me leave to hold this paradox, or opinion 
against that of the common sort; that the English were 
never more idle, never more ignorant in manuall Arts, 
never more factious in following the parties of Princes or 
their Landlords, never more base (as I may say) trencher 
slaves, then in that age, wherein great men keept open 
houses for all commers and goers. And that in our age, 
wherein we have better learned each man to live of his 
owne, and great men keepe not such troopes of idle ser- 
vants, not onely the English are become very industrious, 
and skilfull in manuall Artes, but also the tyranny of 
Lords and Gentlemen is abated, wherby they nourished 
private dissentions and civill Warres, with the destruction 
of the common people. Neither am I moved with the 
vulgar opinion, preferring old times to ours, because it 
is apparant, that the Cloysters of Monkes (who spoiled 
all, that they might bee beneficiall to few), and Gentle- 
mens houses (who nourished a rabble of servants in 
idlenesse, and in robbing by the high waies) lying open 
to all idle people for meate and drinke, were cause of 
greater ill then good to the Commonwealth. Yet I would 
not bee so understood, as if I would have the poore shut 
out of dores, for I rather desire, that greater workes of 
charitie should be exercised towards them, to which wee 
should bee more inabled by honest frugalitie, then by 


foolish prodigalitie ; I call it foolish, and thinke the vulgar 
sort of prodigals worthy of all ignominy, who with huge 
expences keepe many kennels of dogs, and casts of 
hawkes, and entertaine great numbers of strangers, some- 
times not knowne by name, often scoffing at the 
entertainer, alwaies ingratefull, and so not only use them 
to live unlawfully without labour or sweate of their 
browes, but also in the meane time themselves will have 
a brother for their Buttler, and are so niggardly towards 
their kinsmen, yea, children and wives, as they provide 
not necessaries for them, and have no care of their 
advancement, education, and meanes to live, but preferre 
vaine-glory before these religious cares. How much 
better were it for these prodigall men to lay aside some 
good part of their revenue to nourish learned men, to 
procure good Preachers for their companions and guides, 
to relieve vertuous men in their wants, and to spend the 
same to like noble and princely ends. 
But I returne to my purpose. A stranger may live 
in Italy with lesse expence, then in Germany, where he 
must beare the charge of his consorts excessive drinking. 
And if any object the dearth of victuals, and wickednesse 
of Hosts in Italy, he shal find, that this is his owne want, 
not any ill of the Country ; and when he hath experience 
to do his owne affaires there, he will be of my opinion. 
The Italians have small moneys of brasse, and for the 
least of them a man may buy bread, little papers of spice, 
or any such thing that is to be sold. These small moneys, 
the aboundance of people in a narrow land, and the 
common peoples poverty, but most of all their innated 
pride, such as they had rather starve for want, then beg, 
these things make them doe any service for a stranger 
for a small reward, and make the passages of Rivers, or 
Channells (as at Venice), and all necessaries, to be 
affoorded for a small piece of money. Neither is it a 
small commoditie of these little brasse moneys, that it 
makes the meaner sort more ready to give almes. This 
benefit the English may well know by the want of like 

Living good 


The gentlemen 
of Fenice 
frequent the 


moneys, whereby the hire of Porters, all rewards and each 
alines being given in silver money, and the small pieces 
thereof being rare, all expences are much increased. The 
women of Italy know not the price of any thing, or ever 
goe to Markets (scarce are allowed to go to Church) 
neither do they trust their servants to make their market, 
but the richest of all Italy, and most noble (especially in 
Ve!fice) daily buy their owne victuals and other neces- 
saries. And in all Market-places stand little boyes with 
baskets, to carry any thing that is bought to their houses, 
which they easily find, knowing all streetes and allyes, 
and never faile to performe this honestly, though the 
buyer leave them, and (according to their custome) goe 
about his other affaires; for if they should fayle, they 
cannot escape punishment, being easily to be found in 
the Markets where they use daily to stand, and well 
knowne by fhce and name. Yet in truth the Italians dyer 
is so sparing, as almost strangers alone use these little 
Porters, and the very Gentlemen of Venice (which not- 
withstanding arrogate to themselves a preheminence above 
all Gentlemen of Italy with the singular title of 
Clarissimi), carry home what they buy to eate, either in 
the sleeves of their gownes, or in a cleane handkercher. 
They spend much bread and oyle, and the very Porters 
feede on most pure white bread, almost without any other 
meat, except it be some roots. And those that are richer, 
do for the most part feede on bread, neither remember I 
to have ever seene brown bread in Italy, only they eate 
sallets of hearbs with their bread, and mingle them with 
oyle. And I remember that I saw a barrell of oyle sold 
for twenty lyres, and a bushell of Wheate (containing 
forty eight measures, called Sata by the Latines, & used 
by the Hebrews) for _c lyres, but the very Gentlemen 
buy their bread of the Bakers. Many times, especially 
in short dayes of Winter, they will breake their fasts 
with a bit of cake-bread or sweet bread (called vulgarly 
pasta reale, ciambolini, and generally Gentilezze), and a 
cup of sweete Wine, and so abstaine from dinner. 

Of their 
lllan?ler of 


their fishing at Sea, and their shell-fishes (which they 
much esteeme), and Sea-fishes are indeed rarely found, 
but onely at Venice. Also they have little store of fresh- 
water fish, onely there is great aboundance of eeles, where 
the River Po endes in a Lake, neere the Adriatick Sea, in 
the Dukedome of Feraria. The upper parts of Italy 
yeeld the same things, but in a farre lesse quantity, and 
in Toscany they frequently eate young Goates flesh, which 
is very good and savory, and sometimes there will be 
wild Bores to be sold, and they delight much in fresh 
curds newly pressed, and made into little cheeses. The 
Italians sell al kinds of flesh in little pieces, and all things 
for diet in little portions, that the meaner sort, if they 
list, may at least taste the greatest dainties. The inner 
parts of Goates (vulgarly Animale), and the stones of 
Rammes and Regles, (vulgarly Granella), are esteemed 
great dainties, especially in Toscany, which we cast away, 
being very good meate fried. And because the land is 
more populous then plentifull in victuals, they eate layes 
and other birdes, which we esteeme unwholsome. 
In generall the Italians, and more specially the Floren- 
tines, are most neate at the Table, and in their Innes from 
morning to night the Tables are spread with white 
cloathes, strewed with flowers and figge leaves, with 
Ingestars or glasses of divers coloured wines set upon 
them, and delicate fruits, which would invite a Man to 
eat and drink, who otherwise hath no appetite, being all 
open to the sight of passengers as they ride by the high 
way, through their great unglased windowes. At the 
Table, they touch no meate with the hand, but with a 
forke of silver or other mettall, each man being served 
with his forke and spoone, and glasse to drinke. And 
as they serve small peeces of flesh, (not whole joints as 
with us), so these peeces are cut into small bits, to be 
taken up with the forke, and they seeth the flesh till it 
be very tender. In Summer time, they set a broad earthen 
vessel full of water upon the Table, wherein little glasses 
filled with wine doe swimme for coolenesse. They use 
9 8 


could not have a hen or flesh if hee listed for want of 
money. To conclude, they hold it no honour or disgrace 
to live plentifully or sparingly, so they live of their owne, 
and be not in debt, for in that case they are esteemed 
slaves. Thus living of their owne, they give due honour 
to superiours, so they returne due respect to them, other- 
wise they dispise him that is richer, saying in scorne, Let 
him dine twise a day, and weare two gounes if he will, 
it is enough for mee to have convenient diet and apparrell. 
They have a very delicate sauce for rosted meat, es, called 
Savore, made of slices of bread, steeped in broath, with 
as many Walnuts, and some few leaves of Marjoram, 
beaten in a morter, and mingled therewith, together with 
the juyce of Gooseberries, or some sharpe liquor put in 
when it is set on the table. 
In some Cities and Universities, especially for the 
Germans sojourning there, and unwilling to buy their 
owne meate, they have ordinary tables to be paid by the 
weeke or moneth, at the rate of some eight or ten Crownes 
the moneth, which living they call a la dozina (that is, 
by dosens or by the great); but it is much more com- 
modious for him that hath some experience and skill in 
the tongue, to buy his owne meat, since in Camere locande 
(that is, hired chambers) the Hostesse at a reasonable 
rate of the chamber, is tied to dresse his meate, and give 
him napkins with like necessaries, and there wants not 
good commoditie to buy al things he wants, and to live 
cheapely, as I have shewed in the expences of my journies 
through Italy. 
The Italian Hosts are notable in fawning and crouching 
for gaine, so as they meete passengers at the Cities gates, 
and emulously invite them to their houses, with promise 
of all dainties, as if they would give them for nought, 
but when they are once come into the houses, all things 
threaten famine, and for that meate they have, if the 
passenger first agree not for the price, they extort so 
unreasonably, as nothing can bee added to their perfidious- 
nesse and covetousnesse. The Germans say, these are 


Of the 
of Italy. 


part are troubled with an itch, witnesse the frequent cry 
in their streetes of Unguento per la rogna, Ointment 
for the Itch. I formerly said that a passenger needs have 
no care of his Horse by the way, for it is the custome 
to agree for their meate as well as hire with the Vetturines, 
(so they call those that let Horses, and g.oe on foot or 
send a servant to meate them): But since the same 
Vetturines will also offer a passenger to agree with him 
in like sort for his owne diet, surely (as I have said in 
the Chapter of the manner to take journies) the passenger 
is in ill case, that is dieted by them, neither would I 
advise any so to doe, except onely in the way from Rome 
to Naples and backe againe, where a passenger in such 
a tumultuary journey, and by reason of that old custome, 
should otherwise be worse entreated. Lastly, a passenger 
shall doe wisely, especially at night to goe to the best 
Inne and of most fame, that he may be more safe from 
the fosse of his money or hazard of his life. 
The Italians hold it a great shame to be drunken, they 
sometimes salute one another with a cup, in manner of 
a health, but leave it to his pleasure when he will pledge 
them, and then he salutes him that drunke to him, as 
well as him to whom he drinkes, saying; Faccio ragione 
a vos' signoria, brindisi a vos Signoria. Sir I pledge you, 
and I drink to you Sir. The word Brindisi comes of the 
Dutch phrase, Ich brings euch, I will bring it to you, 
used when they drinke to any man, and this shewes the 
custome is borrowed from the Germans, and used by the 
obsequious Italians to please them, yet abhorring from 
drunkennesse, so pleasing to the Germans. 
Italy yeeldes excellent Wines, and the common red 
wine is held very nourishing, so as the fairest Weomen 
will dine with the same, and a sop of bread dipped in 
it, thinking it will make them fat, (which kind of Women 
the Venetians most love, all things else being equall), 
yea, and more faire: So as they Proverbially say; Chi 
beve bianco, piscia bianco, a chi beve rosso, avanza il 
colore. He that drinkes white, pisses white, he that 


drinkes red, gaines the colour: These are the most 
famous Wines of Italy. La lagrima di Christo, (the teare 
of Christ) and like wines neere Cinqueterre in Liguria: 
La vernaza, and the white Muskadine, especially that of 
Montefiaschoni in Toscany: Cecubum and Falernum in 
the Kingdome of Naples, and Prosecho in Histria. In 
generall the grapes that grow high upon Elme-trees in 
the plaine, as in Lombardy, & especially the grapes of 
Modena, yeeld very small Wines, but those that grow 
upon hils and mountaines, resting on short stakes, yeeld 
very rich Wines. In the shops where they sell Muska- 
dines, there be continually boyes attending with little 
wigges of sweete bread and Junkets, which the Italians 
dip in the wine; and having thus broke their fasts in 
winter time, they commonly eate no more till supper. 


IO 3 

[The Third Booke 

[IlI.iii.  8.] 


Chap. I. 
Of the Geographicall description of Turkey, the 
Situation, Fertility, Trafficke, and Diet. 
He Longitude of Turkey extends fifty 
five degrees and a halfe, from the meridian 
of forty foure degrees and a halfe, to that 
of an hundred degrees, and the Latitude 
extends forty degrees from the Paralell 
of tenne degrees, to that of fifty degrees. 
The Provinces of this Empire in Europe, 
are thus numbred. Illyris, Albania, Epirus, Gra,'cia, 
Macedonia, Thessalia, Thracia, Mysia, Dacia (or Transil- 
vania), Hungaria, and the Ilands under him, that lie in 
I Illyris a part of Sclavonia, is subject partly to the 
Turkes, partly to the House of Austria ; the chiefe Cities 
whereof are Zara, (which together with the territory 
thereof, the Turkes tooke from the Venetians; the rest 
of the Province being still subject to the House of 
Austria) : and Scordona, lying upon the Sea, as doth the 
former City and all the Province. Also Croatia vulgarly 
Cranaten, and of old called Liburnia, belongs to this 
Province.  Albania hath these knowne Cities, Dir- 
achium, (vulgarly Dorazzo, of old called Epidaurus), 
and Vallona. 3 Epirus hath these Townes Chimera, 
Meiandria, Butrinto, Cestrina, and Nicopolis. Of old 
part of Epirus was called Acarnania. Of the roiall blood 


of this Province was Alexander Scanderbeg, who brought 
up in the Great Turkes Court, and upon occasion falling 
from him, did so much trouble that vast Empire. 
4 Graecia was of old divided into Peloponesus and c,,'ria. 
Helles. P.eloponesus, of old called Aiggealia, Ap.pia,.and 
Pelasgia, s at this day named Morea, and t is a 
Chersonesus, that is a necke of Land almost an Iland 
onely joined to the continent with an Isthmus that is 
a narrow peece of Land. The rest is compassed with 
the Sea, and was of old divided into Sutionium (which 
hath the Cities Sution and Carinthus); Argolis (which 
hath the Cities Argos and Neapolis), Achaia or Ells, 
(whereof the chiefe City was Elis); and Arcadia (whose 
chiefe Townes are Psosis and Arcomenus.) And here 
the River Emaus, or Erimanthus, springeth, and joyning 
with the Brooke Alpheus, fals into the gulfe of Arcadia. 
Also the River luachus springs in the Mountaine 
Parthenius, and fals into the guile of Neapolis. More- 
: over Peloponesus hath a fifth Province called Lacedemonia 
..- or Laconia, (whereof the chiefe City was Lacedemon or 
:: Sparta, most famous of old). The sixth Province is 
Messena, in which is the City Metona now called Modon. 
i The straight necke of Land joy,ling Peloponesus to the 
Continent, was against the Turkes fortified with a wall 
by the Christians, but the Turkes cast downe the wall, 
and tooke all the Province. Helles or Achaia, the second 
i, Province of Greece, containes Attica, Megaris, Boetia, 
- Phocis, Regio Locrorum, and ]Etolia. Attica is more 
.-:. famous then the rest, in which was the famous City 
..: Athens. Megaris is a small Region, the chiefe City 
whereof was Megaria, in which Euclides was borne. 
Boetia is a very large Region, so called of an Oxe leading 
Cadmus thither, who built the Boetian Thebes, so called 
for difference from nine other Cities called Thebes. The 
Mountaines Thermopule, derived from the Mountaines 
Acroceraunii, lying upon Epirus, devide Greece from the 
: West to the East, (as the Apennine divides Italy), and [lll. iii.9. ] 
the famous mountaines Otris Pelion and Ossa, are parts 
IO 5 



thereof. Of old Aulis was a famous City of Boetia, in 
which Iphigenia Daughter to Agamemnon was sacrificed. 
Phocis is a small Region, the townes whereof were Elatea, 
a,ld Delphis seated at the foot of the Mountaine Par- 
nassus, having the Temple of Apollo, not in the Towne, 
but upon a Rocke of the Mountaine, where springs the 
Castalia,, Fountaine, sacred to the Muses, and the Mount 
Helicon lies neere the same. The Region of the Locri 
is small, and the chiefe City is now called Lepanto. Of 
old a people called Pieres, comming out of Thrace, dwelt 
under Parnassus, of whom it was called the Pierian 
Mou,,taine, and the Muses were called Pierides. Doris 
pertaines to the Region of the Locri, and the chiefe City 
is Doricum, whence came the Doric Dialect. The last 
Province of Helles a,,d of all Greece, is/Etolia, devided 
fiom Epirus by the River Achelons, falling from the 
Mount Pindus, and the chiefe Townes thereof are, 
Naupactus, now called Lepanto, neere the gulfe whereof, 
the Christian Navy under the command of Don Juan of 
Austria, gave a famous overthrow to the Turkish Navy 
in our Age. The other City is called Chaledon, whence 
was the Chaledonian Boare, sung of the Poets. 
5 The fifth Province of Turky is Macedonia, of old 
called Migdonia, and Emathea, the chiefe City whereof 
is Thessalonica, vulgarly now called Saloniche, to the 
Citizens wherof S. Paul wrote his Epistle. The Moun- 
tains of this Province Olimpus Pelion Ossa, are famous 
by the fables of the Giants, & Athos is fained to passe 
the clouds with his top. 6 The lower part of Macedonia 
is called Thessalia, or Agmonia, of Thessalus the son of 
/Emon, (or as others say of Jason) the chiefe Towne 
whereof was Pharsalos, whose fields are famous by the 
victory of Cesar against Pompey. 7 Thracia hath faire 
Cities, Trimontium (of old called Poneropolis and Philip- 
popolis), Adrianopolis, and the head City Constantinopolis, 
(of old called Bysantium, now Stambol) seated upon the 
Bosphorus of Thracia. It hath famous Mountaines, 
Rhodope, Mela and Ismarus: Upon Propontis the 


Thracian Chersonesus (or necke of Land) lies upon the 
Hellespont, in which are the Townes Sesto and Callipolis. 
8 The upper Misia is devided into three parts, Rascia, 
Bosnia and Servia, and the lower Misia into three parts, 
Bulgaria, Wallachia and Moldavia. In Bulgaria the 
River Danubius beginnes to be called Isther, which fals 
into the Euxine Sea, with foure strong and three lesser 
channels. 9 Dacia or Transilvania, was of old possessed 
by the Saxons, who there built seven Cities or Castles, 
of which the Province is called Septem-Castrensis, vul- 
garly Sieben burgen, and of old it belonged to the 
Kingdome of Hungary, but at this day is tributary to 
the Turks. xo Hungaria so called of the people Hunni, 
was of old called Pannonia the lower, and of right belongs 
to the German Emperour, but of late the "Iurkes have 
subdued the greater part thereof. It hath many and 
strongly fortified Cities, as Debrezinum, Varadinum, 
Segedinum (vulgarly Seget); Castrum (taken by the 
Turkes) Strigonium vulgarly Gran (taken by the Turkes 
in the yeere 543) Alba Regalis (at that time also taken 
by them) Qinquecclesie (the seate of the Bishop) Buda 
seated upon the Danow; (twice or thrice taken and 
regained on both sides, of old the Kings seate) called 
vulgarly Often, and Pesta (seated on the other side of 
Danow) vulgarly called New often. The Hungarian 
Nation yeelds to none in strength and courage, not unlike 
the Scithians in language and manners, x x The Ilands 
of Europe, in the Ionian Sea are these, Corcira (vulgarly 
Corfu) Cephalonia, and Zaintos, (in Latin Zazinthus, 
vulgarly now called Zante); all three subject to the 
Venetians. All the Ilands in the/Egean Sea, are subject 
to the Turke, being innumerable, among them are the 
Cyclades, so called because they lie round together, the 
chiefe whereof are Cytnos, Cyphnos, (vulgarly Sifano); 
Parus (now called Paris, famous for the Marble), Tenos 
(now called Tenasa), Naxus, Andros, and Delos the chiefe 
of all, where Apollo and Diana were borne. Next them, 
are the Sporades, so called of lying dispersed, among 
IO 7 


I605-I 7. 

[Ill. iii.s z.] 


furthest bosome of the Mediterranean Sea, or Iccian 
Gulfe, where Alexander the Great overcame Darius, and 
there is Tarsus, now called Bias, in which Towne Saint 
Paul was borne.  5 Armenia the lesser, is thought by 
some to be the Land Ararat, upon the Mountaines 
whereof the Arke of Noah rested after the deluge. 
Under this Province some comprehend I6 Chomagena, 
being ful of Mountaines, and confining upon Asia the 
lesser towards the East. 
The Geographers divide Asia the greater into five parts, 
according unto five Empires, the first of the Duke of 
Moscovia, the second of great Cham over the Tartars, 
the third of the Persian King, the fourth of divers Indian 
Kings, the fifth of Ottomon over the Turkes. And this 
last onely belongs to my purpose, therefore omitting the 
rest, I will speake of it. The great Turke hath these 
Provinces in Asia the greater, namely, Syria, Arabia, 
Babylonia, Chaldea, Assyria, and divers Ilands. 
I. Siria is vulgarly called Sorya, and containes Palestina, 
Phenitia, Celosyria, Damascena, Sirophenitia, (and as 
some account) Mesopotamia. Palestina of old called 
Canaan, is subdevided into Idumea, Judaea, Samaria, 
Galilea. Idumea of old called Edom, is not unfertil, 
and abounds with Palme-trees, but where it confines upon 
Arabia, is said to bee barren, and there are the Mountaines 
called Sur in Scriptures. It had these chiefe Cities of old, 
Maresa, Ascalon, Asotos. Judea is the second Province 
of Palestina, so called of the Tribe of Juda, and Jerusalem 
the chiefe City thereof is at this day called Chutz. The 
most famous places therof are Bethlehem, Bethania, 
Mount Olivet, Jerico, Joppe where S. Peter raised Dorcas 
fi'om the dead,) Lydda (where he healed the man sicke of 
the Palsie,) Arimathia (where Joseph was borne), and 
Hebron (where Saray the wife of Abraham and foure 
Patriarkes lye buried), The Hebrewes say, that the vally 
called Sittim by Moses, was most fertill, where now is 
the Lake Asphaltis, and in this valley stood Sodom and 
Gomora. Beyond Jordan is the desart of Betabora, where 


[III.iii.  22.] 


of Qinces, Figges, Almonds, and Damasco Prunes. 
Sirophenitia the fifth part of Syria, hath these Cities, 
Beritum (of old called happy Julia) Biblus, Tripolis, 
Laodicia, Antiochia (of old called Reblatha) which after 
it had beene decaied by a great Earthquake, was rebuilt 
by the Emperour Justinian and called Theopolis, a famous 
City in which the Professours formerly called Disciples, 
first had the name of Christians, and Histories testifie 
that Saint Peter was the first Bishop thereof. Mesopo- 
tamia the last part of Syria, is so called as lying betweene 
two Rivers, swift Tygris (so called of the swiftnesse, 
Tygris in the Medes tongue signifyinR an Arrow) and 
Euphrates. And by the yeerely overflowing of these 
Rivers after the Solstice (as Egypt by that of Nilus) the 
soyle is made most fertile, whereof Writers report 
wonders, namely that one measure sowed, yeeldes fifty 
and in some places sixty measures, and that plants per- 
petually flourish there, yet that the inner parts want water, 
so as the Inhabitants finding a spring, use to keepe it 
secret, that it may not be knowne to their enemies. At 
this day the Turkes call this Province Diarbecke, the 
Cities whereof are Edessa and Carra (which Moses in the 
twelfth Chapter of Genesis cals Haram) where Abraham 
dwelt when hee came out of Chaldea. 
2 Arabia is the second part of the Turkish Empire in 
Asia the greater, which is subdevided into Petrea (rocky), 
desert, and happy Arabia. The Israelites lived forty 
yeeres in rocky Arabia, being full of Mountaines and 
barren, whereof proceeded their murmurings. There is 
famous Mount Sinay, upon which Gods Law was pub- 
lished, and over against it Mount Horeb. In Sinay is 
the Region Nabathea, and the City thereof Petra (after 
called Arech) is in the Scriptures called Petra of the desart, 
and neere it lies the Region Agra or Agara, the Inhabitants 
whereof were called Agarens, as comming of Hagar 
Concubine to Abraham. Desert Arabia is barren, 
destitute of waters and covered with deepe sand, the 
Inhabitants whereof doe live in Tents, having no certaine 

The Ilands 

[III. iii.* z3.] 


built by Assur) and Aruela (famous by the victory of 
Alexander the Great against Darius the Persian King.) 
6 The Ilands of Asia are the sixth part of the Turkish 
Empire in Asia the greater, and they lie either in the 
Mediterranean Sea, or m the Archipelagus, or in the 
Indian Seas. In the Mediterranean Sea, lies Candia (of 
old called Creta) famous of old for having one hundred 
Cities, and by the labyrinth of Daedalus, and it was called 
Creta of the Earths whitenesse, from whence Meat 
quantity of Muskadine Wines are exported into divers 
parts of Europe, and it is subject to the State of Venice. 
Rhodes lieth in the same Sea, and was of old famous 
for the residence of the Knights of Hierusalem, but 
at this day is possessed by the Turkes driving out 
those Knights, (who now have their residence in 
Malta an Iland, neere that of Sicily). Cyprus is an 
Iland in the same Sea, and is most fertile, yeelding Canes 
of Hony, whence Suger is made, and rich Wines, 
and abounding with many things required for life and 
for pleasure, and this Iland the Turks in the last Age 
took from the Venetians by force of Armes, the chiefe 
Cities whereof are Famagosta and Nicosia. The Archi- 
pelagus hath innumerable Ilands, whereof the principall 
and most fruitfull are, Tenedos (small in circuit) but 
famous by the Navy of the Greekes harbouring there at 
the siege of Troy) Lesbos, Lemnos, Mitelene, (at this 
day called Metalon of the chiefe City); Samnus of old 
called Sicania, (where Hypocrates was borne) and Chios 
(now called Zio) more esteemed then any of the rest, for 
the Marble, Malmesey wine, Masticke, (the juyce or 
gumme of the tree called Lentiscus), and no lesse for the 
many rich commodities it yeelds, then for the goodnes 
and largenes of the soyle. 
The Ilands of the Indian Sea belong not to the Turkes, 
and therefore I will omit them. 
The Turkish Empire stretcheth it selfe yet farther, 
containing great part of Affrica, which by the Grecians 
was called Libia, and the word in the Greek tongue signi- 




[IIl.iii. 124.] 


in the yeere.) The Brooke Rubricatus is famous for the 
Serpent killed there by Attilius Regulus in the time of the 
first Punike warre. The quick-sands or sholes of the Sea 
adjoyning, are much feared of Marriners, lying sometimes 
deepe, sometimes shallow, as the sands are driven into 
divers parts, by divers winds blowing and stormes, and 
they are two. The lesse not farre from Carthage, the 
greater towards Syrenaica. At this day all this Sea-coast 
is called Barbary, and is subject to the Turkish Ottoman. 
3 Sirenaica hath the name of the chiefe Citie Syrene, 
which of old had emulation for greatnesse with Carthage, 
and therein were borne, Aristippus the Philosopher, 
Calimachus the Poet, and Eratostines the Mathematician, 
and (as some say) Symon who carried the Crosse of Christ. 
4 Marmarica is sandy, and of old therein was the 
Temple of Jupiter called Hammon of the sands, and these 
two Provinces are annexed to Egypt. 
5 Egypt is most fertile, the very garner of the univer- 
sall World, and famous for the antiquitie of the Kingdome. 
The upper part thereof was called Thebais, the lower 
(towards the Mediterranean Sea) was called Deltica, of 
the letter Delta. The Cities thereof no lesse famous in 
these dayes then of old are these. Alexandria, built by 
Alexander the great at the mouth of the River Nilus 
(whose body there buried, was seene by Augustus), and 
heere Ptolomy was borne, who did gather in this Citie 
the famous Library of seven hundred thousand volumes, 
which were all consumed by tier. The next chiefe Citie 
is Canopus, where stood the Temple of Syrapis or Osyris. 
Then Pelusium, at this day called Damiata, seated upon 
the mouth of Nilus called Pelusium. Lastly, the chiefe 
Citie of all, is Babylon, built by the Babylonians permitted 
to dwell there, which at this day is hugely increased, and 
is called Alcaiero (that is, This Caiero),from whence some 
fortie stadia distant towards the North, lye the three 
famous Pyramides. Three dayes journey towards the 
East, in a Garden called Materia, being well fortified, of 
old grew, and still growes the hearb Balsamum, sweating 


Balsam out of the boughes, and being cut with a knife, 
yeelding the more precious Opobalsamum, and at this 
day the same is found even at Caiero in the Gardens of 
the richer sort. They say also that Corrall is found in 
the Red Sea. I had almost omitted the Citie Arsinoe, 
also called the Citie of the Crocadiles, because the 
Crocadile was there worshipped. Nilus falles into the 
Mediterranean Sea in seven great Armes, which have the 
names of the adjacent Townes, namely, Heracleoticum 
(or canopicum), Bolviticum, Sebaniticum, Patinicum, 
Mendesium, Caniticum, and Peluseacum: the first and 
the last whereof are one hundred and seventy miles distant 
one from the other. The Nilus doth yeerely overflow, 
and thereby gives incredible fertility to the ground, and 
the snow melting upon the Mountaines of Luna, or the 
constellation of the Moone and Mercury, are thought to 
bee causes of this overflowing. And the same happening 
to bee greater or lesse then usuall, or comming later or 
sooner then usuall is a signe of dearth to them, whereof 
Pliny saith, that Egypt in twelve cubites height of the 
floud, feeleth famine, at thirteene cubites is hungry, but 
that fourteene makes them merry, fifteene safe, and six- 
teene brings plenty and dainties. It is strange, that all 
other Rivers eating and consuming their bankes, Nilus 
rather increaseth them, by bringing with it a mud, that 
covers the sand, and doth as it were dung the fields, to 
make them more fertill. In sixty dayes after the floud, 
the fields are cleare of water. The floud increaseth from 
the Summer Solstice, to the Suns entring into Libra, and 
after the water retires into his owne bed. About the 
twelfth of October they sow their fields, and in May 
following reape their harvest. Egypt with the Provinces 
belonging to it, hath long been subdued by the Turkes. 
6 Lybia hath divers Provinces. Biledurgeret, that is, 
the Region of Dates, is inhabited by the black Getuli. 
From thence towards the River Niger, lye the Deserts of 
Lybia, waste, and full of Lyons, Parries, and other fierce 
and venemous beasts (whereof came the fictions of 


of Nis. 



Medusa and Perseus.) The inhabitants of Atsanaga, are 
of a colour betweene tawny and blacke. At the Promon- 
tory called the white Cape, is the Citie called Argen, where 
the Arabians and Portugalls trade together. At the 
Promontory, called the greene Cape, the River Niger 
falles into the Atlantick Ocean, and the inhabitants are 
called Nigrite. This tract containes many Kingdomes, 
namely, Senige, Gambrey, Tambot, Guangara (where the 
Garamantes dwelt of old), two Kingdoms of Nubia, and 
other Kingdomes, which I omit as subject to their 
Kings, or to Pretz Jan, and so not belonging to our 
7 /Ethiopia is divided by Nilus into inward and out- 
ward. Inward /Ethiopia is divided by old Writers into 
/Ethiopia properly so called, Trogloditica, and Barbaria, 
and in the middes thereof is the Iland Meroe, made by 
Nilus, in which was a City called Meroe, the seate of the 
old Kings, after called Saba, whence was the queene which 
came to Salomon, and the Eunuch of Qleene Candaces, 
whom Philip baptized. The Troglodites live in caves of 
the earth, and their kingdom is at this day called Adel. 
Barbaria extends eight degrees beyond the/Equator, from 
the promontory called Capo di Guardavi, to the Gulfe of 
Barbary, and was so called of old. The outward/Ethiopia 
is called /Egisimba by Ptolomy, and containes the King- 
dome of Amatzen, and of Vangue, seated under the 
/Equinoctiall line. All /Ethiopia, and part of Libia, are 
said to bee subject to Pretz Jan, therefore I say no more 
of them, nor of the Kingdomes under the Mountaines of 
Luna, as pertaining not to my purpose. 
80nely of the many Provinces under the Mountaines 
of Luna beyond the Equinoctiall line, I will adde, that the 
inhabitants of Capo di buona speranza (the cape of good 
hope) are exceeding blacke, and nothing different from 
the /Ethiopians and Lybians, though they have a greater 
latitude by thirtie degrees towards the. South, equall to the 
latitude of the farthest part of Spame, and live under the 
temperate Zone. 


9 The greatest Iland of Affrick called Madagascar by 
the inhabitants, and Saint Laurence by the Spaniards, is 
of the Mahometan Religion, and is said to abound with 
the medicinall wood Santalum, with Amber and Elephants. 
The Canary Ilands called of old the fortunate Ilands are 
sixe (or more as some write) in number, whereof Canaria 
the greatest gave the name to the rest, which are subject 
to the King of Spaine, as are likewise the Hesperides, 
little Ilands seated over against the greene Cape. The 
Turkish Emperour hath (to my knowledge) no other Ile 
of Affricke under him. 
The Turkish Empire being so vast, and containing 
great part of Europe, Asia, and Affrick, the temper of 
the aire cannot bee otherwise described, then by particular 
parts thereof. But out of the description of this Empire 
(in the journall of the first Part), and by comparing the 
particular Provinces, with others of the same longitude 
and latitude, and by the fruits and exported commodities 
here to be mentioned, the temper of the ayre may bee 
knowne, or at least conjectured more easily. To this 
purpose I will onely adde, that I landing in Palestine 
about the end of May, found their wheate harvest almost 
inned, and in the Haven of Joppa, bought about a 
thousand Abricots for sixe Aspers. And the yeere follow- 
ing when I sailed from Constantinople towards Italy, that 
about the middst of March, I did eate pease and other 
pulse in the Greeke Ilands. 
Lastly in Palestine, Cyprus and those parts, partly I 
understood by others, partly I found by experience, that 
it seldome raines, and that about September and October 
onely, and not often at that time, but so violently for the 
time, as if it would beate downe the very houses, falling 
(as it were) by palefulls at once, and that the fields are 
warred with night dewes, at the fall whereof no man 
stirres out of dotes, but with his head well covered, for 
danger of sicknesse, all men using to keepe in the house 
till the dew be dried, while in the meane time by day the 
heate is so excessive, as a man can hardly indure his 

t605-I 7. 

The situation. 

The fertili#y. 


apparrell, though it be of linnen or silke, if it hang not 
loose but be close about him. 
The fertilitie of the soyle generally through this 
Empire, is exceeding great, and the goodnesse and varietie 
of the fruits, equalleth and in some places passeth Italy. 
The wines of Greece, of Mount Libanus, and especially 
of Palormo in Natolia, are exceeding rich and good. Yet 
have the Turkes lesse plenty of all things then Europe, 
for they very sparingly and onely to serve necessity, either 
set pla:at or sow, great part of the people being wasted 
with warres, and they that remaine, having not free 
fruition of their owne goods, in the great tyranny under 
which they live, aswell of the Emperour, as of under- 
Governours changed at least once a yeere, and the generall 
rapacity and licentiousnesse of the souldiers. Hence it is 
that there be vast solitudes and untilled Desarts on all 
sides, where yet the ground of it selfe brings forth divers 
wild fruits without tillage. They have divers kinds of 
graine, Wheate, the graine called Milet, Barly, Oates, 
Rye, Pease, and al kinds of Pulse, which for the kinds are 
like those of Europe, but the Wheate for the bignesse of 
the graine, and so the rest, are to bee preferred before 
them. There is great abundance of Rice, Flax and 
Cotton growing in the fields. They have good plenty of 
all kinds of Cattell, yet are no more industrious in grasing 
and feeding heards, then in sowing or planting; and so 
they have Egges, Hennes, Rice, Hony (which in a com- 
position they drinke), Fruits and Bread for daily foode, 
they desire no other dainties or greater riches, since they 
can neither injoy their goods while they live, nor yet 
bequeath them at death, and nothing is more dangerous, 
then to be accounted rich. The Caloiri or Greeke 
Monkes in Candia, with whom I abode for a time, shewed 
mee fields, which the yeere past had yeelded them ninety 
five measures of grame for one sowed: but Candia, 
though it lie in the compasse of the Turkish Empire 
almost on all sides, yet is subject to the State of Venice. 
The Iland Chios (vulgarly Zio) is subject to the Turkes, 

The Trnffick. 


nople) they furnish their markets therewith. And in 
truth at Constantinople, there is as great varietie and 
goodnesse of these kinds as can be wished. Onely the 
Oysters, though plentifull, yet have not the delicate salt 
taste that ours have, the Mediterranean Sea being nothing 
so salt as the Ocean. But in generall, the Turkes, by 
reason of the foresaid tyranny, and of their temperance 
in diet, doe little use fishing or fowling, or any like 
Yea, by reason of the same tyranny of the Emperour, 
Governours and Souldiers, the Turkes carelesly and coldly 
exercise trafficke with Merchants. I grant, that they 
trade in Natolia, and other parts of their owne Empire 
after a cold manner, but they make no voyage by sea into 
forraigne parts, excepting some few that come to Venice. 
For they doe not labour in any kind more then necessitie 
Ibrceth, and are so far from the insatiable desire of riches, 
as they avoide nothing more, then the opinion to bee rich. 
So as the Jewes, the Greekes subject to the Turkes, and 
other confederate Christians, exporting their commodities, 
they themselves have very few ships, the Emperour onely 
having some twelve great ships, well armed, to bring him 
necessaries from Egypt to Constantinople. In like sort 
they have few Marrines, and those unexperienced and 
fearefull, using the Greekes their vassals, and other slaves 
taken in warre, to that purpose, and they much esteerne 
(that is gently treate) captives skilfull in Navigation. 
Some Townes keepe at their private charge a few small 
Gallies and Barkes, to rob the Christians, and the great 
Turkes Navie consists all of Gallies, nothing comparable 
to those of Venice, and they winter at Constantinople, and 
another Haven in Greece, whereof I shall write more 
largely in the discourse of the Turkes Commonwealth. 
Among other Cities of trade, they have two very 
famous, one in Asia, the other in Affrick. That of Asia 
is called Haleppo, and it being within land, the Port 
thereof is called Scanderona by the Turks, and Alexan- 
dretta, by the Christians, whence the commodities of 


Merchants are carried upon Caramels, and the fifth day 
arrive at Haleppo, whether the commodities of Persia are 
brought by the River Euphrates, and upon Caramels 
backes, from the Citie Taurus, of old subject to the 
Persians, but in our age subdued by the Turkes. The 
Indian commodities are brought thither by the red sea, 
and the Guile of Arabia. The famous Citie for trade in 
Affricke was called Babylon, and now is named Alcaiero, 
whence the commodities of India, Egypt, and all Affricke 
are exported. Moreover, upon the mouth of the greatest 
arme of the River Nilus, the City Alexandria is seated 
upon the Sea, some few dayes saile from Alcaiero. 
The Venetians bring into Turkey woollen clothes, 
which they call broad, being died Scarlet, Violet, and of all 
colours, and they are so strong & well made, as they will 
hst very long, so as the Turks prefer them before our 
English clothes. And because the Venetians furnish them 
in great quantity, they use few other clothes of that kind. 
Also the Venetians bring to them Sattins, and Damasks 
(made in Italy of Dalmatian silk) and great quantity of 
Gold and Silver, to buy the pretious commodities of 
Turkey. Whence they carry out raw silke. For by 
reason of the foresaid tyranny, as the Turkes are negligent 
in Husbandry and trade, so are they in manuall Arts, not 
drawing their Silke into threads, nor weaving the same 
into clothes. And howsoever they have infinite numbers 

of Silke-wormes, especially at 
of Asia, which make great 
formerly said in the discourse 

Tripoli, and in most parts 
quantitie of Silke, (as I 
of Italy), yet they sell this 

Silke raw and unwoven, and buy of the Venetians the 
foresaid clothes made of their owne silke, so as the silke- 
wormes, may well be said to bee more diligent, and more 
to promote the publike good, then the inhabitants; for 
they swarming in all Gardens, diligentlie finish their web, 
while the idle inhabitants yeeld the commoditie thereof to 
The Venetians also export from Turkey, Spices, and 
Apothecary wares, and great quantitie of the Dye called 

I6O5-I 7. 

[Ill.iii. z7.] 

The I/enetian 

x6o5-x 7. 


Indico. They export Galles, Cotten, wooll, Cotton 
threads, Chamlets or Grograms, made of the finest haires 
of Goates, not sheared but pulled off fi-om their backes, 
and woven in Galatia, a Province of the lesser Asia. 
They export Turkey Carpets, Goates skinnes wrought, 
and died into divers colours. 
The English bring to the Turkes Kersies wrought and 
dyed of divers colours and kinds, but they bring little 
Broad-cloth, wherewith they are aboundantlie furnished 
from Venice. They also bring to them Tinne, and blacke 
Conni-skinnes in such quantitie, as the Turkes admiring 
the same, a Frenchman merily taxing our womens affa- 
bilitie, said, that in England there was such plenty of 
Connyes, and they so tame, as they were taken in the 
Taverns. The English export fi'om them Spices and 
Apothecary wares (for the trade into the East Indies was 
not then set up), they also export the foresaid corn- 
modities, raw silke, Indico, and other precious Dyes of 
Scarlet, Purple and the like, Galles, Mastick growing 
onely in the Iland Zio, Cotton, and the thread thereof, 
Turkey Carpets for tables, Chamlets, Grograms of Goates 
haire. The Merchants comming to Constantinople, 
hardly find there any commodities to export; therefore 
the English ships having unladed there, saile empty to 
Alexandretta, and there receive the commodities of 
Haleppo. Againe, the Italians who bring much gold and 
silver to Haleppo for the commodities there to bee sold, 
doe againe receive gold and silver for such commodities 
as they bring to Constantinople, and carry the same backe 
to Venice. The English lying at the Ilands of Zant and 
Cephalonia, subject to the Venetians, and at Petrasso, 
seated in the Gulfe of Corinth, and subject to the great 
Turke, export Corrands: others from Algier (a Port of 
Barbary) export Sugar: others fi-om the Iland Candia 
(subject to the Venetians) export Muskadines : and others 
fi'om divers Ilands export earthen dishes and vessels 
painted, which for the purenesse are much esteemed and 
used in Italy, and in our parts Northward. 



The swords of Damasco are famous for the mettall, 
piercing, iron, and cutting a halle in pieces, but the 
exportation of them is forbidden, though our Christians 
supply the Turkes with all warlike munitions, which they 
might shame to have particularly named in this discourse 
of traffick. The precious Orientall commodities of Persia 
and the East Indies, have made the Trade of Turkish 
Cities to bee famous, namely, their spices and rich dies, 
and Jewels, which notwithstanding the Turkes have in 
part of their owne. For I formerly said, that Arabia 
yeelds Frankinsence, Mirrh, Cinnamon, and Jewels, and 
/Egypt yeeldes Balsam, and Opobalsam (the more precious 
gumme of the Balme tree) in great quantity, omitting 
many commodities, which besides they have of these 
kinds. I speake not of Thessalonica a City of Macedonia, 
now called Saloniche, nor other Havens and Cities of 
trafficke in Greece, as being of lesse moment. All the 
precious traffick of Turkey, by reason of the inhabitants 
slothfulnesse, is in the hands of Jewes and of Christians, 
and was long in the sole hands of the Venetians, but the 
French in the age past, and the English in our age, have 
had (as I may say) a trafficking league with the Turkes, 
and so partake that trade. And these three States onely 
(not to speake of the Germans, who at this time had warre 
with the Turkes, and never saile so farre to exercise 
trafficke) among so many States of Christians, have their 
Ambassadours at the Turkish Court. And if any other 
Christians arrive in that Empire (as the Flemmings often 
doe), they used at this time to come under the Banner of 
one of these three Nations. The Reader must under- 
stand, that when I was in Turkey, the English and 
Flemmings had not as yet begun their traffick in the East 
Indies, which is like to destroy the trafficke in Turkey, 
bringing many rich commodities from the well head. 
For their dyet, the Turkes live sparingly, I had said 
slovenly, but that I remembred their frequent bathings 
and washings, and the curious clenlinesse of the linnen, 
and all other clothes which they weare: but I will bee 

I605-I 7. 

[lll.iii.  z8.] 

Their diet. 


bold to say, they feede negligently, and without any 
pompe or magnificence. The richer sort doe sit at meate 
like Tailors with their knees bended, upon carpets, or 
upon the grasse when they eate by Rivers sides and in 
Gardens, as they doe more frequently then in the house. 
And their table is so low, as they may well reach to it 
sitting upon the ground. About this table they cast a 
long towell to wipe their hands, but passengers by the 
high-way, and generally the ordinary sort of Turkes, use 
grasse in stead of this towell. Others carry about a table 
of leather coloured red or yellow, which table shuts and 
opens like a purse, and upon it they can set but one dish 
at once, it hanging hollow upon certaine buckels. 
Commonly they eate by the high-way upon the ground, 
and alwaies with their knees bended like our Taylors. 
They seeth their meat till it be very tender, so as they 
may breake it with their fingers, for they have no knives, 
neither have they variety of dishes set before them, but 
all sitting in a circle, fall upon one dish. Taking meat, 
they all together say a short prayer or grace, and talke not 
whilest they eate, but silently fall hard to their worke. 
They have aboundance of all things for foode, aswell of 
flesh (excepting swines-flesh) as of birds, and other meates, 
but they abstaine from fish. They have plenty of Corne 
(at least sufficient for their temperate dyet), which is 
exceeding good, and farre bigger then ours. They are 
ignorant of the Arts of birding, fouling, hunting, or 
cookery, and having no lascivious apetite provoking them 
to gluttony, are content with simple meates. Their 
sobrietie in this kind cannot sufficiently be commended, 
and since their greatest men can bee content to feede on 
rice, and drinke water, it is no marvell, that with ease they 
keepe great Armies in the field. 
the Turkish housholdstuffe is contained, in one 
poore pot to seeth meate in, one spoone of wood, one 
cup of leather or wood to drinke in, a poore bed or 
matresse, yea often a single coverled alone, and the earth 
serves them for bedsteed, table and stooles. They have 


no neede of a troope of cookes and scullions to dresse 
me.ate, and make cleane dishes. They willingly eate 
curds turned sower and mingled with bread and water, 
commonly called Mishmish, and fresh cheese or curds, and 
have plentie of milke, aswell of cowes as of goates. In 
stead of bread, they eate unleavened cakes, baked on 
the cinders, which commonly are mingled with a kind of 
seede. They feede commonly on hens, and rice (either 
sod alone, or with a hen or mutton, in a vessell full of 
holes, without any liquor put in when it is set on the tier, 
so as there being no other juce, but that of the meat, the 
rice is made very thick.) Within these narrow bounds is 
their most costly feeding restrained. In time of the yeere 
they feed much upon fruites, and keepe grapes all winter, 
so as you would judge them fresh. They abhor from 
swines flesh, as the Jewes do, for the rest I did never see, 
nor heare by relations of others, that the richest of them 
did affect any other variety of meate, then I have named, 
and I have often seene Men of the better sort, eating out 
of the seething pot, without any dish set before them. 
The above named flesh of Muttons is very savoury, and 
the sheepe of Syria and the adjoyning parts of Asia, are 
of such greatnesse, as many times a taile of them, hanging 
to their heeles, and very woolly and fat, and close woven 
in many plights, doth weigh thirty or more pounds. 
They have also Venyson, for in the woodes there be many 
wild Goates dispersed, and I have seene a kind of fallow 
Deare in Syria called Gazelle, of which kind I have seene 
some brought out of Barbary into England. 
And they much delighting in fruites, have excellent of 
many kindes, and in great quantity, namely Abricots, and 
muske Melones, and divers kinds of Pumpions, whereof 
one called Angouria, as bigge as our Pumpions, is exceed- 
ing full of a very cold juyce, being most pleasant for the 
coolenesse in any great heat, which coolenesse though I 
take to be unwholsome for one sicke of an ague, yet my 
selfe almost wasted with the burning of that disease, did 
vehemently desire to eate of this fruite, and found it 

[lll.iii.  z9. ] 



nothing hurtfull or rather healthfull to me. In the Haven 
of Alexandretta (or Scanderona) a Grecian the Master of 
a Venetian ship, gave me a present of foure or five Apples, 
which he called (as they vulgarly doe) the Apple of Adam, 
and I never in my life tasted so delicete a fruite. It was 
of forme like a long Peare, or rather for the crookednesse 
like a Cucumer of the lesser sort, and it had a most thinne 
skinne, of colour like a Peeches skinne, the least part 
whereof being opened, the juyce was easily to be sucked 
out, which was very pleasant, and not much unlike to the 
juyce of a figge newly pulled from the tree. If I should 
particularise all the kindes of pleasant fruites, I might be 
infinite therein. 
The Turkes when they have eaten, not while they eate, 
goe like good fellowes together, and like Horses at once 
drinke for that meale, as greedily as if the water were 
turned into wine, which kind of drinke those that are 
zealous of their Law, and those that jou.rney by the high 
way, more specially, and all Turkes m generall most 
commonly use, for which cause, those that journey use to 
pitch their tents, upon the banks of pure fountains or 
running waters, which they no lesse know, or as curiously 
search out, as we doe the best Innes or Tavernes : Besides 
commonly they have a cup (if I may so call it, being a 
purse of leather that opens or shuts with strings) hanging 
at their Horses saddle pomell, which as they sit on Horse- 
backe, they put downe into the fountaines, and draw water 
to drinke, not omitting to taste a good spring of water, 
no more then we would a peece of rare Wine. Their 
water, especially in Provinces lying neere the Sunne, is 
in this property contrary to ours, that it loosens the body 
no lesse, then the rice binds it. In Cities divers kinds 
of drinkes are to be sold, some esteemed as much as wine 
with us. One kind I remember presented unto us in 
Palestine by the Sobasha of Ramma, which was made of 
medicinall hearbs, to purifie and coole the blood, and they 
drinke it hot, so as it seemes a very physicall potion. 
They drinke sugar or hony mingled with water, and 


water sodden with grapes, rosewater, and hony: and 
they have whole Tunnes of the juyce of Cytrons and 
Limons, which they willingly drinke; and all these kinds 
are to be sold in their Cities. Wine is forbidden by 
Mahomets law, which permits Aquavite vulgarly called 
Harech, which Aquavite they often drinke even to 
drunckennes. And whether it be out of the common 
error of mankinde to desire forbidden things, or out of 
the licentiousnes of Souldiers, which every day growes 
greater then other, howsoever in Idlenes they obey theire 
lawe in not planting Vines, yet not only the Janizaries, 
but even the religious men, will drinke wine largely, even 
to drunkennesse, with Christians as well Ambassadours as 
others, yea, if Christian passengers carry wine by the way 
for their owne drinking, and have a Janizary to protect 
them, yet they will familiarly come to drinke with them, 
and if they have no protector, they will take their wine 
and whatsoever they have else at their pleasure, so as their 
false Prophet hath onely provoked vice by forbidding it. 
Many Provinces yeeld rich wines, the chiefe wherof are 
the Greek wines, (which notwithstanding seemed to me 
for the most part to be corrasive, fretting the stomacke 
and entrals) ; and as well the white as red wines of Mount 
Lybanus and Antilibanus, which are carried to Tripoli, 
and as farre as Haleppo, (the wines about Jerusalem being 
sharpe and small) : but the best wine of all is the white 
wine of Palormo in Natolia, which is like the Spanish 
sacke, but more pleasant to the taste, being not so sweete 
as the Canary wines, nor so harsh and strong as the Sherry 
sacke. This Wine is carried to Constantinople, where 
also good wines grow, planted by Christians there, but 
this is most esteemed: For onely Christians plant Vines 
and make wine, and howsoever the Turkes are content to 
take part of them at the Christians charge. 
The Turkish Souldiers being to fight, if they can find 
no wine, drinke the juyce of blacke poppy, called Opium, 
to raise their spirits to a kind of fury, thinking themselves 
made more valiant thereby: For howsoever we thinke 

Wines for- 
bidden by 

[III.iii.  3o.] 




this hearbe, especially taken largely, to be dangerous for 
the health, yet there is not a Turke from the highest to 
the lowest, who doth not as it were daily use it, nothing 
being more frequently, sowed,, nothin, g more plentifull, y 
growing, especially ..... xn Natoha, nothing more eaMy finding 
a buyer : yea, xf their Cammels and Dromedaries fafle by 
the way, or upon necessity must goe further then they use 
to journey, as sometimes it fals out in Armies and other 
Journeys, then they give them this hearbe, by which they 
report their spirits so to be stirred up, as they will goe till 
they fall downe dead. 
In this vast Empire I did see no Innes, no not in their 
Cities, and a man shall rarely find any beds among 
Christians, and if he doe, yet the sheetes are made of 
cotten, intollerable for heate: For in Turkey generally 
they lie upon Tapestry Carpets, and sometimes in Cities 
upon a mattresse, with a quilt to cover them, and by the 
high way they lye upon straw, hey, or grasse. And in all 
places neere Palestine, they either by night lie upon the 
house tops on a plastered floare, or in yards upon the 
earth and in open Ayre, having the spangled Heavens for 
their Canopy. And not onely passengers, but all Turkes 
daily weare linnen breeches, so as in these Provinces not 
subject to cold, a man may better endure this poore kind 
of lodging : But the Turkish passengers, in stead of Innes, 
have certaine Hospitals, built of stone with Cloysters 
after the manner of Monasteries, where by charitable 
legacy of Alines, all passengers may have meate for 
certaine meales or dayes, especially the Pilgrims towards 
Mecha, for whose sake they were especially founded: 
And these houses are vulgarly called Kawne (or as others 
pronounce Cain) and the covered Cloysters of them, (built 
after their manner but one roofe high), are common as 
well to Turkes as any other passengers to lodge in openly, 
and like good fellowes altogether, upon such mattresses s 
they carry, or upon the bare ground, if straw be not to be 
had. For Christian passengers carry such mattresses and 
necessary victuals, which failing, they supply them in 


Cities and every day in Villages may buy flesh meates, 
but they must dresse their owne meate. 
Neither is the Art of Cookery greater in Turkey then 
with us in Wales, for toasting of Cheese in Wales, and 
seething of Rice in Turkey, will enable a man freely to 
professe the Art of Cookery. 
No stranger useth to travell without a Janizary or some 
other to guide him, who knowes the places where most 
commodious lodging is to be had: but passengers by the 
way use not to goe into Cities, but onely to buy flesh 
meates, which done they returne to the Tents of their 
Carravan, which use to be pitched in some field adjoyning. 
In hot climes neere the Sunne, (as I have said in the first 
Part writing my journey through Turkey) the Turkes 
there dwelling use to beginne their journeys towards the 
evening, and to end them two or three houres after the 
Sunne rising, resting in their Tents all the heat of the day. 
Christian passengers shall doe well to goe to the Italians 
Friers at Jerusalem, and to Merchants their Countreymen, 
or at least to Christians in Citties of traffick, and to the 
Ambassadors or Merchants of their owne Country at 
Constantinople, who being themselves strangers, and not 
ignorant of the evils incident to strangers, will no doubt 
in curtesie direct them to get convenient lodgings and 
other necessaries. 
Chap. II. 
Of France, touching the particular subjects of the 
first Chapter. 
 -. ,,,- He Longitude of France extends thirteene 
degrees from the Meridian of sixteene 
degrees to that of twenty nine degrees, 
and the Latitude extends eight degrees 
from the Paralell of forty two degrees to 
that of fifty degrees. France of old was 
devided into Cisalpina and Transalpina. 
In the description of Italy I have formerly spoken of 
Cisalpina, which was also called Togata of Gownes the 

Of Trar,ell 
in Turkey. 

[IIl.iii. 3-] 


Inhabitants wore, and Tonsa because they had short 
I Transalpina, was subdevided into Comata and Nar- 
bonensis. Comata so called of their long haire, was 
againe subdevided into Belgica, (of which I have spoken 
formerly in the description of Netherland), into Aquitanica 
and Celtica, or Lugdunensis. Aquitanica the second Part 
of Comata, was of old called Aremorica, lying upon the 
Mountaines Pyrenei, and they differ in Language from the 
French, being more like to the Spaniards: next to the 
Pyreni dwelt the Ansi or Ansitani, called vulgarly 
Guascons, comming from Spaine. Their chief City is 
Tolouse, where is a famous University, & the Parliament 
of that Province. Another City called Bordeaux, hath 
also an University, but is more famous by the generall 
concourse of Merchants trading for French Wines. 
Beyond the River Garumna running through the midst of 
Aquitania, dwell the Santones, an ancient people, whose 
Countrey is called Santoigne. Next lie the Pictones or 
Pictani upon the River Loyer, whose Countrey is called 
Poictou, abounding with Fish, Fowle, and all Game for 
Hunting and Hawking. It hath three chiefe Cities, all 
seates of Bishops, Poictiers, Lusson, and Maillezais. The 
necke of Land adjoyning is called Aulone, and the Ilands, 
Noir de Chauet, De Dieu, and Nostre Dame De Bouin, 
&c yeeld great quantity of Salt to be transported. The 
Countrey of the Bituriges is called Berry, and the chiefe 
City Burges, of old called Avaricum, being an University, 
and the Citizens at sixe Faires in the yeere, sell groat 
quantity of woollen cloath: for the Countrey hath rich 
pastures, feeding many flockes of sheepe, of whose wooll 
this cloath is made, besides that it aboundeth also with 
Wine, Came, and all kinds of cattell. The City is within 
Land, and is called in Lattin Biturigum of two Towers. 
Next the same lies the Dukedome Burbonois, and other 
small territories. 
Celtica or Lugdunensis another part of Comata, con- 
taines the part of Transalpina, that lies betweene the 


Rivers Loyer and Seyne, beyond which last River France 
of old extended, and included good part of Netherland. 
" First towards the West lies the Dukedome Bretaigne, 
which hath three Languages in it selfe, all differing from 
the French. The first is of the people called Bretons 
:. Bretonnant, comming from the English or Cornish 
Brittons the first Inhabitants, and the chiefe Cities are 
i Saint Paul, and Treguiers. The second people are called 
- Bretons Galot, being of Language neere the French, and 
the chiefe Cities are Rhenes, (where is the Parliament of 
the whole Dukedome), and Dol, and Saint Malo. The 
third is mixt of the two former, and the City thereof called 
:_ Nantes, is the Dukes seate, and chiefe City of the Duke- 
dome. From the Sea Coast thereof great quantity of salt 
-. made by the heate of the Sunne is transported, and there 
be mynes of Iron and Lead. Towards the East lies 
Normandy, so called of Men of the North, namely the 
Cimbri there inhabiting, and the chiefe City is Roane. 
Within Land lies Turroyne, upon the Loyer, and the 
chiefe City is Orleance. Next lies the little Countrey of 
: France, like an Iland betweene two Rivers, so called of 
the Franckes a people of Germany, conquering and giving 
that name to the whole Kingdome. The chiefe City and 
seate of the Kings is Paris. Picardy lies towards the 
.: North, and the chiefe City is Amiens. Upon France 
within Land towards the East lies the Province Cham- 
paigne. Next to it lies the Dukedome of Lorrayne, the 
Dukes whereof beare their Armes, an Arme armed break- 
ing out of Cloudes, and holding a naked Sword, to signifie 
that the Dukes have supreme power from God alone. 
And the chiefe Cities of the Dukedome are Nancy (the 
seate of the Dukes), and Toul, and Neufchastell. The 
next Countrey of old esteemed part of Lorrayne, was 
inhabited by the Lingones, and by the Mediomatrices, and 
the chiefe City by the Lattines called Mediomatricum and 
Metis, is now vulgarly called Metz, which City the King 
of France tooke in the yeere 1551 from the Empire, in the 
time of the Emperor Charles the fifth, who besieged the 



[lll.iii. 3z.] 


N arbonemi. 


same Ion , but in vaine, the Kings of France still holdin 
it. Theg/ukedome of Burgundy belonged of old to tge 
Empire, but is now subject to the Kings of France, the 
chiefe City whereof is Dijon, where the Parliament of the 
whole Dukedome is held. It hath other Cities, namely 
Boanlue, Challon, Chastillon, Noyres, and a place called 
Bourgougne, which gave the name to the Dukedome, yet 
others write that it had the name of Bourges, (that is 
Townes). The County of Burgundy belonged of old to 
the Empire, but is now subject to the King of Spaine, 
whose progenitor married the daughter and heire of the 
Duke of Burgundy, at which time the Kings of France 
tooke the foresaid Dukedome from the said daughter and 
heire. And this County is vulgarly called Franche Conte, 
as free from tributes. It hath two free Cities, Dole (an 
University) and Besancon. 
z The second part of Transalpina Gallia is Narbonensis ; 
(which onely at this day, yet not all, may truly be called 
Gallia) : It was of old called Braccata, of the Inhabitants 
apparell, and is called Narbonensis of the chiefe City 
Narbona, lying upon the River Athesis, neere the Medi- 
terranean Sea, which Strabo witnesseth to have beene of 
old a famous City for trafficke. The River Rhodanus 
runnes through it, which falling from the Alpes, and 
increased by Araris, but still retaining the first name, fals 
into the Mediterranean Sea. This part called Narbon- 
ensis, by the benefit of the Ayre and Sunne, yeelds Figges, 
Grapes, Cytrons, Peaches, Pomegranates, Chessenuts, rich 
Wine, and all delicate fruites, and all the fields are made 
odoriferous by wild Rosemary, Myrtels, Palmetrees, and 
many sweete hearbes: and the Inhabitants have lately 
planted Canes of sugar. To conclude, the Province is 
very pleasant and plentifull in all things. On the West 
side of Rhodanus, the Tectosages dwelt of old in the 
Province called Languadoc, having that name, because the 
Inhabitants use Oc for the French Ouy. The chiefe Cities 
thereof are Narbona (aforesaid) Mompeliers (of old a 
famous University) & Clermont. The Dukedome of 


Savoy lies in a corner, from the Alps to the mediterranean 
Sea, of old inhabited by the Focuntii, and it lying on the 
same side of the Alpes with France, is reckoned a part 
thereof, but the Duke thereof is an absolute Prince, and 
the chiefe City is Chambery. The Province is very 
fertile, and where it is more barren, yet affoordes excellent 
fruites and all things for foode at a convenient price. 
Dolphiny lies betweene the River Rhodanus and the 
Dukedome of Savoy, and gives the name of .Dolphin to 
the French Kings eldest sonne. Provence is a most 
sweete Territory, and hath the Cities, Marseile, (famous 
by trade with the Turkes), Arles, and Avignon (subject to 
the Pope; for when many Popes were at one time, John 
the two and twentieth did long sit in this City, given by 
Joane Q.geene of Naples to the Popes in the time of 
Clement the sixth, alienated from the Kingdome of Naples 
by her, and annexed to the Patrimony of Saint, in 
the yeere 36o.) The Principalitie of Orange is an 
absolute dominion, having the chiefe City of the same 
name, and seated betweene Languedoc, Dolphiny, and the 
Popes Territorie of Avignon. 
The ayre of the Northerne part of France is purer then 
that of England, and being not covered with cloudes 
drawne out of the Sea as England is, for that cause in 
winter becomes more cold, and in summer more hot, and 
farre lesse annoied with mists & rainy weather. But on 
the other side, more & lesse according to the clyme, the 
parts of France lying towards the Mountaines Pirenei and 
neerer to the Equinoctiall line, are subject to intemperate 
heate, yet often allaied by the winds blowing from the Sea, 
and by the shaddow of the Mountaines. This Southerly 
part yeeldes all the fruites of Italy, and in the Northerly 
parts as in Normandy, they have abundance of Apple and 
Peare trees, of which they make great quantity of Sider 
and Perry, and this part as towards the Sea it yeelds also 
plenty of Corne, so within Land it affoords the like of 
Wines. And in the very Northerly Iland called France, 
they have plenty of Grapes upon pleasant hils watered 

The situation. 

[III.iii.  33-] 


by sea. They have in time of warre some few men of 
warre for piracy, and some few ships to export their com- 
modities, but they saile onely to neighbour Countries, as 
out of Normandy and Bretaigne, into England, Ireland, 
and the Low-Countries, and onely those of Marseile, to 
Tripoli in Syria. As for the Colonies which in our Age 
they have led into the West Indies, their unhappy successe 
therein, hath discouraged them from like new attempts. 
And whosoever sees their rich Cities within Land, witness- 
ing that their wealth consists in native commodities, more 
then trading by Sea, may easily guesse, that they are not 
much addicted to Navigation. The French have many 
commodities by which they draw forraigne Coynes to 
them, but foure especially, Wine, Salt, Linnen course 
cloth, and Corne, which in that respect some call the loade- 
stones of France. Neither is it a matter of small moment, 
that they have many Rivers, giving commodity to the 
mutuall trafficke of their Cities. 
They have plenty of Flaxe and Hempe, whereof they 
make canvas, sayles, ropes, and cables : Neither want they 
wooll, whereof they make cloth, little inferiour to the 
English cloth, but not in quantity to be exported. Bour- 
deaux is a famous City for exportation of Wines, as 
Rochell and the neighbour Ports are no lesse for Salt. 
France yeeldeth Saffron, and Oade for dying, which they 
call Du Pastell, and many small commodities to be 
exported, as Cards, Pinnes, Paper, and the like : yea they 
export into Spaine, linnen cloathes made thinne with wear- 
ing, and sell them there for a good price. The Spaniards 
bring into France some quantity of wooll, raysons, Olives, 
Oyle, Cytrons, and other fruites, whereof France needes 
no great quantity, and Cochenillo for dying. The Portin- 
gals bring into France holy Thistle, (an hearbe like a white 
thorne, having leaves like cotten on them) and sugar, and 
divers kinds of Indian wood, as Fernandbuckewood, 
Schomache, Fustocke, and Logwood, and a smal quantity 
of Dates. And these carry out of France great quantity 
of Linnen cloth, which we call white Roanes, and greater 

I605-I 7. 

[III.iii. I 34.] 

6o5-I 7. 

Their Diet. 


quantity of vittree Canvas, and Paper, some woollen 
cloth, much Corne, especially Wheate, good quantity of 
waxe and cardes, and the like commodities. The English 
bring into France great quantity of woollen cloaths, called 
Kersies and Cottons, Leade, Tynne, English Vitriall, or 
Shooemakers blacke, sheepe skinnes, and by stealth other 
Hides, forbidden to be exported, great quantity of 
Hearrings, and new found land Fish dried, of wooll 
(though forbidden to be exported), Oyle, Soape tunned, 
Soape ashes, old worne cloakes, and (I know not to what 
use) very old shooes, with other native and forraigne 
commodities. And they bring from thence Linnen 
cloathes, called white Roanes, and Vitree Canvas, Paper, 
white and red wines in great quantity, Threed, Saffron, 
Waxe, and from Paris Gold and silver. The Hollanders 
bring into France two or three kindes of their Linnen 
cloathes, Copper, Feathers, and Wier, and they carry 
thence the foresaid Linnen cloathes, Wines, Prunes, Paper, 
and the above named commodities. The French carry 
into Italy Tinne, Lead, dry fish, called Poore John, 
(brought to them by the English), and their owne above 
named commodities. And they bring out of Italy silke 
cloaths, and other Italian commodities. Among the 
French, onely those of Marseile trafficke with the Turkes, 
and their greatest trade is onely at Tripoli in Syria, who 
carry into Turkey Spanish silver, and French Linnen 
cloathes, and bring from thence raw silke, spices, gals, 
cotton, and Indico for dying. 
Old Writers relate that the Gals used to lie on the 
ground, to feed on milke and Swines flesh, and to be 
given to gluttony. At this day none eate lesse Bacon or 
dried flesh for ordinary diet, then the French, yet I cannot 
commend their temperance, since all, as well Men as 
Weomen, besides dinner and supper, use breakefasts and 
bevers, which they call collations and gouster, so eating 
foure times in the day. All France abounds with necess- 
aries for food, as well all kinds of Cattle, as fruites not 
inferiour in some places to those of Italy, and wild Boares, 


and Red Deare, (for they have no fallow Deare); and 
Birds and Fowle, and all kinds of Fish, affoorded by the 
Sea, and their many pleasant rivers, but their Beef is 
neither very good, nor much used. Their Sheep are lesse 
then ours in England, but the flesh of them is sweete and 
savoury. In the Innes they have greater plenty of 
Partridges, and divers kinds of Birds, because the 
Countrey people neither doe nor may eate them, and the 
Gentlemen are generally sparing in their ordinary diet, so 
as great plenty of these dainties is brought to the chiefe 
Innes. Howsoever England be happy in all aboundance, 
and hath some dainties fbr food proper to it selfe, as God- 
wits, and some other kinds of Sea Fowle, and especially 
fallow Deare and Brawne: Though it passeth France 
generally in plenty of Sea Fowles, and as well the variety 
as plenty of Sea fishes, yet hath it not such aboundance as 
France hath of Land Fowle, or such as haunt the woods 
and fields, as Partridges, Feasants, Woodcocks, and the 
like, or at least by reason of the common sort not feeding 
thereon, and the said spare ordinary diet of the Gentle- 
men, France seemeth much more to abound with them, 
being common in all the chiefe Innes. I speake of 
England in generall, for in some places they so abound 
with us, as they beare little or no price. 
The French are commended and said to excell others in 
boyled meates, sawces, and made dishes, vulgarly called 
Qelques choses, but in my opinion the larding of their 
meates is not commendable, whereby they take away all 
variety of taste, making all meates savor of Porke; and 
the French alone delight in mortified meates. They use 
not much whitmeates, nor have I tasted there any good 
Butter, which our Ambassadours cause to be brought unto 
them out of England, and they have onely one good kinde 
of Cheeses called Angelots, pleasing more for a kind of 
sharpenesse in taste, then for the goodnesse. As well 
the Gentlemen as Citizens live more sparingly then the 
English in their ordinary private diet, and have not their 
Tables so furnished with variety and number of dishes. 


4boundance of 
Land Fowle. 

[III.iii. 35. ] 

4 Maid,hers 

The Innes. 


They dine most with sodden and liquid meates, and sup 
with roasted meates, each having his severall sawce: but 
their Feasts are more sumptuous then ours, and consist 
for the most part of made fantasticall meates and sallets, 
and sumptuous compositions, rather then of flesh or birds. 
And the cookes are most esteemed, who have best inven- 
tion in new made and compounded meats. And as in al 
things the French are chearefull and nimble, so the Italians 
observe that they eate or swallow their meate swiftly, and 
adde, that they are also slovenly at meate, but I would 
rather say they are negligent or carelesse, and little curious 
in their feeding. And to this purpose I remember an 
accident that happened to a Frenchman, eating with us 
at the Masters table in a Venetian ship governed by 
Greekes, and sailing from Venice to Hierusalem, who 
turning his foule trencher to lay meat on the cleane side, 
did so offend the Master and all the Marriners, as well 
the best as common sort, as they hardly refrained from 
offering him violence. For Marriners in generall, but 
especially the Greekes are so superstitious, as they tooke 
this his negligence in turning his trencher, (being of 
like opinion for the turning of any thing in the ship upside 
downe) as if it had been an ominous signe, that the ship 
should be cast away. 
In a Village of Normandy halfe way betweene Roane 
and Diepe called Totes, and in like sort in all the Innes 
of those parts, before the civill warre, assoone as 
passengers lighted from their horses, the Hoast gave them 
water to wash, and bread and wine; for the French have 
not the patience to expect their supper without some 
refection. Then at supper the table was served with 
Mutton, a Capon or Pullet, Patridges and like meates, 
with a kind of banquet, as in Summer, Apples, Cherries, 
and Grapes, and in Winter, Chessenuts, Rice, Raysons, 
and stewed Prunes. Then they gave their guests cleane 
sheetes, drying them at the tier in their presence, and in 
the morning gave them for breakfast some buttered tostes, 
or morsell of meate, and for all this together with horse- 


meate, each man paid some twenty two or twenty five 
soulz; as likewise the bating at noone for horse and man, 
cost each some ten soulz. After the civill warre I passed 
through these parts, and commonly each meale paid twelve 
or fifteene soulz, with worse intertainment, and for breake- 
fasts paid severally, but no great rate. Towards the 
confines of Flanders, the Hoasts onely cover the table, 
and a side table, upon which everie passenger hath his 
glasse, for the French are curious not to drinke in another 
roans cup, and the Hoasts are onely to bee paid for this 
service. Otherwise at times of eating, they call the 
Cookes dwelling neere the Innes, who bring the best 
meates they have, and when the guests have chosen their 
meate, and agreed for the price, they carry it backe to 
dresse it, and so send it warme with sawces. In generall, 
through the Cities of France, passengers seldome dine at 
their Innes, but with some compamons goe to the 
Tavernes or Cookes shops: but at night they must eate 
with the Hoast that gives them beds, where they shall 
have cleane sheetes, and see them dried before their faces, 
but they are of course cloth, and very few chambers are 
private, but most have three or foure beds, wherein they 
lye not single, but for the most part with bedfellowes. 
Also the guests aswell Merchants and Gentlemen, as those 
of common sort, eate at an ordinary table, and for supper 
commonly large with divers roasted meates, each man 
payes some fifteene soulz. He that hiers a chamber in 
Cities, which he may have well furnished at Paris for some 
two Crownes a moneth, he must buy his meate at Cookes 
shops, which are frequent and very cleanly, neither is it 
any disgrace, as with us, to buy a morsell of meate there, 
and to agree for the price before it bee eaten. And they 
that hier chambers can have no better conveniency for 
diet, either at Paris, or in other Cities. But hee that 
stayes long in a Citie, may agree in a Citizens house, or 
an Inne for his diet and lodging by the yeere, which hee 
may have at Paris in extraordinary sort for some one 
hundred fifty Crownes yeerely, and ordinarily for lesse; 

6o5-I 7. 

must eate with 
their Hoast. 

[III.iii.  36.] 


and at Rone for one hundred twenty, or one hundred 
Crownes, and in many Cities for eighty Crownes, and in 
many good Innes for sixty Crownes yeerely. Drunken- 
nesse is reprochfull among the French, and the greater 
pa.rt drinke water mingled with wine, and alwaies French 
wines, not Sacke or Spanish wines (which are sold as 
Phisicke onely by Apothecaries), or other forraigne 
Wines, whereof I remember not to have seene any in the 
Northerne parts of France. Yet Marriners, Souldiers 
and many of the common sort used to drinke Perry and 
Syder to very drunkennes, yea, I have seene many drink 
wine with like intemperance, and when these kinds of men 
sit at drinking, they use much mirth and singing (in which 
art they take great delight), as the French in generall are 
by nature chearefull and lively. Women for the most 
part, and virgins alwaies (except by stealth they offend 
against the custome) use to drinke water, except it be in 
the Provinces yeelding Perry and Syder, which all sorts 
use to drinke without exception. And at Paris I remember 
to have seene a poore woman to beg a cup of water, 
which being given her, she drunke it off, and went away 
merily, as if she had received a good alines. 


Of England, 

Chap. III. 
touching the particular subjects of 
the first Chapter. 
He Longitude of England extends nine 
degrees and a halfe, from the meridian of 
thirteene degrees and a halfe to that of 
twenty three degrees, and the latitude 
extends sixe degrees, from the paralell of 
fifty degrees and a halfe to that of fifty 
sixe degrees and a halfe. Learned Cam- 

den (whom I gladly follow in this description of England) 
makes the circuite of all Britany to be one thousand eight 
hundred thirty six miles. This is the most famous Iland 


of all the World, and is divided into two Kingdomes, that 
of England, and that of Scotland. England is sub- 
devided into divers Counties or Shyres and Ilands. 
r In the description whereof I will first begin with 
Cornwall, of old inhabited by the Danmonii. It is for 
the most part a Mountanous Country, but the soyle is not 
unfirtile, besides that the people incredibly fatten the same 
with laying upon it the owes of the Sea, called Orwood, 
and a certaine mud. The Sea coast (as Camden writeth, 
whom I follow) is beautified with very many Townes, 
which have much shipping. The inward parts abound 
with a rich vaine of Mettals, where wonderfull quantitie 
of most pure Tinne is digged up, and not onely Tinne, 
but Gold and Silver with it, and I)yamonds formed into 
Angles by nature it selfe, which we call Cornish 
Dyamonds. Eringo grows plentifully all along the Sea 
side, and with great labour of the Husbandman, they have 
such aboundance of Corne, as great quantity of wheate is 
yeerely exported thence into Spaine. Also the inhabitants 
make great gaine by the fishing of Pilchards, which they 
salt and drie in the smoke, and export an huge multitude 
of them yeerely into Spaine and Italy. Here is the 
famous Mount Michael (of old called Dinsol, and by the 
inhabitants the Rock Cana.) This Rocke is somewhat 
high and craggy, upon the top whereof is a Chappell, 
dedicated to Michael the Arch-Angell. The Towne Fale- 
mouth hath a faire Haven, capeable of very many shippes, 
and most safe from stormes, where the Rockes doe fortifie 
two Castles, built by Henry the eight, and this Haven is 
by Ptolomy called Ostium Cenionis. 
2 Devonshire likewise inhabited by the I)anmonii, hath 
fairer Havens, being no lesse rich in the vaines of Tinne, 
and beautified with frequent Townes. In no part of Eng- 
land the ground requireth more expence, for m many 
places it is barren, till it bee fatted with the Owse or sand 
of the Sea, which makes it wonderfully fruitfull, but in the 
remotest parts from the Sea, this sand is dearely bought: 
The River Plimus gives the name to the Towne Plim- 


I6O5- 7. 

[III.iii. I37. ] 




mouth, of old called Sutton, which grew from a fishers 
Village to a faire Towne, by the commoditie of the Haven, 
being most safe even for great ships, as well in the said 
River, as in another called Tamera. Not farre from 
thence is the place, where they fable, that Coryneus 
wrastled with Gogmagog, and in this Towne was borne 
Sir Francis Drake Knight, the cheefe glory of our Age 
for Navigation, who for two yeeres space did with con- 
tinual victories as it were besiege the Gulfe of Mexico, 
and in the yeere I577, entring the straight of Magellan, 
compassed the World in two yeeres and tenne moneths, 
with many changes and hazards of Fortune. The Towne 
Dortmouth is much frequented with Merchants and strong 
shippes, for the commodity of the Haven, fortified with 
two Castles. The City Excester called Isen by Ptolomy 
and of olde called Monketon of the Monkes, is the cheefe 
City of the County, and the seate of the Bishop. 
3 Dorsetshire was of old inhabited by the Durotriges. 
The Towne Weymouth hath a Castle built by Henry the 
eighth, to fortifie the Haven. Dorchester is the cheefe 
towne of the County, but neither great nor faire. 
4 Sommersetshire was of old inhabited by the Nether- 
landers, and is a large and rich County, happy in the 
fruitfull soyle, rich Pastures, multitude of Inhabitants, and 
commodity of Havens. The chiefe Towne Bridgewater 
hath the name of the Bridge and the water. In the Iland 
Avallon, (so called in the Britans tongue of the Apples), 
which the Latins cals Glasconia, flourished the Monastery 
Glastenbury, of great antiquity, derived from Joseph of 
Arimathia. Dunstan casting out the ancient Monkes, 
brought thither the Benedictines of a later institution, and 
himselfe was the first Abbot over a great multitude of 
Monkes, indowed with Kingly revenewes. In the Church 
yard of this Monastery, they say that the great worthy of 
the Britans Prince Arthur hath his Sepulcher. The 
Episcopall little City called Wells of the Wells, or 
Fountaines, hath a stately Bishops Pallace. The City 
Bathe is famous for the medicinall Baths, whereof three 



Fountaines spring in the very City, which are wholsome 
for bodies nummed with ill humours, but are shut up 
certaine howers of the day, that no man should enter them 
till by their sluces they be purged of all filth. The 
Bishop of Welles buying this City of Henry the first, 
removed his Eplscopall seate thither, yet still keeping the 
old name of Bishop of Welles, and there built a new 
Cathedrall Church. The City Bristowe is compassed with 
a double wall, and hath so faire buildings, as well publike 
as private houses, as next to London and Yorke, it is 
preferred to all other Cities of England. 
5 Wilshire was also inhabited by the Belgie or Nether- 
landers, and lies all within land, rich in all parts with 
pastures and corne. Malmesbury is a faire Towne 
famous for the woollen clothes. The Towne Wilton, of 
old the cheefe of this County, is now a little Village, 
beautified with the stately [pallace of the Earles of [Pen- 
broke. The City of Salisbury is made pleasant with 
waters running through the streetes, and is beautified with 
a stately Cathedrall Church, and the Colledge of the 
Deane and [prebends, having rich Inhabitants in so 
pleasant a seate, yet no way more famous then by having 
John Jewell a late worthy Bishop borne there. Some sixe 
miles from Salisbury, is a place in the fields where huge 
stones are erected, whereof some are eight and twenty 
foote high, and seven broade, standing in three rowes 
after the forme of a crowne, uppon which other stones are 
so laied acrosse, as it seemes a worke hanging in the Ayre, 
whereupon it is called Stoneheng vulgarly, and is reputed 
among Miracles, as placed there by Merlin, there being 
scarce any stone for ordinary building in the Territory 
6 Hamshire of old was inhabited within Land by the 
Belga3 or Netherlanders, and uppon the Sea coast by the 
Regni. William the Norman Conquerour, made here a 
Forrest for Deare, destroying Towns and holy buildings 
for some thirty miles compasse, which ground now well 
inhabited, yet serving for the same use, we call New- 
M. IV I4 K 



[III.iii. 138. ] 



Forest. Southampton a faire little City, lies upon the 
Sea. Wintchester of old called Venta of the Belgie, was 
a famous City in the time of the Romans, and in these 
daies it is well inhabited, watered with a pleasant Brooke 
and pleasantly seated, and hath an olde Castle; wherein 
there hanges against the wall a Table of a round forme 
vulgarly called Prince Arthurs round Table : but Camden 
thinkes it to have been made long after his time. It hath 
a Cathedrall Church, and large Bishops Pallace, and a 
famous Colledge founded for training up young Schollers 
in learning, whence many learned men have been first sent 
to the University, and so into the Church and Common- 
wealth. In the Towne or Fort of Portsmouth, lies a 
Garrison of souldiers, to defend those parts from the 
incursions of the French by Sea. 
7 Barkshire was of old inhabited by the Atrebatii. 
Newbery a famous Towne inriched by wollen clothes, had 
his beginning of the ancient Towne Spina. Windsore is 
famous by the Kings Castle, neither can a Kings seate bee 
in a more pleasant situation, which draweth the Kings 
often to retire thither, and Edward the third kept at one 
time John King of France, and David King of Scotland, 
captives in this Castle. The same Edward the third built 
here a stately Church, and dedicated it to the blessed 
Virgin Mary and to S. George the Capadocian, and first 
instituted the order of Knights, called of the Garter, as an 
happy omen of victory in warre (happily succeeding), who 
weare under the left knee a watchet Garter buckled, 
having this mot in the French tongue graven in letters 
of gold, Hony soit qui real' y pense, and the ceremonies 
of this order hee instituted to be kept in this Church. 
8 The County of Surry was of old inhabited by the 
Regni. Otelands is beautified with the Kins very faire 
and pleasant house, as Richmond is with the ings stately 
9 The County of Sussex, of old inhabited by the Regni, 
hath the faire City Chichester, and the Haven Rhie, 
knowne by being the most frequented passage into France. 

[lll.iii. 39. ] 



fertile in Corne and ffuites, as in some places it yeelds a 
hundreth measures of graine for one sowed : but Camden 
affirmes this to bee false. The same Vriter affirmes that 
the very high waies are full of Appell trees, not planted, 
but growing by the nature of the soyle, and that the 
fruits so growing, are better then others planted, both in 
beauty, taste, and lasting, being to be kept a whole yeere 
from rotting. He adds, that it yeelded in his time plenty 
of Vines, abounding with Grapes of a pleasant taste, so 
as the wines made thereof were not sharpe, but almost as 
pleasant as the French wines, which Camden thinkes 
probable, there being many places still called Vineyards, 
and attributes it rather to the Inhabitants slothfulnesse, 
then to the fault of the Ayre or soyle, that it yeeldes not 
wine at this day. Tewkesbury is a large and faire Towne, 
having three Bridges over three Rivers, and being famous 
for making of woollen cloth, for excellent mustard, and 
a faire Monastery, in which the Earles of Glocester have 
their Sepulchers. The City of Glocester is the cheefe of 
the County, through which the Severne runnes, and here 
are the famous Hils of Cotswold, upon which great flockes 
of sheepe doe feede, yeelding most white wooll, much 
esteemed of all Nations. Circester is an ancient City, the 
largenesse whereof in old time appeares by the ruines of 
the wals. The River Onse springeth in this County, 
which after yeeldes the name to the famous River Thames, 
falling into it. 
x z Oxfordshire also was inhabited by the Dobuni, a 
fertile County, the plaines whereof are bewtified with 
meadowes and groves, the hils with woods, and not onely 
it abounds with corne, but with all manner of cattle, and 
game for hunting and hawking, and with many Rivers 
full of fish. Woodstocke Towne is famous for the Kings 
House and large Parke, compassed with a stone wall, 
which is said to have been the first Parke in England, 
but our Progenitors were so delighted with hunting, as 
the Parkes are now growne infinite in number, and are 
thought to containe more fallow Deere, then all the 
x4 8 


Christian World besides. Histories affirme, that Henry 
the second, for his Mistris Rosamond of the Cliffords 
house, did build in his house here a labyrinth unpassable 
by any without a threed to guide them, but no ruines 
thereof now remaine. The Towne it selfe hath nothing 
to boast, but that Jeffry Chaucer the English Homer was 
borne there. Godstowe of old a Nunnery, is not farre 
distant, where Rosamond was buried. Oxford is a famous 
University, giving the name to the County, and was so 
called of the Foorde for Oxen, or of the Foorde, and the 
River Onse. 
13 Buckinghamshire was of old inhabited by the 
Cattienchiani (which Camden thinks to be the Cassei), and 
it hath a large and pleasant towne called Ailsbury, which 
gives the name to the Valley adjoyning. The city 
Buckingham is the chiefe of the County, and the Towne 
of Stonystratford is well knowne for the faire Innes and 
stately Bridge of stone. 
14 Bedfordshire had the same old inhabitants, and hath 
the name of Bedford the chiefe Towne. 
15 Hertfordshire had the same old inhabitants, and the 
chiefe Towne is Hertford. In this County is the stately 
house Thibaulds, for building, Gardens and Walks. Saint 
Albons is a pleasant Towne, full of faire Innes. 
16 Midlesex County was of old inhabited by the Trino- 
bants, called Mercii in the time of the Saxon Kings. In 
this County is the Kings stately pallace Hamptencourt, 
having many Courtyards compassed with sumptuous 
buildings. London, the seate of the Brittans Empire, and 
!he Chamber of the Kings of England, is so famous, as 
at needes not bee praysed. It hath Colledges for the 
studie of the municiple Lawes, wherein live many young 
Gentlemen Students of the same. The little citie West- 
minster of old more then a mile distant, is now by faire 
buildings joyned to London, and is famous for the Church 
(wherein the Kings and Nobles have stately Sepulchers) 
and for the Courts of Justice at Westminster Hall, where 
the Parliaments are extraordinarily held, and ordinarily 


I6O5-I 7. 


M idletex. 




the Chancerie & Kings Bench, with like Courts. Also it 
hath the Kings stately Pallace called Whitehall, to which 
is joyned the Parke and house of Saint James. The Citie 
of London hath the sumptuous Church of Saint Paul, 
beautified with rich Sepulchers, and the Burse or Exchange 
a stately house built for the meeting of Merchants : a very 
sumptuous and wonderfull Bridge built over the Thames: 
rich shops of Gold-smiths in Cheapeside, and innumerable 
statelie Pallaces, whereof great part lye scattered in unfre- 
quented lanes. 
17 Essex County had of old the same inhabitants, and 
it is a large Teritorie, yeelding much Corne and Saffron, 
enriched by the Ocean, and with pleasant Rivers for 
fishing, with Groves, and many other pleasures : It hath a 
large Forrest for hunting, called Waltham Forrest. 
Chensford is a large and faire Towne, neere which is New- 
Hall the stately Pallace of the Ratcliffes Earles of Sussex. 
Colchester is a faire City, pleasantly seated, well inhabited, 
and beautified with fifteene Churches, which greatly 
flourished in the time of the Romans. Harewich is a safe 
Haven for ships. Saffron Walden is a faire Towne, the 
fields whereof yeeld plenty of Saffron, whereof it hath 
part of the name. 
x8 The County of Suffolke was of old inhabited by 
the Iceni, and it is large, the soile fertile, pleasant in 
groves, and rich in pastures to fat Cattle, where great 
quantity of Cheese is made and thence exported. Saint 
Edmondsberry vulgarly called Berry, is a faire Towne, and 
so is Ipswich, having stately built Churches and houses, 
and a commodious Haven. 
9 The County of Norfolke had of old the same 
Inhabitants, and it is a large almost all Champion 
Countrey, very rich, and abounding with sheepe, and 
especially with Conies, fruitfull and most populous. The 
City Norwich chiefe of the County, deserves to be 
numbered among the chiefe Cities of England, for the 
riches, populousnesse, beauty of the Houses, and the faire 
building of the Churches. Yarmouth is a most faire 


Towne, fortified by nature and diligent Art, and hath a 
very faire Haven. Upon the bay which Ptolomy names, 
/Estuarium Metaris, vulgarly called the Washes, lieth the 
large Towne of Linne, famous for the safety of the Haven, 
most easie to be entred, for the concourse of Merchants 
and the faire buildings. 
2c) Cambridgeshire had of old the same Inhabitants, 
and consists all of open corne fields, (excepting some places 
yeelding Saffron), and it gives excellent Barly, of which 
steeped till it spring againe, they make great quantity of 
Mault to brew Beere, in such quantity as the Beere is 
much exported even into. forraigne parts, and there highly 
esteemed. Cambridge s a famous University, seated 
upon the River Grant, by others called Came, of which 
and the Bridge over the same, it is called Cambridge. 
The Northerne part of this County consists of Ilands 
greene and pleasant in Summer, but all covered with water 
in the Winter, whereof the cheefe called Ely, gives the 
name to all the rest, called (as if they were but one Iland,) 
the Ile of Ely, the cheefe Towne whereof called also Ely, 
is famous for being the seate of a Bishop. 
2I Huntingdonshire had of old the same Inhabitants, 
the cheefe Towne whereof is Huntingdon. 
22 Northamptonshire was of old inhabited by the 
Coritani, and is a Countrey most painefully tilled and full 
of Inhabitants. Northampton is the cheefe City large and 
walled. Peterborow is the seate of a Bishop. Neere 
Stamford is the stately Pallace Burleigh, built by William 
the first, Lord Burleigh. 
23 Leycestershire had of old the same Inhabitants, a 
Champion Country and fruitfull in bearing Corne. In 
Lutterworth a little Towne of Trade, John Wickliffe was 
Pastor or Minister. Leicester the cheefe City, hath more 
antiquitie then beauty. 
24 Rutlandshire had of old the same Inhabitants, and is 
the least County of England, and had the name of the red 
Earth. The Towne of Uppingham deserves no other 
mention, then that it is the cheefe Towne of the County. 





[III.iii. I43. ] 


36 Monmouthshire had of old the same inhabitants, 
and is so called of the chiefe Towne, no way so glorious, 
as in that Henry the fifth Conquerer of France was borne 
there. It hath also another faire Towne called Chepstow. 
37 Glamorganshire the fourth County of Wales, had of 
old the same inhabitants, and the chiefe Citie Caerdiffe 
hath a commodious Haven. 
38 Caermardenshire the fifth County of Wales, was of 
old inhabited by the Dimeta3, and is fruitefull in Corne, 
abounds in Sheepe, and in some places yeelds Pit-coale. 
It hath the name of the chiefe Citie, where Merlin was 
borne, begotten by an Incubus Devill, whom the common 
people tooke for a most famous Prophet. 
39 Pembrookeshire the sixth County of Wales, had of 
old the same inhabitants. Here a long neck of land 
makes an Haven, called Milford haven, then which Europe 
hath not a more noble Haven, or more safe, or more large, 
with many creekes and safe roades, made more famous by 
the landing of H. the seventh. Pembrook is the chiefe 
Towne of the County. The Flemming having their 
Townes drowned by the Sea, had a Territorie of this 
County given them to inhabit by Henry the first, before 
Wales was subdued, and they ever remained most faithfull 
to the Kings of England. 
40 Kardiganshire the seventh County of Wales, and 
had of old the same inhabitants, and hath the name of the 
chiefe City. 
41 Montgomeryshire the eight County of Wales, was 
of old inhabited by the Ordovices, and hath the name of 
the chiefe Towne. 
42 Merionethshire the ninth County of Wales, had of 
old the same Inhabitants, where upon the mountaines 
great flockes of sheepe feede, without any danger of the 
wolfe : for the wolves were destroied through all England, 
when Edgar King of England imposed the yeerely tribute 
of three hundreth wolves upon Luduall Prince of Wales. 
The little and poore towne Bala, is the cheefe of this 
Mountenous people. 


43 Caernarvonshire the tenth County of Wales, had of 
old the same Inhabitants, and was called Snodenforest, 
before Wales was reduced into Counties, so called of the 
mountaines, whose tops are alwaies white with snow, 
deserving to be named the Alps of Britany; and it is 
certaine that there be lakes and standing waters upon the 
tops of those Mountaines. The walled City Caernarvon 
cheefe of the County, hath a most faire Castle, built by 
Edward the first, wherein his sonne Edward the second 
was borne, and named thereof. Bangor (that is, faire 
Chancell) is the seate of a Bishop. Aberconway deserves 
the name of a strong and faire little City, rather then of 
a Towne, save that it is not full of Inhabitants. 
44 Denbighshire the eleventh County of Wales, had of 
old the same Inhabitants, and hath the name of the cheefe 
Towne, well inhabited. The little Village Momglath had 
the name of the mines of lead, which that pleasant terri- 
tory yeelds. Not far thence is the Towne Wrexham, 
bewtified with a most faire Tower, called the Holy Tower, 
and commended for the musicall Organes in the Church. 
45 The little County Flintshire the twelfth of Wales, 
had of old the same Inhabitants, the fields whereof the 
first yeere after they have line fallow, yeeld more then 
twenty measures for one, in some places of Barly, in other 
places of Wheate, and generally of Rie, and after for foure 
or five yeeres, yeel.d Oates. Holiwell (named of the 
sacred Fountaine) is a little Towne, where is the 
Fountaine of Winefrede a Christian Virgin, who being 
deftoured by force, there was killed by the Tyrant, and 
this Fountaine is farre and greatly famous for the Mosse 
there growing of a most pleasant smell. A faire Chappell 
of Free stone is built upon the very Fountaine, and a little 
streame runnes out of it among stones, upon which a 
certaine bloody humour growes. The Castle Flint gave 
the name to the County. 
46 I will omit Anglesey the thirteenth County of 
Wales, because it is to be described among the Ilands. 
47 Yorkeshire is the farre largest County of all Eng- 


Other Shires 
of England. 


[III.iii. 44-] 


land, and was of old inhabited by the Brigantes. In the 
Forrest called Hatfield Chase, are great Heards of red 
Deare and Harts. The Townes of Sheffield and Dan- 
caster are well knowne, but of all other Hallifax is most 
famous, for the Priviledges and the rare Law, by which any 
one found in open theft, is without delay beheaded, and 
boasteth that John de sacra bosco (of the Holy Wood) 
who writ of the Sphere, was borne there. Wakefield is a 
famous Towne for making Woollen cloth. Pontfreit 
named of the broken bridge, is a towne fairely built, and 
hath a Castle as stately built as any can be named. Neere 
the little Village Towton are the very Pharsalian fields of 
England, which did never see in any other place so great 
Forces, and so many Nobles in Armes, as here, in the 
yeere I46I , when in the civill warres, the faction of Yorke 
in one battell killed five and thirty thousand of the Lan- 
castrian faction. Neere the Castle Knarsborow, is the 
Fountaine called Droppingwell, because the waters distill 
by drops from the rockes, into which any wood being cast, 
it hath been observed, that in short space it is covered 
with a stony rinde, and hardens to a stone. Rippen had 
a most flourishing Monastery, where was the most famous 
needle of the Archbishop Wilfred. It was a narrow hole, 
by which the chastity of women was tried, the chaste 
easily passing through it, but others being detained and 
held fast, I know not by what miracle or art. Neare the 
little towne Burrobridge, is a place, where stand foure 
Pyramides, the Trophees of the Romans, but of rude 
workmanship. Yorke the chiefe Citie of the Brigantes, 
is the second of all England, and the seate of an Arch- 
bishop. The Emperour Constantius Chlorus died there, 
and there begat his sonne Constantine the great of his 
first wife Helena, whereof may be gathered, how much 
this seate of the Emperours flourished in those daies. By 
a Pall (or Archbishops cloake) sent from Pope Honorius, 
it was made a Metropolitan Citie over twelve Bishops in 
England, and al the Bishops of Scotland, but some five 
hundred yeeres past, all Scotland fell from this Metro- 
5 8 


politan seate, and it selfe hath so devoured the next 
Bishoprickes, as now it onely hath primacy over foure 
English Bishops, of Durham, of Chester, of Carlile, and 
the Bishop of the Ile of man. Henry the eight did here 
institute a Councell (as he did also in Wales) not unlike 
the Parliaments of France, to give arbitrary justice to 
the Northerne inhabitants, consisting of a President, 
Counsellors, as many as the King shall please to appoint, 
a Secretary, &c. Hull a well knowne Citie of trade, lyes 
upon the River Humber, where they make great gaine 
of the Iseland fish, called Stockfish. Upon the very 
tongue, called Spurnehead of the Promontory, which 
Ptolorny, calles Ocellum, vulgarly called Holdernesse, is 
a place famous by the landing of Henry the fourth. Scar- 
borrough is a famous Castle, where in the sea is great 
fishing of Herrings. 
48 Richmondshire had of old the same i,ahabitants, and Richmen- 
the Mountaines plentifully yeeld leade, pit-coales, and shire. 
some brasse, upon the tops whereof stones are found, 
which have the figures of shelfishes and other fishes of the 
neighboring sea. Neare the Brookes Helbechs (as 
infernal), are great heards of Goates, Fallow and Red- 
Deare, and Harts (notable for their greatnesse, and the 
spreading of their hornes.) Richmond is the chiefe Citie 
of the County. 
49 The Bishoprick of Durham had of old the same The Bishop- 
inhabitants, and the land is very gratefull to the plower, rick f 
striving to passe his labour in fruitfulnesse. It is pleasant Durham. 
in Meadowes, Pastures and groves, and yeelds great 
plenty of digged Coales, called Sea-coales. The Bishops 
were of old Counts Palatine, and had their royall rightes, 
so as Traytors goods fell to them, not to the Kings. 
Edward the first tooke away these priviledges, and Edward 
the sixth dissolved the Bishopricke, till Qeene Mary 
restored all to the Church, which it injoies to this day, 
but the Bishop in Q.eene Elizabeths time, challenging the 
goods of the Earle of Westmerland rebelling, the Parlia- 
ment interposed the authority therof, and for the time 


dini, and the inhabitants of our time, now exercising 
themselves in warre against the Scots, now resisting their 
incursions upon these borders, are very warlike and 
excellent light Horsemen. In very many places this 
County yeelds great quantity of Sea coales. Newcastle is 
a faire and rich City, well fortified against the incursions 
of the bordering Scots, whence aboundance of Sea coales 
is transported into many parts. Barwicke is the last and 
best fortified Towne of all Britany, in which a Garrison of 
Souldiers was maintained against the incursions of the 
Scots, till the happy Raigne of James King of England 
and Scotland. 
To describe breefly the Ilands of England. In the 
narrow Sea into which the Severne fals, are two little 
Ilands I Fatholme, and 2 Stepholme, and the 3 Iland 
Barry, which gave the name to the Lord Barry in Ireland. 
There is also the 4 Iland Caldey, and that of 5 Londay 
much more large, having a little Towne of the same name, 
and belonging to Devonshire. 
On the side upon Pembrookeshire, are the Ilands 6 
Gresholme; 7 Stockholme, and 8 Scalmcy, yeelding 
grasse and wild thime. Then Northward followes 9 
Lymen, called Ramsey by the English, and Saint Davids 
Ilands, right over against the seate of the Bishop of Saint 
Davy. Next is the IO Iland called Enhly by the Welsh 
Britans, and Berdsey (as the Ile of Birds) by the English, 
wherein they report that twenty thousand Saints lie buried. 
Next lies I I Mona, (that is the shadowed or dusky 
Iland) which after many yeeres being conquered by the 
English, was by them called Anglesey, (as the Iland of the 
English). It is a most noble Iland, the old seate of the 
Druides (Priests so called of old), and so fruitfull, as it is 
vulgarly called the Mother of XNales, the cheefe Towne 
whereof is Beaumarish. Neere that lies 2 Prestholme, 
(that is, the Priests Iland), whereof the Inhabitants and 
Neighbours make incredible reports for the multitude of 
Sea Fowle there breeding. 
Next followes 13 Mona or Monoeda, (as the farther 
M. IV I61 L 


[III.iii.45. ] 

The lland 
of Enland. 



who being beheaded for Treason, the Iland fell by right to 
Henry the fourth King of England, who assigned the same 
to Henry Pearcy Earle of Northumberland, with proviso 
that he and his Heires at the coronation of the Kings of 
England, should carry the Sword, (vulgarly called Lan- 
caster Sword) before the King, but the same Persey being 
also killed in civill warre, the King gave that Iland to 
Stanlye, from whom discend the Earles of Darby, who 
kept the same, till Ferdinand Earle of Darby dying with- 
out heire male, and the Earledome falling to his Brother, 
but this Iland to his Daughters, as Heires generall, Qeene 
Elizabeth thinking it unfit that Women should bee set 
over her Souldiers there in garrison, gave the keeping 
thereof to Sir Thomas Gerrard. But King James the 
foureteenth of August in the fifth yeere of his Raigne, 
granted by Letters Pattents this Iland with all things 
thereunto appertaining, to Henry Earle of Northampton, 
and Robert Earle of Salisbury, their Heires and Assignes 
for ever, they upon doing homage for the same, presenting 
his Majesty with two Falcons, and his Heires and 
Successours at their Coronation in like sort with two 
Falcons. And howsoever no use or intent of this grant 
be mentioned in these Letters Pattents, yet no doubt the 
grant was made to the use of those upon whose humble 
petition to his Majesty the Letters Pattents were granted, 
as therein is expressely declared, namely of William Lord 
Stanly, Earle of Darby, heire male to John Lord Stanly, 
and of Elizabeth Countesse of Huntington, Anne wife 
to the Lord Chandois, and Francis wife to Sir John 
Egerton Knight, being the Heires generall of the said 
John Lord Stanly. 
The famous River Thames fals into the German Ocean 
over against Zeland, and before it fals into the same, 
makes the (I4) Iland Canvey upon the Coast of Essex, 
so low as it is often overflowed, all but some higher hils, 
to which the sheepe retire, being some foure thousand in 
number, the flesh whereof is of delicate taste, and they 
are milked by young men. Neere that is the (I5) Iland 

[III.iii.46. ] 

lland Canvey. 


The lle of 

Gerzey and 


Sheppey, so called of the sheepe, wherein is Q.ginborrough 
a most faire Castle kept by a Constable. Without the 
mouth of Thames, lie the shelfes or sands dangerous to 
Sea men, which of the greatest, are all called Goodwin 
sands, where they say an Iland the patrimony of the same 
Earle Goodwinn was devoured by the Sea in the yeere 
In the Britan Sea lies the (16) Ile of Wight, having in 
the Sea most plentifull fishing, and the Land being so 
fruitfull as they export Corne, besides that in all parts it 
hath plenty of Conies, Hares, Partridges, and Feasanes, 
and hath also two Parkes of Fallow Deare. Also the 
sheepe feeding there upon the pleasant hils, yeeld wool in 
goodnesse next to the Fleeces of Lemster and Cotswold 
Flockes. It hath sixe and thirty Townes and Castles, and 
the Ecclesiasticall Jurisdiction thereof belongs to the 
Bishop of Wintchester. Towards the West lie other 
Ilands pretented to be French, but subject to England, 
namely, ( 7) Gerzey (whither condemned men were of old 
banished) & (18) Garnsey, neither so great nor so fruitful, 
but having a more commodious Haven, upon which lles 
the Towne of Saint Peter : both Ilands burne a weede of 
the Sea, or Sea coales brought out of England, and both 
speake the French Language. I omit the seven Iles called 
Siadre, and others adjoyning, and will onely adde that the 
Ilands lie neere Cornewall, which the Greekes called Hes- 
perides, the Engl!sh call Silly, and the Netherlanders call 
Sorlings, being n number some 145 more or lesse, 
whereof some yeeld Wheate, all abound with Conies, 
Cranes, Swannes, Hirnshawes, and other Sea Birdes. The 
greatest of them is called Saint Mary, and hath a Castle 
wherein Souldiers lie in Garrison, committed in our time 
to the keeping of Sir Francis Godolphin, and after to his 
sonne Sir William Godolphin, being of a noble Family in 
Cornewall. Also many of the said Ilands have vaines 
of Tynne, and from hence was Leade first carried into 
Greece, and the Roman Emperours banished condemned 
men hither, to worke in the Mines of mettall. 


The ayre of England is temperate, but thicke, cloudy 
and misty, and Cesar witnesseth, that the cold is not so 
piercing in England as in France. For the Sunne draweth 
up the vapours of the Sea which compasseth the Iland, 
and distills them upon the earth in frequent showers of 
raine, so that frosts are somewhat rare ; and howsoever 
Snow may often fall in the Winter time, yet in the 
Southerne parts (especially) it seldome lies long on the 
.round. Also the coole blasts of Sea winds, mittigate 
-he heat of Summer. 
By reason of this temper, Lawrell and Rosemary 
flourish all Winter, especially in the Southerne parts, and in 
Summer time England y..eelds Abricots plentifully, Muske 
melons in good quantxty, and Figges in some places, 
all which ripen well, and happily imitate the taste and 
goodnesse ot the same fruites in Italy. And by the same 
reason all beasts brin forth their young in the open fields, 
even in the time ot Winter; and England hath such 
aboundance of Apples, Peares, Cherries, and Plummes, 
such variety of them, and so good in all respects, as no 
countrie yeelds more or better, for which the Italians 
would gladly exchange their Citrons and Oranges. But 
upon the Sea coast, the winds many times blast the fruites 
in the very flower. 
The English are so naturally inclined to pleasure, as 
there is no Countrie, wherein the Gentlemen and Lords 
have so many and large Parkes onely reserved for the 
pleasure of hunting, or where all sorts of men alot so 
much ground about their houses for pleasure of Gardens 
and Orchards. The very Grapes, especially towards the 
South and West are of a pleasant taste, and I have said, 
that in some Counties, as in Glostershire, they made Wine 
of old, which no doubt many parts would yeeld at this day, 
but that the inhabitants forbeare to plant Vines, aswell 
because they are served plentifully, and at a good rate 
with French wines, as for that the hilles most fit to beare 
Grapes, yeeld more commoditie by feeding of Sheepe and 
Cattell. Cesar writes in his Commentaries, that Britany 

I605-I 7. 
The situation. 

The fertility 
and traffcke. 

[III.iii.147. ] 

The English 


yeelds white Leade within land, and Iron upon the Sea- 
coasts. No doubt England hath unexhaustible vaines of 
both, and also of Tinne, and yeelds great quantitie of 
Brasse, and of Allom and Iron, and abounds with quarries 
of Free-stone, and Fountaines of most pure Salt; and I 
formerly said that it yeelds some _quantity of Silver, and 
that the Tinne and Leade is mingled with Silver, but so, 
as it doth not largely quit the cost of the labour in seperat- 
ing or trying it. Two Cities yeeld medicinall Baths, 
namely, Buxstone and Bathe, and the waters of Bathe 
especially, have great vertue in many diseases. England 
abounds with Sea-coales upon the Sea-coast, and with Pit- 
coales within land. But the Woods at this day are rather 
frequent and pleasant then vast, being exhausted for tier, 
and with Iron-milles, so as the quantity of wood and 
charcoale for tier, is much deminished, in respect of the 
old abundance, and in some places, as in the Fennes they 
burne Turffe, and the very dung of Cowes. Yet in the 
meane time England exports great quantity of Seac0ale 
to lorraine parts. In like sort England hath infinite 
quantity, as of Mettalls, so of Wooll, and of Woollen 
cloathes to be exported. The English Beere is fixnous in 
Netherland and lower Germany, which is made of Barley 
and Hops; for England yeelds plenty of Hops, howso- 
ever they also use Flemish Hops. The Cities of lower 
Germany upon the sea, forbid the publike selling of 
English Beere, to satisfie their owne brewers, yet privately 
swallow it like Nectar. But in Netherland, great and 
incredible quantity thereof is spent. England abounds 
with corne, which they may transport, when a quarter (in 
some places containing sixe, in others eight bushels)is 
sold for twenty shillings, or under; and this corne not 
onely serves England, but also served the English _Army 
in the civil warres of Ireland, at which time they als0 
exported great quantity thereof into forraigne parts, and 
by Gods mercy England scarce once in ten yeeres needes 
supply of forraigne Corne, which want commonly pro- 
ceeds of the covetousnesse of private men, exporting or 

I6OS-I 7. 


The King 


Broad cloth, it yeelds for clothing many Stuffes, whereof 
great quantitie is also exported. And I will not omit, that 
howsoever it hath silke from forraigne parts, yet the 
English silke stockings are much to bee preferred before 
those of Italy, Spaine, or any part in the World. 
England abounds in Cattell of all kinds, and particularly 
hath very great Oxen, the flesh whereof is so tender, as 
no meate is more desired. The Cowes are also great 
with large udders, yeelding plenty of Whitmeates, no part 
in the World yeelding greater variety, nor better of that 
kind. And the hides of Oxen are (contrary to the 
common good) exported in great quantity by unjustifiable 
licenses, though strictly forbidden by many Statutes. The 
flesh of Hogges and Swine is more savoury, then in any 
other parts, excepting the bacon of V:estphalia, and of the 
Southerne Ilands, where they commonly feede on Rootes 
and Chesnuts. The goodnesse of the Sheepe may be con- 
jectured by the excellency of the wooll, and wollen 
clothes, which Sheepe are subject to rotting, when they 
feede on low wet grounds, excepting the Marshes over- 
flowed by the sea, which for the saltnesse are held very 
wholsome for them, and these rots often destroy whole 
flocks, for they seldome drinke, but are moistned by the 
dewes falling in the night. And the feeding of Sheep.e, 
upon like accident of diseases, often undoes the owner m 
his estate, but more commonly preserved from that ill, 
they inrich many, so as it is proverbially said, He whose 
Sheepe stand, and wives die (the husbands gaining their 
dowries) must needs be rich. 
The Kings Forrests have innumerable beards of Red 
Deare, and all parts have such plenty of Fallow Deare, as 
every Gentleman of five hundreth or a thousand pounds 
rent by the yeere hath a Parke for them inclosed with 
pales of wood for two or three miles compasse. Yet this 
prodigall age hath so forced Gentlemen to improve their 
revenewes, as many of these grounds are by them dis- 
parked, and converted to feede Cattell. Lastly (without 
offence be it spoken) I will boldly say, that England (yea 


perhaps one County thereof) hath more fallow Deare, then 
all Europe that I have seene. No Kingdome in the 
World hath so many Dove-houses. 
I formerly said, that the Wolves were altogether 
destroied in England and Wales, so as the Sheepe feede 
freely in the fields and Mountaines. England hath much 
more Dogges aswell for the severall kinds, as the number 
of each kind, then any other Territorie of like compasse 
in the World, not onely little Dogges for beauty, but 
hunting and xvater-Dogges, whereof the bloud-Hounds 
and some other have admirable qualities. It hath infinite 
number of Conies, whereof the skinnes (especially black 
and silver haired) are much prised, and in great quantity 
transported, especially into Turkey. The Nagges and 
Gueldings are singular for the Gentle ambling pace, and 
for strength to performe great journies. So are the hunt- 
ing Horses of exceeding swiftnes, much esteemed in 
forraigne parts, especially in France and Scotland, and of 
both kinds the number is infinite. The great Horses for 
service, and to draw Coaches and carts, are of like number 
and goodnes, and one kinde for service, called the Corser 
(as bred of the Neapolitan Corsers and English Mares) 
yeelds not for bravery of race to the Neapolitan Corsers, 
or Spanish Gennets. I said that they are all strong, and 
the horses for jornies indefatigable, for the English, 
especially Northerne men, ride from day breake to the 
evening without drawing bit, neither sparing their horses 
nor themselves, whence is the Proverb, that England is 
the Hell of Horses, the Purgatory of Servants, and the 
Paradise of Women; because they ride Horses without 
measure, and use their Servants imperiously, and their 
Women obsequiously. 
The Gentlemen disdaine trafficke, thinking it to abase 
Gentry: but in Italy with graver counsell, the very 
Princes disdaine not to be Merchants by the great, and 
hardly leave the retailing commodity to men of inferiour 
sort. And by this course they preserve the dignity and 
patrimony of their progenitors, suffering not the sinew 


[III.iii.149. ] 

Of the 


of the Commonwealth, upon any pretence to be wrested 
out of their hands. On the contrary, the English and 
French, perhaps thinking it unjust to leave the common 
sort no meanes to be inriched by their industry, and judg- 
ing it equall, that Gentlemen should live of their 
revenews, Citizens by trafficke, and the common sort by 
the Plough and manuall Artes, as divers members of one 
body, doe in this course daily sell their patrimonies, and 
the buyers (excepting Lawyers) are for the most part 
Citizens and vulgar men. And the daily feeling of this 
mischiefe, makes the error apparant, whether it be the 
prodigalitie of the Gentry (greater then in any other 
Nation or age), or their too charitable regard to the 
inferiour sort, or rashnesse or slothfulnesse, which cause 
them to neglect and despise traffick, which in some 
Commonwealths, and namely in England passeth all other 
commodities, and is the very sinew of the Kingdome. I 
have at large related in this booke treating of Poland, the 
English trafficke in the Baltick Sea, and treating of 
Germany, their trafficke with the Hans Cities, and so 
treatin, of other severall States, the En lish traffick with 
each ol  them, so as it were lost labour tg]epeate it againe. 
Onely for Spaine, whereof I had no cause to speake touch- 
ing their trafficke with England, I will adde, that the 
English carry into Spaine Wollen clothes, Saffron, Wax 
and Corne, and bring from thence Oyle, Fruits, Sacks and 
sweet wines, Indian spices with Gold and Silver. 
And in generall I wil observe, that England abounds 
with rich commodities of their owne, and exports them 
with their own ships, from very Iseland and Moscovye to 
both the Indies, and at this day buy not so much of the 
Turkes as they were wont, but by long Navigation fetch 
Spices and like commodities from the farthest East Indies. 
So as the shipping of England must needs be very great 
in number and strength. But of Englands Navall glory, 
I must speake at large in the discourse of that Common- 
wealth. In the meane time I freely professe, that in my 
opinion the English Marriners are more daring then any 


other Nation, in stormes of winds, raging of Seas, and 
thundring of Ordinance in Navall fights. And if any 
stranger take me of too much boasting in this point, I 
desire him to consider of Martin Furbushers attempts in 
the frozen Sea, of Sir Francis Drakes, and Sir Thomas 
Candishes dangerous Navigations round about the world ; 
and if these things shal not move him, the worst I wish 
him is, that in person he may experience their courage and 
art in a fight upon equall termes. 
Cesar in the fourth Chapter and fifth booke of his 
Commentaries, writes thus of the Britans dyet. It is 
unlawfull for them to taste Hares, Geese, or Hennes, yet 
they keepe them all for their pleasure, and the inward 
parts sow no Corne, but live upon milke and flesh. At 
this day the English inhabitants eate almost no flesh more 
commonly then Hennes, and for Geese they eate them in 
two seasons, when they are fatted upon the stubble, after 
Harvest, and when they are greene about Whitsontide, 
at which time they are held for dainties; and howsoever 
Hares are thought to nourish melancoly, yet they are 
eaten as Venison, both rosted and boyled. They have 
also great plenty of Connies, the flesh whereof is fat, 
tender, and much more delicate then any I have eaten in 
other parts, so as they are in England preferred before 
Hares, at which the Germans wonder, who having no 
Venison (the Princes keeping it proper to themselves, and 
the hunting of Hares being proper to the Gentlemen in 
most parts), they esteeme Hares as Venison, and seldom 
eate Connies, being there somewhat rare, and more like 
rosted Cats then the English Connies. 
The English Husbandmen eate Barley and Rye browne 
bread, and preferre it to white bread as abiding longer in 
the stomack, and not so soone digested with their labour, 
but Citizens and Gentlemen eate most pure white bread, 
England yeelding (as I have said) all kinds of Corne in 
plenty. I have formerly said, that the English have 
aboundance of Whitmeates, of all kindes of Flesh, Fowle 
and Fish, and of all things good for foode, and in the 

Their dyer. 

[lIl.iii. 50.] 



discourse of the French dyet, I have shewed, that the 
English have some proper dainties, not knowne in other 
parts, which I will in a word repeate. The Oysters of 
England were of old carried as farre as Rome, being more 
plentifull and savorie, then in any other part. England 
hath aboundance of Godwits, and many Sea-fowles, which 
be rare, or altogether unknowne elsewhere. In the 
seasons of the yeere the English eate Fallow deare plenti- 
fully, as Bucks in Summer, and Does in Winter, which 
they bake in Pasties, and this Venison Pasty is a dainty, 
rarely found in any other Kingdome. Likewise Brawne 
,s a proper meate to the English, and not knowne to 
others. They have strange variety of Whitmeates, and 
likewise of preserved banquetting stuffe, in which 
Preserves l:rance onely may compare with them. It is 
needelcsse to repeate the rest, and I should bee tedious, 
if I should search particularly like dainties, which the 
English have only, or in greater abundance then other 
Nations. In generall, the Art of Cookery is much 
esteemed in England, neither doe any sooner finde a 
Master, then men of that profession, and howsoever they 
are most esteemed, which for all kinds are most exquisite 
in that Art; yet the English Cookes, in comparison with 
other Nations, are most commended for roasted meates. 
As abundance of all things makes them cheape, so 
riches (preferring a gluttonous appetite before Gold), and 
the prodigalitie of Gentlemen (who have this singular 
folly, to offer more then things are worth, as if it were a 
point of dignity to pay more then others), and lastly the 
great moneys of silver, and the not having small coynes 
or brasse monies to pay for small matters, these things (I 
say) in this great plenty make us poore, and greatly 
increase the prices of all things. Also the said abundance, 
and the riches vulgarly increased, and the old custome of 
the English, make our tables plentifully furnished, where- 
upon other Nations esteeme us gluttons and devourers of 
flesh, yet the English tables are not furnished with many 
dishes, all for one roans diet, but severally for many mens 


apetite, and not onely prepared for the family, but for 
strangers and reliefe of the poore. I confesse, that in 
such plenty and variety of meates, everie man cannot use 
moderation, nor understandeth that these severall meates 
are not for one man, but for severall appetites, that each 
may take what hee likes. And I confesse, that the English 
custome, first to serve grosse meates, on which hunger 
spares not to feede, and then to serve dainties, which invite 
to eate without hunger, as likewise the longe sitting and 
discoursing at tables, which makes men unawares eate 
more, then the Italians can doe at their solitary tables, 
these things (I say) give us just cause to cry with Socrates, 
God deliver mee from meates, that invite to eate beyond 
hunger. But the Italian Sansovine is much deceived, 
writing, that in generall the English eate and cover the 
table at least foure times in the day; for howsoever those 
that journey, and some sickly men staying at home, may 
perhaps take a small breakfast, yet in generall the English 
eate but two meales (of dinner and supper) each day, and I 
could never see him that useth to eate foure times in the 
day. And I will professe for my selfe and other English- 
men, passing through Italy so famous for temperance, that 
wee often observed, that howsoever wee might have a 
Pullet and some flesh prepared for us, eating it with a 
moderate proportion of bread, the Italians at the same 
time, with a Charger full of hearbs for a sallet, and with 
rootes, and like meates of small price, would each of them 
eate two or three penny-worth of bread. And since all 
fulnesse is ill, and that of bread worst, I thinke wee were 
more temperate in our dyer, though eating more flesh, 
then they eating so much more bread then wee did. It 
is true that the English prepare largely for ordinarie dyer 
for themselves and their friendes comming by chance, and 
at feastes for invited friendes are so excessive an the 
number of dishes, as the table is not thought well 
furnished, except they stand one upon another. Neither 
use they to set drinke on the Table, for which no roome 
is left, but the Cuppes and Glasses are served in upon a 


The English 

[III.iii., 5 -] 

I605-I 7. 


side Table, drinke being offered to none, till they call for 
it. That the old English Hospitality was (I will boldly 
say) a meere vice, I have formerly shewed in the discourse 
of the Italian diet, which let him reade, who shall thinke 
this as dissonant from truth, as it is from the vulgar 
If any stranger desire to abide long in a City or Uni- 
versity, he may have his Table with some Citizen of the 
better sort, at a convenient rate, according to his quality, 
from ten pound to twenty pound yeerely. 
I have heard some Germans complaine of the English 
Innes, by the high way, as well for dearenesse, as for that 
they had onely roasted meates: But these Germans land- 
ing at Gravesend, perhaps were injured by those knaves, 
that flocke thither onely to deceive strangers, and use 
Englishmen no better, and after went fi'om thence to 
London, and were there entertained by some ordinary 
ttosts of strangers, returning home little acquainted with 
English customes. But if these strangers had knowne 
the English tongue, or had had an honest guide in their 
journies, and had knowne to live at Rome after the Roman 
fashion, which they seldome doe, (using rather Dutch 
Innes and companions), surely they should have found, 
that the World affoords not such Innes as England hath, 
either for good and cheape entertainement after the Guests 
owne pleasure, or for humble attendance on passengers, 
yea, even in very poore Villages, where if Curculio of 
Plautus, should see the thatched houses, he would fall into 
a fainting of his spirits, but if he should smell the variety 
of meates, his starveling looke would be much cheared: 
For assoone as a passenger comes to an Inne, the servants 
run to him, and one takes his Horse and walkes him till 
he be cold, then rubs him, and gives him meate, yet I 
must say that they are not much to be trusted in this last 
point, without the eye of the Master or his Servant, to 
oversee them. Another servant gives the passenger his 
private chamber, and kindles his tier, the third puls of his 
bootes, and makes them cleane. Then the Host or 



Hostesse visits him, and if he will eate with the Host, 
or at a common Table with others, his meale will cost him 
sixe pence, or in some places but foure pence, (yet this 
course is lesse honourable, and not used by Gentlemen): 
but if he will eate in his chamber, he commands what 
meate he will according to his appetite, and as much as 
he thinkes fit for him and his company, yea, the kitchin 
is open to him, to command the meat to be dressed as he 
best likes; and when he sits at Table, the Host or 
Hostesse will accompany him, or if they have many 
Guests, will at least visit him, taking it for curtesie to be 
bid sit downe: while he eates, if he have company 
especially, he shall be offred musicke, which he may 
freely take or refuse, and if he be solitary, the Musitians 
will give him the good day with musicke in the morning. 
It is the custome and no way disgracefull to set up part 
of supper for his breakefast: In the evening or in the 
morning after breakefast, (for the common sort use not to 
dine, but ride from breakefast to supper time, yet corn- 
ruing early to the Inne for better resting of their Horses) 
he shall have a reckoning in writing, and if it seeme 
unreasonable, the Host will satisfie him, either for the due 
price, or by abating part, especially if the servant deceive 
him any way, which one of experience will soone find. 
Having formerly spoken of ordinary expences by the high 
way, aswell in the particular journall of the first Part, as 
in a Chapter of this Part purposely treating thereof, I 
will now onely adde that a Gentleman and his Man shall 
spend as much, as if he were accompanied with another 
Gentleman and his Man, and if Gentlemen will in such 
sort joyne together, to eate at one Table, the expences will 
be much deminished. Lastly, a Man cannot more freely 
command at home in his owne House, then hee may doe 
in his Inne, and at parting if he give some few pence to 
the Chamberlin & Ostler, they wish him a happy journey. 
England hath three publike Feasts of great expence and 
pompous solemnity, namely the coronation of the Kings, 
the Feast of S. George, as well upon his day yeerely, as 



[llI. iii., 52.] 

Their drink- 


at all times when any Knight of the Order is installed, and 
the third when Serjants at the Law are called. The Lord 
Mayor of the City of London, upon the day when he is 
sworne & enters his Office, keeps a solemne Feast with 
publike shewes of great magnificence, besides that hee and 
the Sheriffes of the Citie, daily keepe well furnished 
Tables, to entertaine any Gentleman or stranger that will 
come to them, to the great honour of the City, in this 
particular passing all other Cities of the World kn0wne 
to us. 
For the point of drinking, the English at a Feast will 
drinke two or three healths in remembrance of speciall 
friends, or respected honourable persons, and in our time 
some Gentlemen and Commanders from the warres of 
Netherland brought in the custome of the Germans large 
garaussing, but this custome is in our time also in good 
measure left. Likewise in some private Gentlemens 
houses, and with some Captaines and Souldiers, and with 
the vulgar sort of Citizens and Artisans, large and in- 
temperate drinkin is used; but in generall the greater 
and better part ot the English, hold all excesse blame- 
worthy, and drunkennesse a reprochfull vice. Clownes 
and vulgar men onely use large drinking of Beere or Ale, 
how much soever it is esteemed excellent drinke even 
among strangers, but Gentlemen garrawse onely in Wine, 
with which many mixe sugar, which I never observed in 
any other place or Kingdome, to be used for that purpose. 
And because the taste of the English is thus delighted 
with sweetenesse, the Wines in Tavernes, (for I speake 
not of Merchants or Gentlemens Cellars) are commonly 
mixed at the filling thereof, to make them pleasant. And 
the same delight in sweetnesse hath made the use of 
Corands of Corinth so frequent in all places, and with all 
persons in England, as the very Greekes that sell them, 
wonder what we doe with such great quantities thereof, 
and know not how we should spend them, except we use 
them for dying, or to feede Hogges. 



I605-I 7. 

Of Scotland 

Chap IIII. 
touching the Subjects contained in 
the first Chapter. 
,He Longitude of Scotland extends five 
degrees from the Meridian of sixeteene 
degrees to that of one and twenty degrees, 
and the Latitude extends foure degrees 
from the Paralel of fifty sixe degrees and 
a halle, to that of sixty degrees and a 
halle. In the Geographical description 

wherof, I wil briefly follow the very words of Camden 
(as neere as I can), being an Authour without exception. 
i The Gadeni of Scotland were of old next neighbours 
to the Ottadini of Northumberland in England, and 
inhabited the Countrey now called Teysidale, wherein is 
nothing memorable but the Monastery of Mailros. 2 In 
Merch, (so called as a bordering Countrey) the Castle 
Hume is the old possession of the Lords of Hume, neere 
which is Kelso the ancient dwelling of the Earles of Both- 
well, which were long by inheritance Admirals of Scotland, 
and the Merch is mentioned in Histories for nothing 
more, then the valour of the said Earles. 3 Laudania of 
old called Pictland, shooteth out from Merch towards 
the Scottish narrow Sea, called the Frith, and is full of 
mountaines, but hath few woods. In this Country are 
these little Cities or Townes, Dunbarre, Haddington, and 
Musleborrow, places wherein hath beene seene the warlike 
vertue of the English and Scots. Somewhat lower and 
neere to the foresaid Frith, lies Edenborough, which 
Ptolomy cals Castrum Alatum, a rich City of old com- 
passed with wals, and the seate of the Kings, whose Palace 
is at the East end in a rally, over which hangs a moun- 
taine, called the Chaire of Arthur (our Briton Prince), and 
from this Pallace is an easie ascent to the West end, where 
the length of the City ends in a steepe rocke, upon which 
M. Iv 77 i 


6o5-x 7. 

[III.iii. 53. ] 


is built a most strong Castle, called the Maidens Castle, 
the same which Ptolomy cals Alatum. This City was 
long under the English Saxons, and about the yeere 96o, 
(England being invaded by the Danes) it became subject 
to the Scots. Leth is a mile distant, and is a most com- 
modious Haven, upon the narrow Scottish Gulfe, vulgarly 
called Edenborough Frith. 
4 Towards the West lay the Selgove upon another 
Gulfe, running betweene England and Scotland, vulgarly 
called Solway Frith, of the said Selgowe, inhabiting the 
Countries called Eskedale, Annandale, and Nidisdale (in 
which is the little Towne Dunfrise.) 
5 Next lay the Novantes in the Valleys, where Gallway 
and Whitterne (which Citie Ptolomy calls Leucopibia) are 
6 In the little Countrie Caricta having good pastures, 
is the little Towne Gergeny, which Ptolomy calles Reri- 
7 More inward lay the Damnii, where now Sterling, 
Merteth and Claidsdale are seated. Here the River 
Cluyde runnes by Hamelton (the seate of the Hameltons 
Family of English race, of which the third Earle of Arran 
liveth in our dayes) and after by Glascow (the seat of an 
Archbishop, and a little Universitie.) Here is the Terri- 
tory called Lennox, whereof the Stewards have long time 
been Earles, of which Family the late Kings of Scotland 
are discended, and namely James the sixth, who raised this 
Earledom to a Dukedome, giving that title to the Lord 
d'Aubigny, and these Daubignii serving in the French and 
Neapolitane warres, were honoured by the Kings of 
France, with addition of Buckles Or in a field Gueules, to 
their ancient coate of Armes, with this inscription Dis- 
tantia Jungo (that is, Distant things I joyne.) Sterling, 
or Strivelm lyes not farre off, a little Citie of the Kings 
having a most strong Castle upon the brow of a steepe 
8 Next these towards the North lay the Caledonii, 
somewhat more barbarous then the rest (as commonly they 


are more rude towards the North), where not onely the 
fire is cold, but the Country wast and mountanous. And 
here was the Caledonian Wood, so knowne to the Roman 
Writers, as it was by them taken for all Britany, and the 
Woods thereof. At this day this Region is called by the 
Scots Allibawne, and by the Latines Albania, and containes 
the Bishoprick of Dunkeledon, and the Territory Argile 
(so called as neere the Irish), of which the Cambellan 
Family hath the title of Earles of Argile, who are the 
generall Justices of Scotland by right of inheritance, and 
Great Masters of the Kings Houshold. 
9 Towards the West lay the Epidii, inhabiting a wast 
and Fenny Country, now called Cantire (that is, a corner 
of land), and next lies Assinshire. 
IO Next lay the Creones, which Region is now called 
11 Next lay the Cornovace, at the Promontory Hey. 
I2 On the East-side of the Caledonians lay the Verni- 
cones, in the fruitfull little Region called Fife, where is 
the Towne of Saint Andrew, Metropolitan of all Scotland. 
13 The little Region Athol is fertile, of which the 
Stuards of the Family of Lorne have the title of Earles. 
Here is Strathbolgy the seate of the Earles of Huntly, of 
the Family of the Seatons, who tooke the name of Gordan 
by the authority of a Parliament. 
I4 Next lies Gouty, having fruitfull fields of Wheate, 
whereof John Lord Rethven was of late made Earle : but 
Arrell in this Region, hath long given the title of Earle 
to the Family of Hayes. 
15 under Fife lies Angush, where is Scone, famous for 
the Kings consecration. Montrose hath his Earles of the 
Family of the Grahames: but the Douglasses Earles of 
Angush, of an honorable Family, were made Governours 
by Robert the third of this Region ; and these Earles are 
esteemed the chiefe and principall Earles of all Scotland, 
and it is said, that they have right to carry the Kings 
Crowne at the solemne assemblies of the Kingdome. 
I6. 17 Next lye the two Regions of Marnia and Marria 


Scotland, and for the habitation of many holy men, among 
which was Columbus, the Apostle of the Picts, of whose 
Cell the Iland was also named Columbkill. The Scots 
bought all these Ilands of the Norwegians, as a great 
strength to the Kingdome, though yeelding very little 
profit; the old inhabitants (whether Scots, or Irish) being 
of desperate daring, and impatient of being subject to 
any lawes. Neare these lye the Orcades (vulgarly Orkney) 
about thirty in number, yeelding competent quantity of 
Barley, but no Wheate or trees. The chiefe whereof is 
Pomonia, well knowne by the Episcopall seate, and yeeld- 
ing both Tynne and Leade. These Orcades Ilands were 
subject to the Danes, and the inhabitants speake the 
Gothes language, but Christiern King of the Danes sold 
his right to the King of Scotland. Five dayes and nights 
sayle from the Orcades, is the Iland Thule, so often 
mentioned by Poets to expresse the furthest corner of 
the World, whereupon Virgill saith; Tibi serviet ultima 
Thule: that is, The furthest Thule shall thee serve. 
Many have thought, that Iseland was this Thule, con- 
demned to cold ayre and perpetuall Winter : but Camden 
thinkes rather that Schotland is Thule, which the 
Marriners now call Thilensall, being subject to the King 
of Scotland. In the German Sea, towards the coast of 
Britany, are few Ilands, save onely in Edenburg Frith, 
where these are found, May, Basse, Keth, and Inche colme 
(that is, the Iland of Columbus.) 
Scotland reaching so farre into the North, must needs 
be subject to excessive cold, yet the same is in some sort 
mitigated by the thicknesse of the cloudy aire and sea 
vapours. And as in the Northerne parts of England, they 
have small pleasantnes, goodnesse or abundance of Fruites 
and Flowers, so in Scotland they must have lesse, or none 
at all. And I remember, that comming to Barwick in the 
moneth of May, wee had great stormes, and felt great 
cold, when for two moneths before, the pleasant Spring 
had smiled on us at London. 
On the West side of Scotland are many Woodes, 

The situation. 

T,e fertility. 


thence Salt and Wines: but the cheefe traffcke of the 
Scots is in foure places, namely at Camphire in Zeland, 
whether they carry Salt, the skinnes of Weathers, Otters, 
Badgers, and Martens, and bring from thence Corne. 
And at Burdeaux in France, whether they carry cloathes, 
and the same skinnes, and bring from thence Wines, 
Prunes, Walnuts, and Chessenuts. Thirdly, within the 
Balticke Sea, whether they carry the said Clothes and 
Skinnes, and bring thence Flaxe, Hempe, Iron, Pitch and 
Tarre. And lastly in England, whether they carry Linnen 
c.loathes, Yarne, and Salt, and bring thence Wheate, Oates, 
Beanes, and like things. 
The Scots have no Staple in any forraigne City, but 
trade in France upon the League of the Nations, and in 
Denmarke have priviledges by the affinity of the Kings, 
and flocke in great numbers into Poland, abounding in all 
things for foode, and yeelding many commodities. And 
in these Kingdomes they lived at this time in great multi- 
tudes, rather for the poverty of their owne Kingdome, 
then for any great traffcke they exercised there, dealing 
rather for small fardels, then for great quantities of rich 
Touching their diet: They eate much red Colewort 
and Cabbage, but little fresh meate, using to salt their 
Mutton and Geese, which made me more wonder, that 
they used to eate Beefe without salting. The Gentlemen 
reckon their revenewes, not by rents of monie, but by 
chauldrons of victuals, and keepe many people in their 
Families, yet living most on Corne and Rootes, not spend- 
ing any great quantity of flesh. 
My self was at a Knights house, who had many 
servants to attend him, that brought in his meate with 
their heads covered with blew caps, the Table being more 
then halle furnished with great platters of porredge, each 
having a little peece of sodden meate; And when the 
Table was served, the servants did sit downe with us, 
but the upper messe in steede of porredge, had a Pullet 
with some prunes in the broth. And I observed no Art 

I6O5-I 7. 

The diet. 

[lll.iii. 56.] 


of Cookery, or furniture of Houshold stuffe, but rather 
rude neglect of both, though my selfe and my companion, 
sent fro-m the Governour of Barwicke about bordering 
affaires, were entertained after their best manner. The 
Scots living then in factions, used to keepe many followers, 
and so consumed their revenew of victuals, living in some 
want of money. They vulgarly eate harth Cakes of 
Oates, but in Cities have also wheaten bread, which for 
the most part was bought by Courtiers, Gentlemen, and 
the best sort of Citizens. When I lived at Barwicke, the 
Scots weekely upon the market day, obtained leave in 
writing of the Governour, to buy Pease and Beanes, 
whereof, as also of Wheate, their Merchants at this day 
send great quantity from London into Scotland. 
They drinke pure Wines, not with sugar as the English, 
yet at Feasts they put Comfits in the Wine, after the 
French manner, but they had not our Vinteners fraud to 
mixe their Wines. I did never see nor heare that they 
have any publike Innes with signes hanging out, but the 
better sort of Citizens brew Ale, their usuall drinke (which 
will distemper a strangers bodie) ; and the same Citizens 
will entertaine passengers upon acquaintance or entreaty. 
Their bedsteads were then like Cubbards in the wall, with 
doores to be opened and shut at pleasure, so as we climbed 
up to our beds. They used but one sheete, open at the 
sides and top, but close at the feete, and so doubled. 
Passengers did seeke a stable for their Horses in some 
other place, and did there buy hors-meat, and if perhaps 
the same house yeelded a stable yet the payment for the 
Horse did not make them have beds free as in England. 
I omit to speake of the Innes and expences therein, having 
delated the same in the Itinerary of the first Part, and 
a Chapter in this Part, expressely treating thereof. When 
passengers goe to bed, their custome was to present them 
with a sleeping cuppe of wine at parting. The Country 
people and Merchants used to drinke largely, the Gentle- 
men some-what more sparingly, yet the very Courtiers, at 
Feasts, by night meetings, and entertaining any stranger, 


used to drinke healths not without excesse, and (to speake 
truth without offence), the excesse of drinking was then 
farre greater in generall among the Scots then the English. 
My selfe being at the Court invited by some Gentlemen 
to supper, and being forewarned to feare this excesse, 
would not promise to sup with them but upon condition 
that my Inviter would be my protection from large 
drinking, which I was many times forced to invoke, 
being curteously entertained, and much provoked to 
.garaussing, and so for that time avoided any g.reat 
antemperance. Remembring this, and having since 
observed in my conversation at the English Court with 
the Scots of the better sort, that they spend great part of 
the night in drinking, not onely wine, but even beere, as 
my selfe will not accuse them of great intemperance, so I 
cannot altogether free them from the imputation of 
excesse, wherewith the popular voice chargeth them. 


Chap. V. 
Of Ireland, touching the particular subjects of 
the first Chapter. 
He Longitude of Ireland extends foure Ireland. 
degrees from the Meridian of eleven 
degrees and a halfe, to that of fifteene and 
a halfe, and the Latitude extends also 
foure degrees from the Paralel of fifty 
foure degrees to that of fifty eight 
degrees. In the Geographicall description 
I will follow Camden as formerly. 
This famous Iland in the Virginian Sea, is by olde 
Writers called Ierna Inverna, and Iris, by the old inhabit- 
ants Eryn, by the old Britans Yuerdhen, by the English 
at this day Ireland, and by the Irish Bardes at this day 
Banno, in which sense of the Irish word, Avicen cals it 
the holy Iland, besides Plutarch of old called it Ogigia, 
and after him Isidore named it Scotia. This Ireland 


Affinity. Not farre thence is Yoghall, having a safe 
Haven, neere which the Vicounts of Barry of English race 
are seated. In the fourth County of Tipperary, nothing 
is memorable, but that it is a Palatinate. The little 
Towne Hdy-Crosse, in the County of the same name, 
hath many great priviledges. The sixth County hath 
the name of the City Limerike, the seate of a Bishop, 
wherein is a strong Castle built by King John. Not farre 
thence is Awne the seate of a Bishop, and the lower 
Ossery, giving the title of an Earle to the Butlers, and 
the Towne Thurles, giving them also the title of Vicount. 
And there is Cassiles, now a poore City, but the seate of 
an Archbishoppe. The seventh County hath the name 
of the City Waterford, which the Irish call Porthlargi, of 
the commodious Haven, a rich and well inhabited City, 
esteemed the second to Dublyn. And because the In- 
habitants long faithfully helped the English in subduing 
Ireland, our Kings gave them excessive priviledges, but 
they rashly failing in their obedience, at King James 
his comming to the Crowne, could not in long time 
obtaine the confirmation of their old Charter. 
2 Lemster the second part of Ireland is fertile, and 
yeelds plenty of Corne, and hath a most temperate mild 
Aire, being devided into ten Counties, of Catterlogh, 
Kilkenny, Wexford, Dublyn, Kildare, the Kings County, 
the Qeenes County, the Counties of Longford, of Fernes 
and of Wickle. The Cariondi of old inhabited Caterlogh 
(or Carloo) County, and they also inhabited great part of 
Kilkenny, of upper Ossery and of Ormond, which have 
nothing memorable, but the Earles of Ormond, of the 
great Family of the Butlers, inferiour to no Earle in 
Ireland, (not to speake of Fitz-patric Baron of upper 
Ossery.) It is rediculous, which some Irish (who will be 
beleeved as men of credit) report of Men in these parts 
yeerely turned into Wolves, except the aboundance of 
melancholy humour transports them to imagine that they 
are so transformed. Kilkenny giving name to the second 
County, is a pleasant Towne, the chiefe of the Townes, 


6o5-I 7. 

[III.iii. 58.] 


within Land, memorable for the civility of the Inhabitants, 
for the Husbandmens labour, and the pleasant Orchards. 
I passe over the walled Towne Thomastowne, and the 
ancient City Rheban, now a poore Village with a Castle, 
vet of old giving the title of Barronet. I passe over the 
V-illage and strong Castle of Leighlin, with the Countrey 
adjoyning, usurped by the Sept of the Cavanaghs, now 
surnamed Omores. Also I omit Rosse, of old a large 
City, at this day of no moment. The third County of 
Wexford, (called by the Irish County Reogh) was of old 
inhabited by the Menappii, where at the Towne called 
Banna, the English made their first discent into Ireland, 
and upon that Coast are very dangerous flats in the Sea, 
which they vulgarly call Grounds. The City Weshford, 
\Veisford, or Wexford, is the cheefe of the County, not 
great, but deserving praise for their faithfulnesse towards 
the English, and frequently inhabited by Men of English 
race. The Cauci, (a Seabordering Nation of Germany), 
and the Menappii aforesaid, of old inhabited the territories 
now possessed by the Omores and Obirns. Also they 
inhabited the fourth County of Kildare a fruitfull soyle, 
having the cheefe Towne of the same name, greatlie 
honoured in the infancie of the Church by Saint Briges. 
King Edward the second, created the Giralds Earles of 
Kildare. The Eblani of old inhabited the territory of 
I)ublin the fifth County, having a fertile soyle and rich 
pastures, but wanting wood, so as they burne Turffe, or 
Seacoale brought out of England. The City Dublyn 
called Divelin by the English, and Balacleigh (as seated 
upon hurdles) by the Irish, is the cheefe City of the King- 
dome and seate of Justice, fairely built, frequently in- 
habited, and adorned with a stron Castle, fifieene 
Churches, an Episcopall seate, and a raire Colledge, (an 
happy foundation of an University laid in our Age), and 
indowed with many priviledges, but the Haven is barred 
and made lesse commodious by those hils of sands. The 
adjoyning Promontory Hoth-head, gives the title of a 
Barron to the Family of Saint Laurence: And towards 


the North lies Fengall, a little Territory, as it were the 
Garner of the Kingdome, which is environed by the Sea 
and great Rivers, and this situation hath defended it 
from the incursion of Rebels in former civill warres. I 
omit the Kings and Qeenes Counties, (namely Ophaly 
and Leax) inhabited by the Oconnors and Omores, as like- 
:ise the Counties of Longford, Fernes, and Wicklo, as 
lesse affoording memorable things. 
3 The third part of Ireland is Midia or Media, called by 
the English Methe, in our Fathers memory devided into 
Eastmeath and Westmeath. In Eastmeath is Drogheda, 
vulgarly called Tredagh, a faire and well inhabited Towne. 
Trym is a little Towne upon the confines of Ulster, having 
a stately Castle, but now much ruinated, and it is more 
notable for being the ancient (as it were) Barrony of the 
Lacies. Westmeath hath the Towne Delvin, giving the 
title of Baron to the English Family of the Nugents, and 
Westmeath is also inhabited by many great Irish Septs, 
as the Omaddens, the Magoghigans, Omalaghlens, and 
MacCoghlans, which seeme barbarous names. Shamon is 
a great River, in a long course making many and great 
lakes (as the large Lake or Lough Regith), and yeeldes 
plentifull fishing, as doe the frequent Rivers and all the 
Seas of Ireland. Upon this River lies the Towne Athlon, 
having a very faire Bridge of stone, (the worke of Sir 
Henry Sidney Lord Deputy) and a strong faire Castle. 
4 Connaght is the fourth part of Ireland, a fruitfull 
Province, but having many Boggs and thicke Woods, and 
it is divided into sixe Countyes, of Clare, of Letrim, of 
Galloway, of Rosecomen, of Maio, and of Sligo. The 
County of Clare or Thowmond hath his Earles of Thow- 
mond, of the Family of the Obrenes the old Kings of 
Connaght, and Toam is the seate of an Archbishop, onely 
part but the greatest of this County was called Clare of 
Phomas Clare Earle of Glocester. The adjoyning Terri- 
tory Clan Richard (the land of Richards sonnes) hath his 
Earles called Clanricard of the land, but being of the 
English Family de Burgo, vulgarly Burck, and both these 

6o5-I 7. 


I6O5-* 7. 


[III.iii. 59-] 


Earles were first created by Henry the eight. In the same 
Territory is the Barony Atterith, belonging to the Barons 
of the English Family Bermingham, of old very warlike: 
but their posteritie have degenerated to the Irish barbar- 
isme. The city Galway giving name to the County, lying 
upon the Sea, is frequently inhabited with civill people, 
and fairely built. The Northern part of Connaght is 
inhabited by these Irish Septs, O Conor, O Rorke, and 
Mac Diarmod. Upon the \Vesterne coast lyes the Iland 
Arran, famous for the fabulous long life of the inhabitants. 
5 Ulster the fifth part of Ireland is a large Province, 
woody, fenny, in some parts fertile, in other parts barren, 
but in al parts greene and pleasant to behold, and exceed- 
ingly stoared with Cattell. The next part to the Pale, 
and to England, is divided into three Countyes, Lowth, 
Down, and Antrimme, the rest containes seven Counties, 
Monaghan, Tyrone, Armach, Colrane, Donergall, Fer- 
managh, and Cavon. Lowth is inhabited by English- 
Irish, (Down and Antrimme being contained under the 
same name), and the Barons thereof be of the Berming- 
hams family, and remaine loving to the English. Mona- 
ghan was inhabited by the English family Fitzursi, and 
these are become degenerate and barbarous, and in the 
sense of that name are in the Irish tongue called Mac 
Mahon, that is, the sonnes of the Beares. I forbeare to 
speake of Tyrone, and the Earle thereof, infamous for his 
Rebellion, which I have at large handled in the second 
part of this work. Armach is the seate of an Archbishop, 
and the Metropolitan City of the whole Iland, but in time 
of the Rebellion was altogether ruinated. The other 
Countyes have not many memorable things, therefore it 
shall suffice to speake of them briefely. The neck of land 
called Lecale, is a pleasant little territory, fertile, and 
abounding with fish, and all things for food, and therein 
is Downe, at this time a ruined Towne, but the seate of 
a Bishop, and famous for the buriall of S. Patrick, S. 
Bridget, and S. Columb. The Towne of Carickfergus is 
well knowne by the safe Haven. The River Bann run- 


the houses of the said Earles, and of the English Com- 
manders. Ireland hath great plenty of Birds and Fowles, 
but by reason of their naturall sloth, they had little delight 
or skill in Birding or Fowling. But Ireland hath neither 
singing Nightingall, nor chattering Pye, nor undermining 
Moule, nor blacke Crow, but onely Crowes of mingled 
colour, such as wee call Royston Crowes. They have 
such plenty of Pheasants, as I have knowne sixtie served 
at one feast, and abound much more with Rayles: but 
Patridges are somewhat rare. There be very many Eagles, 
and great plenty of Hares, Conies, Hawkes called Gosse- 
Itawkes, much esteemed with us, and also of Bees, as well 
in Hives at home, as in hollmv trees abroad, and in caves 
of the earth. They abound in flocks of Sheepe, which 
they sheare twise in the yeere, but their wooll is course, 
& Merchants may not export it, forbidden by a Law made 
on behalfe of the poore, that they may be nourished by 
working it into cloth, namely, Rugs (wherof the best are 
made at Vraterford) & mantles generally worne by men 
and women, and exported in great quantity. Ireland 
veelds much flax, which the inhabitants work into yarne, 
 export the same in great quantity. And of old they had 
such plenty of linnen cloth, as the wild Irish used to weare 
30 or 40 elles in a shirt, al gathered and wrinckled, and 
washed in Saffron, because they never put them off til 
they were worne out. Their horses called hobbies, are 
much commended for their ambling pace & beuty: but 
Ireland yeelds few horses good for service in war, and the 
said hobbies are much inferior to our geldings in strength 
to endure long journies, & being bred in the fenny soft 
ground of Ireland, are soone lamed when they are brought 
into England. The hawkes of Ireland called Goss- 
hawkes, are (as I said) much esteemed in England, and 
they are sought out by mony & all meanes to be trans- 
ported thither. Ireland yeelds excellent Marble neere 
Dublin, Killkenny, and Corke ; and I am of their opinion, 
who dare venture all they are worth, that the Mountaines 
would yeeld abundance of Mettals, if this publike good 



were not hindred by the inhabitants barbarousnes, making 
them apt to seditions, and so unwilling to inrich their 
Prince & Country, and by their slothfulnesse, which is so 
singular, as they hold it basenesse to labour, and by their 
poverty, not able to beare the charge of such workes, 
besides, that the wiser sort think their poverty best for 
publike good, making them peaceable, as nothing makes 
them sooner kick against authoritie then riches. Ireland 
hath in all parts pleasant Rivers, safe and long Havens, 
and no lesse frequent Lakes of great circuit, yeelding great 
plenty of fish. And the sea on all sides yeelds like plentie 
of excellent fish, as Salmonds, Oysters (which are preferred 
before the English,) and shel-fishes, with all other kinds of 
Sea-fish. So as the Irish might in all parts have abundance 
of excellent sea and fresh-water fish, if the fisher men were 
not so possessed with the naturall fault of slothfulnesse, 
as no hope of gaine, scarsely the feare of authoritie can in 
many places make them come out of their houses, and put 
to sea. Hence it is, that in many places they use Scots for 
Fisher-men, and they together with the English, make 
profit of the inhabitants sluggishnesse. And no doubt if 
the Irish were industrious in fishing, they might export 
salted and dried fish with great gaine. In time of peace 
the Irish transport good quantity of Corne ; yet they may 
not transport it without license, lest upon any sudden 
rebellion, the Kings forces and his good subjects should 
want Corne. Ulster and the Westerne parts of Mounster 
yeeld vast woods, in which the Rebels cutting up trees, 
and casting them on heapes, used to stop the passages, and 
therein, as also upon fenny & Boggy places, to fight with 
the English. But I confesse my selfe to have been 
deceived in the common fame, that all Ireland is woody, 
having found in my long iourney from Armah to Kinsale, 
few or no woods by the way, excepting the great Woods 
of Ophalia, and some low shrubby places, which they call 
Glinnes. Also I did observe many boggy and fenny places, 
whereof great part might be dried by go.o.d and painefull 
husbandry. I may not omit the oplmon commonly 

[I I I. iii.  61 .] 


received, that the earth of Ireland will not suffer a Snake 
or venimous beast to live, and that the Irish wood trans- 
ported for building, is free of Spiders and their webs. My 
selfe have seene some (but very few) Spiders, which the 
inhabitants deny to have any poyson: but I have heard 
some English of good credit affirme by experience the 
contrary. The Irish having in most parts great Woods 
or low shrubs and thickets, doe use the same for tier, but 
in other parts they burne Turfe, and Sea coales brought 
out of England. They export great quantity of wood to 
make barrels, called Pipe-staves, and make great gaine 
thereby. They are not permitted to build great ships for 
warre, but they have small ships in some sort armed to 
resist Pirats, for transporting of commodities into Spaine 
and France, yet no great number of them. Therfore since 
the Irish have small skill in Navigation, as I cannot praise 
them for this Art, so I am confident, that the Nation being 
[,old and warlike, would no doubt prove brave Sea-men, 
if they shall practise Navigation, and could possibly bee 
industrious therein. I freely professe, that Ireland in 
generall would yeeld abundance of all things to civill and 
industrious inhabitants. And when it lay wasted by the 
late Rebellion, I did see it after the comming of the Lord 
Montjoy daily more and more to flourish, and in short 
time after the Rebellion appeased, like the new Spring to 
put on the wonted beauty. 
Touching the Irish dyet, Some Lords and Knights, and 
Gentlemen of the English-Irish, and all the English there 
abiding, having competent meanes, use the English dyet, 
but some more, some lesse cleanly, few or none curiously, 
and no doubt they have as great and for their part greater 
plenty then the English, of flesh, fowle, fish, and all things 
lbr food, if they will use like Art of Cookery. Alwaies I 
except the Fruits, Venison, and some dainties proper to 
England, and rare in Ireland. And we must conceive, 
that Venison and Fowle seeme to be more plentiful in 
Ireland, because they neither so generally affect dainty 
foode, nor so diligently search it as the English do. Many 
9 6 


free in this excesse as they would kneeling upon the knee, 
and otherwise garausse health after health with men; not 
to speake of the wives of Irish Lords, or to referre it to 
the due place, who often drinke till they be drunken, or 
at least till they voide urine in full assemblies of men, I 
cannot (though unwilling) but note the Irish women more 
specially with this fault, which I have observed in no 
other part to be a woman's vice, but onely in Bohemia: 
Yet so as accusing them, I meane not to excuse the men, 
and will also confesse that I have seene Virgins, as well 
Gentlewomen as Citizens, commanded by their mothers 
to retyre, after they had in curtesie pledged one or two 
healths. In Cities passengers may have featherbeds, soft 
and good, but most commonly lowsie, especially in the 
high wales; whether that came by their being forced to 
lodge common souldiers, or from the nastie filthinesse of 
the nation in generall. For even in the best Citie, as at 
Corck, I have observed that my owne & other English 
mens chambers hyred of the Citizens, were scarce swept 
once in the week, & the dust then laid in a corner, was 
perhaps cast out once in a month or two. I did never 
see any publike Innes with signes hanged out, among the 
English or English-Irish; but the Officers of Cities and 
Villages appoint lodgings to the passengers, and perhaps 
in each Citie, they shall find one or two houses, where they 
will dresse meate, and these be commonly houses of 
Englishmen, seldome of the Irish: so as these houses 
having no signes hung out, a passenger cannot challenge 
right to be intertained in them, but must have it of 
courtesie, and by intreaty. 
The wild and (as I may say) meere Irish, inhabiting 
many and large Provinces, are barbarous and most filthy 
in their diet. They skum the seething pot with an hand- 
full of straw, and straine their milke taken from the 
Cow through a like handfull of straw, none of the 
cleanest, and so clense, or rather more defile the 
pot and milke. They devoure great morsels of beefe 
unsalted, and they eat commonly Swines flesh, seldom 
9 8 


mutton, and all these pieces of flesh, as also the 
intralles of beasts unwashed, they seeth in a hollow tree, 
lapped in a raw Cowes hide, and so set over the tier, and 
therewith swallow whole lumps of filthy butter. Yea 
(which is more contrary to nature) they will feede on 
Horses dying of themselves, not only upon small want of 
flesh, but even for pleasure. For I remember an accident 
in the Army, when the Lord Mountjoy, the Lord Deputy, 
riding to take the ayre out of the Campe, found the 
buttocks of dead Horses cut off, and suspecting, that some 
soldiers had eaten that flesh out of necessity, being 
defrauded of the victuals allowed them, commanded the 
men to bee searched out, among whom a common souldier, 
and that of the English-Irish, not of the meere Irish, 
being brought to the Lord Deputy, and asked why hee 
had eaten the flesh of dead Horses, thus freely answered, 
Your Lordship may please to eate Pheasant and Patridge, 
and much good doe it you that best likes your taste ; and 
I hope it is lawfull for me without offence, to eate this 
flesh that likes me better then Beefe. Whereupon the 
Lord Deputy perceiving himself to be deceived, & 
further understanding that he had received his ordinary 
victuals (the detaining whereof he suspected, and purposed 
to punish for example), gave the souldier a piece of gold 
to drinke in Usquebagh for better disgestion, and so 
dismissed him. 
The foresaid wilde Irish doe not thresh their Oates, but 
burne them from the straw, and so make cakes thereof, 
yet they seldome eate this bread, much lesse any better 
kind, especially in the time of warre, whereof a Bohemian 
Baron complained, who having seene the Courts of 
England and Scotland, would needes out of his curiosity 
returne through Ireland in the heate of the Rebellion; 
and having letters from the King of Scots to the Irish 
Lords then in Rebellion, first landed among them, in the 
furthest North, where for eight dayes space hee had found 
no bread, not so much as a cake of Oates, till he came to 
eate with the Earle of Tyrone, and after obtaining the 

[III. iii. 16 3.] 


Lord Deputies Passe to come into our Army, related this 
their want of bread to us for a miracle, who nothing 
wondred thereat. Yea, the wilde Irish in time of greatest 
peace impute covetousnesse and base birth to him, that 
hath any Corne after Christmas, as if it were a point of 
Nobility to consume all within those Festivall dayes. 
They willingly eate the hearb Schamrock, being of a 
sharpe taste, which as they runne and are chased to an 
fro, they snatch like beasts out of the ditches. 
Neither have they any Beere made of Malt and Hoppes, 
nor yet any Ale, no, not the chiefe Lords, except it be very 
rarely: but they drinke Milke like Nectar, warmed with 
a stone first cast into the tier, or else Beefe-broath mingled 
with milke : but when they come to any Market Towne, 
to sell a Cow or a Horse, they never returne home, till 
they have drunke the price in Spanish Wine (which they 
call the King of Spaines Daughter), or in Irish Usque- 
boagh, and till they have out-slept two or three daies 
drunkennesse. And not onely the common sort, but even 
the Lords and their wives, the more they want this drinke 
at home, the more they swallow it when they come to it, 
till they be as drunke as beggers. 
Many of these wilde Irish eate no flesh, but that which 
dyes of disease or otherwise of it selfe, neither can it scape 
them for stinking. They desire no broath, nor have any 
use of a spoone. They can neither seeth Artichokes, nor 
eate them when they are sodden. It is strange and 
ridiculous, but most true, that some of our carriage Horses 
falling into their hands, when they found Sope and Starch, 
carried for the use of our Laundresses, they thinking them 
to bee some dainty meates, did eate them greedily, and 
when they stuck in their teeth, cursed bitterly the gluttony 
of us English churles, for so they terme us. They feede 
most on Whitmeates, and esteeme for a great daintie sower 
curds, vulgarly called by them Bonaclabbe. And for this 
cause they watchfully keepe their Cowes, and fight for 
them as for religion and life; and when they are almost 
starved, yet they will not kill a Cow, except it bee old, 


and yeeld no Milke. Yet will they upon hunger in time 
of warre open a vaine of the Cow, and drinke the bloud, 
but in no case kill or much weaken it. A man would 
thinke these men to bee Scythians, who let their Horses 
bloud under the eares, and for nourishment drinke their 
bloud, and indeed (as I have formerly said), some of the 
Irish are of the race of Scythians, comming into Spaine, 
and from thence into Ireland. The wild Irish (as I said) 
seldome kill a Cow to eate, and if perhaps they kill one 
for that purpose, they distribute it all to be devoured at 
one time; for they approve not the orderly eating at 
meales, but so they may eate enough when they are 
hungry, they care not to fast long. And I have knowne 
some of these Irish footemen serving in England, (where 
they are nothing lesse then sparing in the foode of their 
Families), to lay meate aside for many meales, to devoure 
it all at one time. 
These wilde Irish assoone as their Cowes have calved, 
take the Calves from them, and thereof feede some with 
Milke to reare for breede, some of the rest they fley, and 
seeth them in a filthy poke, and so eate them, being 
nothing but froth, and send them for a present one to 
another: but the greatest part of these Calves they cast 
out to bee eaten by Crowes and Woolves, that themselves 
may have more abundance of Milke. And the Calves 
being taken away, the Cowes are so mad among them, 
as they will give no Milke till the skinne of the Calfe bee 
stuffed and set before them, that they may smell the odor 
of their owne bellies. Yea when these Cowes thus madly 
denie their milke, the women wash their hands in Cowes 
dung, and so gently stroke their dugges, yea, put their 
hands into the cowes taile, and with their mouthes blow 
into their tailes, that with this maner (as it were) of 
inchantment, they may draw milk from them. Yea, these 
Cowes seeme as rebellious to their owners, as the people 
are to their Kings, for many times they will not be milked 
but of some one old woman only, and of no other. These 
wild Irish never set any candles upon tables; What do I 

[III. iii.  64. ] 


speak of Tables ? since indeede they have no tables, but 
set their meate upon a bundle of grasse, and use the same 
Grasse for napkins to wipe their hands. But I meane that 
they doe not set candles upon any high place to give light 
to the house, but place a great candle made of reedes and 
butter upon the floure in the middest of a great roome. 
And in like sort the chiefe men in their houses make tiers 
in the middest of the roome, the smoake whereof goeth 
out at a hole in the top thereof. An Italian Frier comming 
of old into Ireland, and seeing at Armach this their diet 
and nakednesse of the women (whereof I shall speake in 
the next booke of this Part, and the second Chapter 
thereof) is said to have cried out, 
Civitas Armachana, Civitas vana, 
Carnes crude, mulieres nudge. 
Vaine Armach City, I did thee pity, 
Thy meates rawnes, and womens nakednesse. 
I trust no man expects among these gallants any beds, 
much lesse fetherbeds and sheetes, who like the Nomades 
removing their dwellings, according to the commodity of 
pastures for their Cowes, sleepe under the Canopy of 
heaven, or in a poore house of clay, or in a cabbin made 
of the boughes of trees, and covered with ruffle, for such 
are the dwellings of the very Lords among them. And 
in such places, they make a tier in the middest of the 
roome, and round about it they sleepe upon the ground, 
without straw or other thing under them, lying all in a 
circle about the tier, with their feete towards it. And 
their bodies being naked, they cover their heads and upper 
parts with their mantels, which they first make very wet, 
steeping them in water of purpose, for they finde that 
when their bodies have once warmed the wet mantels, the 
smoake of them keepes their bodies in temperate heate all 
the night following. And this manner of lodging, not 
onely the meere Irish Lords, and their followers use, but 
even some of the English Irish Lords and their followers, 
when after the old but tyranicall and prohibited manner 

[III.iv. 65. 3 


Chap. I. 
Of the Germans, Bohemians, Sweitzers, Nether- 
landers, Danes, Polonians and Italians apparrell. 
N Ne thing in generall must bee remembred 
touching the divers apparrell of divers 
Nations: That it is daily subiect to 
change, as each Commonwealth by little 
and little declines from the best constitu- 
tion to the worst, and old manners are 
daily more and more corrupted with new 
vices, or as each Common-wealth is by due remedies 
purged and reformed. 
The most rich among the Germans (as old Writers doe 
witnesse) used of old straight apparrell, expressing to life 
the lineaments of the whole body (which kind of apparel 
the Schwaben or Suevi use at this day), and the women 
were apparrelled as men (of which wicked custome we find 
at this day no remainder, except the souldiers wives 
following the Campe may perhaps somewhat offend that 
way.) They adde that the Suevi (under which name the 
Romanes comprehended all the Germanes) used of old to 
be clad in skinnes. No doubt the Germanes, as they ever 
were, so are at this day, in their apparrell, constant, and 
modest (and I had almost said slovenly.) Surely if a man 
observe the time they spend in brushing their apparrell, 
and taking out the least spots, aswell at home, as abroad 



when they come to their Innes, they will seeme cleanly, 
but if we behold their apparrell, so worne to proofe, as the 
nap of the cloth, and that somewhat course, being worne 
off, the ground plainely appeares, and spotted with grease 
and wearing, especially the sleeves, which they weare large, 
and at table not without cause, lift up with one hand, while 
they take meate with the other, lest they should fall into 
the dish, no doubt (without offence be it spoken), they 
are somewhat slovenly. And for this imputation of old 
laid on the Germans, I appeale to Tacitus, writing to this 
purpose in the Latin tongue. The slovenly and naked 
Germans live in the same house among the same beasts. 
And he that at this day lookes upon their Schwartz 
Reytern (that is, Blacke Horsemen) must confesse, that to 
make their horses and boates shine, they make themselves 
as black as Collyers. These Horsemen weare blacke 
clothes, and poore though they be, yet spend no small time 
in brushing them. The most of them have black Horses, 
which while they painefully dresse, and (as I said) delight 
to have their boots and shoos shine with blacking stuffe, 
their hands and faces become black, and thereof they have 
their foresaid name. Yea, I have heard Germans say, that 
they do thus make themselves al black, to seeme more 
terrible to their enemies. I have often heard their 
Preachers declame against the common inconstancie in 
apparrel: but they do herein according to the art of 
jesting, which is ever most pleasing, when it taskes men 
with vices whereof they are not guilty, but never with 
those that may be truly imputed. For Drunkennesse, 
the famous, yet almost sole vice of the Germans, is 
in the meane time silently passed over by them in 
their Pulpits, or else out of a guilty conscience slightly 
No doubt the Germans are of all other famous and great 
Nations least expencefull in apparrell, whether a man con- 
sider the small prices of the garments, or their long lasting. 
By an Imperiall Law, Husbandmen are forbidden to weare 
any stuffes, that cost more then halfe a Gulden the ell, and 

6o5-I 7. 

[III. iv. i66.] 


cambricke or lawne, but of their owne course linnen, such 
as I have often seene the Spaniards to weare. 
Their handkerchers are very large, and wrought with 
silke of divers light colours, with great letters signifying 
words, as for example D. H. I. M. T. signifyinF Der her 
Ist mein Trost, that is; The Lord is my comtort, so as 
they seeme more like wrought saddle clothes, then hand- 
kerchers. Many of the Saxons weare thrummed hats, 
which are called Brunswicke hats, as most used in those 
parts, being so stifle as a sword will hardly pierce them, 
especially with the brasse hatbands they weare about them, 
and being so heavie as they lie upon the eares, and make 
them hang downe with small comelinesse. Few weare 
feathers in their hats, yet the Doctors of the Civill Law 
have the priviledge to weare them, and my selfe have seene 
many Students in the Universities, and most Coachmen of 
Germany, weare feathers costing each some twelve or six- 
teene batzen. The mention of the said shirt bands, used 
in Prussia, makes me remember that the Citizens of 
Dantzke, seated in that Province, doe generally weare 
more rich Apparell, then any other Germans. And I 
remember that their said shirt bands or ruffes were little 
lesse then a quarter of an ell long, and hung upon their 
shoulders, notwithstanding they had stales to beare them 
up, which madde fashion, but not so long, the English 
used of old, and have long since laid aside. The men in 
these parts commonly weare silkes and velvets, without 
any decent distinction of degrees, and the women seemed 
much prouder in apparrell then the men. I have seene 
married women not of the richest sort, daily weare hats 
of velvet, though some weare also felt hats, and others to 
weare frontiers of velvet, and others wearing hats, had 
their hatbands all set with pearle, and many of their 
Daughters did weare chaines of pearle, worth three 
hundred guldens, yea some of these Virgins have shewed 
me their chaines of five hundred guldens value, being the 
Daughters of Citizens and Merchants. As well married 
as unmarried women in the chiefe Cities of that Province, 


Few men or women weare gold rings, pearles, or 
Jewels: but Bohemia yeelds false stones like the orientall 
precious stones, yet of small or no value, and I have seene 
some Gentlemen weare these false stones, and brasse rings 
guilded over, the wearing whereof is held disgracefull with 
us. At Magdeburg I did see a young Gentleman having 
all his fingers loaded with rings, which I thought to be of 
Old, till my selfe sawe him buy a ring of three hoopes 
r some fifteene pence in English money, and so found 
his foolish pride. The Statutes (as I formerly said) permit 
Noblewomen (that is Gentlewomen) to weare chaines of 
gold, which notwithstanding they weare very seldome: 
And in like sort their Earles, (vulgarly called Graves) and 
their Knights, sometimes weare gold chaines, made of 
extraordinary great linkes, and not going more then once 
about the necke, nor hanging downe further then the 
middle button of the doublet. The Germans in great 
part measure a strangers dignity by the richnesse of his 
Apparrell, and by his grave or (to speake plainely) proud 
looke. Citizens Wives in some places weare upon their 
heads little caps in the forme of an Oyster-shell, and 
they weare short cloakes, reaching no further then their 
elbowes. Citizens daughters and Virgines of inferiour 
sort, weare nothing upon their heads, but their haire woven 
with laces, and so gathered on the fore-part of the head, 
with the forehead stroked up plaine, and upon the fore- 
part of the head the Gentlewomen weare a border of 
pearle, and all other from the highest to the lowest, 
commonly weare garlands of roses, (which they call 
For they keepe Roses all Winter in little pots of earth, 
whereof they open one each saturday at night, and dis- 
tribute the Roses among the women of the house, to the 
very kitchin maide ; others keepe them all in one pot, and 
weekely take as many Roses as they neede, and cover the 
rest, keeping them fresh till the next Summer. And the 
common sort mingle guilded nutmegs with these Roses, 
and make garlands thereof: Only women weare these 
M. IV 209 0 

[ 168.] 


Garlands in Winter, but in Summer time men of the 
better sort weare them within doores, and men of the cora- 
mon sort weare them going abroade. They keepe Roses 
all Winter in this sort, they choose the closest and thickest 
buds of all kinds of Roses, but the Damaske Roses best 
keepe the smell, and other kindes the colour. Then they 
take a pot of earth, and sprinckle some bay salt in the 
bottome, and lay these buds severally, not very close one 
to the other, in two rowes one above the other, which 
do,e they sprinckle the same, and wet all the buds with 
two little glasses of Rhenish Wine, and againe sprinckle 
them with bay salt in greater quantity, yet such as it may 
not eate the leaves. In like sort they put up each two 
rowes of buds, till the pot be full, which they cover with 
wood or leade, so as no aire can enter, and then lay it up 
in a cold cellar, where no sunne comes. 'hen they take 
out the buds, they dip them in luke warme water, or put 
them into the Oven when the bread is taken out, which 
makes the leaves open with the turning of the buds 
betweene two fingers, then they dip a feather in rhenish 
wine, and wipe the leaves therewith, to refresh the colour, 
and some doe the like with rose water, to renew the smell. 
Give me leave by the way to relate, (though out of due 
course), that I observed women at Leipzig, in like sort 
to keepe Cherries all Winter, after this manner. They 
inclose some Cherries in a glasse, so as no aire can enter, 
and then fasten the glasse to some low shrub or bough, of 
a tree, so as the glasse may hang in a brooke, runmng 
Now I returne to my former discourse. Many of the 
said Virgines have their neckbands set with spangles, such 
as some children with us weare. The married women 
weare their gownes close about the breast and neck, with 
a very short ruffe about their neckes, (such as men also 
weare) set with poking stickes as small as reedes, and they 
weare little hats upon their heads. The Virgines in 
generall, weare linnen sleeves about their armes, as close 
as they can be made, for they esteeme it the greatest grace 


to have the smallest armes, and their petticoates are 
guarded with some ten or more fringes or laces of silke or 
velvet, each fringe being of a different colour one from 
the other, making the skirts thereof as variable in colour 
as the Raine-bow. Citizens wives put off their ruffes 
when they goe out of the house, covering their neckes and 
mouths with a linnen cloth for feare of cold. And they 
weare great heavy purses by their sides, with great bunches 
of keyes hanging by chaines of brasse or silver: and all 
generally, aswell married women as Virgins, goe with bare 
legges: and I have seene a Virgine in Saxony, refuse a 
paire of silke stockings offered her of guilt : and the maide 
servants and married women of the inferiour sort weare 
no shooes except they goe out of the house, and great part 
goe also abroade bare footed. The married women hide 
their naked feete with long gownes, but the maide servants 
wearing- short gownes, and girding them up into a 
roule some handfull under the wast about their hippes, 
(especially in the lower parts of Germany), many times 
offend chast eyes with shewing their nakednesse, especially 
when they stoope for any thing to the ground. And in 
those parts of Germany the Citizens wives, like our little 
children, weare red and yellow shooes, and guilded at the 
toes. In generall, it is disgracefull to married women or 
Virgins (excepting at Augsburg, and some few other 
Cities), to goe out of doores without a cloake, which 
commonly is of some light stuffe, as Grogram, or the like, 
faced with some furres, and at Hidelberg they never goe 
abroade without a little basket in their hands, as if they 
went to buy something, except they will be reputed dis- 
honest. The married Women alwaies have their heads 
covered, in some Cities with a peece of velvet, other 
where with little caps of velvet, silke, or felt, or with some 
like fashion, according to the use of the Countrey. And 
very many weare such crosse-clothes or forehead clothes 
as our Women use when they are sicke. In many places 
the ordinary Citizens Wives have their gownes made with 
long traines, which are pinned up in the house, and borne 

I6O5-I 7. 



[lII.iv..69. ] 



up by maide servants when they goe abroade, which 
fashion of old onely great Noblemen used with us: And 
in many Cities, aswel the married as unmarried Women, 
weare long fardingales, hanging about their feete like 
hoopes, which our Women used of olde, but have now 
changed to short fardingals about their hippes. 
The Bohemians are apparrelled much like the Germans, 
and delight in greene, yellow, and light colours, but more 
frequently weare silkes and velvets then the Germans, and 
also false Jewels of their owne. And many times they 
weare blacke cloth with many laces or fringes of light 
colours, each fringe differing in colour one from the other. 
And in respect of forraigne Ambassadours comming from 
all parts to Prage, and of Italian Merchants frequenting 
there, the Bohemians are more infected with forraigne 
fashions, then the Germans. The married Gentlewomen 
attire their heads like our Virgins, and in like sort beare 
up their haire on the forehead with a wier. They use with 
the Germans to make their gownes with traines, or to beare 
them out with long fardingals, and to weare short cloakes. 
Citizens wives weare upon their heads large gray caps, 
rugged like gray Connie skinnes, and formed like the 
hives of Bees, or little caps of velvet close to the head, of 
a dunne colour, with the hinder skirt (or hinder part) cut 
off and open: And upon their legges they weare white 
buskins, wrought with velvet at the toes; but upon their 
armes they weare large sleeves, and contrary to the 
Germans, thinke them to be most comely. 
The Sweitzers, being Citizens (for their nobility is long 
since rooted out by popular seditions) weare large round 
caps, (such as are used by our Prentices and Students in 
the Innes of Court), and together with them they weare 
cloakes (whereas with us they are onely used with gownes), 
yea, and Swords also (which seemed strange to be worne 
with caps). They weare great large puffed breeches, 
gathered close above the knees, and each puffe made of 
a divers light colour ; but their doublets are made close to 
the body. The married Women cover their heads with a 


linnen coyfe, and upon it weare such caps as the men use, 
(which are broader then we used in England), and com- 
monly weare a linnen crossecloth upon the forehead. To 
be briefe, the Virgins goe bare headed with their haire 
woven up, and use short cloakes, and aswell married as 
unmarried Women, as also the Men, are apparrelled like 
the Germans, and affect nothing lesse then pride in their 
In the united Provinces, the Inhabitants being for the 
most part Merchants and Citizens, the Men use modest 
attire of grave colours, and little beautified with lace or 
other ornament. They weare short cloakes of English 
cloth, with one small lace to cover the seames, and a narrow 
facing of silke or velvet. Their doublets are made close 
to the body, their breeches large and fastened under the 
knees commonly of woollen cloth, or else of some light 
stuffe, or of silke or velvet. They use very little lace, no 
imbrodery, yet the Hollanders of old accounted the most 
rude of the other Provinces, at this day increased in 
wealth, and reputation of the State, doe by little and little 
admit luxury, and their sonnes apply themselves both to 
the apparrell and manners of the English and French. 
Women aswell married as unmarried, cover their heads 
with a coyfe of fine holland linnen cloth, and they weare 
gowns commonly of some slight stuffe, & for the most part 
of black colour, with little or no lace or guards, and their 
necke ruffes are little (or short) but of very fine linnen. 
For aswell men as women tor their bodies and for 
all uses of the Family, use very fine linnen; and 
I thinke that no clownes in the World weare such fine 
shirts as they in Holland doe. Some of the chiefe 
Women not able to abide the extreme cold, and loth to 
put fier under them for heate (as the common use is) 
because it causeth wrinckles and spots on their bodies, doe 
use to weare breeches of linnen or silke. All Women in 
generall, when they goe out of the house, put on a hoyke 
or vaile which covers their heads, and hangs downe upon 
their backs to their legges ; and this vaile in Holland is of 
2I 3 



[III.iv. 7o.] 


a light stuffe or Kersie, and hath a kinde of horne rising 
over the forehead, not much unlike the old pummels of 
our Womens saddles, and they gather the Vaile with their 
hands to cover all their faces, but onely the eyes : but the 
Women of Flanders and Brabant weare Vailes altogether 
of some light fine stuffe, and fasten them about the hinder 
part and sides of their cap, so as they hang loosely, not 
close to the body, and leave their faces open to view, and 
these Caps are round, large, and flat to the head, and of 
Velvet, or at least guarded therewith, and are in forme like 
our potlids used to cover pots in the Kitchin : And these 
Women, aswel for these Vailes, as their modest garments 
with gowns close at the brest and necke, and for their 
pure and fine linnen, seemed to me more faire then any 
other Netherlanders, as indeed they are generally more 
I did see the King of Denmarke entred a daies journey 
in his progresse towards Holsatia (vulgarly Holst), and he 
wore a loose gippoe of blacke velvet, sparingly adorned 
with gold lace, and in the Towne he wore a large broade 
brimmed felt hat, with the brimmes in part buttoned up, 
but in his Coach he wore a rough Brunswicke hat, 
used in the lower parts of Germany, and had a large 
chaine of gold hanging under one arme so low, as 
it was folded about his girdle: And when he walked 
abroade, he carried his Sword upon his shoulder with the 
point in his hand, and the hilts hanging downe behind him. 
His chiefe Courtiers and his younger brother were all 
attired in an English cloth, which they called Kentish cloth, 
we call Motley, but much finer then that whereof we make 
cloakebags, and of purpose made for them, costing some 
two dollers the ell. They wore gold chaines, so short as 
they reached not further then the sixth or seventh button 
of their doublets, but the linkes were great, and they had a 
Tablet of gold annexed to them. They carried their 
swords as the King did, with the hilts hanging over the 
shoulder, and they wore daggers with heavy sheaths of 
silver, like those used in Saxony. The Kings Guard wore 


huge breeches puffed, and of divers colours, like the 
Sweitzers hose. In generall, the Danes are apparrelled 
like the Germans, and especially like the Saxons, constantly 
and modestly, and they so abhorre from strange fashions, 
as the Kings Father lately deceased, was reported to have 
given the strange apparrell of certaine Gentlemen newly 
returned from forraigne parts, to the infamous I-Iangman, 
that they might be despised of the Gentry. Gentlewomen 
Virgins goe with their heads bare, and their haire woven 
and adorned with rowes of pearle. And the married 
Gentlewomen goe with their heads covered with a fine 
linnen coyfe, and weare upon their foreheads a French 
shadow of velvet to defend them from the Sunne, which 
our Gentlewomen of old borrowed of the French, and 
called them Bonegraces, now altogether out of use with 
us; and they adorne their heads with borders of Gold. 
Women as well married as unmarried, Noble and of 
inferiour condition, weare thinne bands about their neckes, 
yet not falling, but erected, with the upper bodies of their 
outward garment of velvet, but with short skirts, and 
going out of the house, they have the German custome 
to weare cloakes. They also weare a chaine of 
Gold like a breast-plate, and girdles of silver, and 
At Dermind, the Haven of Dantzke in Prussen, I did 
see the King of Poland ready to sayle into Suevia or 
Suecia, his Fathers Kingdome of Inheritance, for whom 
lately dead, he then wore mourning Apparrell, namely a 
long blacke cloake of woollen cloth, and a cap or low hat 
of blacke silke with narrow brimmes, with a falling band 
about his necke, a blacke doublet close to his body, and 
large breeches fastened under the knee. The Qeene 
being of the House of Austria, was attired like the Noble- 
women of Germany, and being then ready to take ship, 
her head "as coverd with a coyfe of fine linnen, and upon 
her forehead shee wore a crossecloth almost downe to the 
nose. The Kings Courtiers wore two long coates, the 
upper coate (or cloake with sleeves was longer then the 

The Polo,liam. 


[III.iv. '7-] 


other, the skirts whereof on the right side, were so 
fastened on the shoulder with silver buttons, and so cast 
upon the left shoulder, as they had their right armes alto- 
8ether free; and this upper coate was of English cloth, 
faced before with silke. The lower or inner coate was of 
silke or some light stuffe, hanging downe on one side to 
the knees, on the other side doubled and fastened to the 
girdle, and both coates were of light colours, but without 
any lace of Gold or Silver, or other ornament whatsoever. 
They wore breeches and stockings of the same cloth, like 
those of our old men, or the trusses of Ireland, and their 
shirts were of much finer linnen then the Germans use. 
And they wore a fine and very large linnen handkercher, 
fastened to their Girdles behind : but they had no miles 
nor any bands of linnen about their neckes, which are 
onely used by some few Gentlemen, who have lived in 
forraigne parts, but the colours of their coates weare raised 
with a peake behind to keepe the necke warme. They 
wore extraordinary little caps, hardly covering the crowne 
of the head, and in them wore some sixe feathers, not of 
mixed or light colours, nor broade, as we weare them, but 
white and narrow, such (or the same) as are pulled from 
Capons tailes. The Polonians shave all their heads close, 
excepting the haire of the forehead, which they nourish 
very long and cast backe to the hinder part of the head. 
They carry for Armes a Turkish Cemeter, and weare 
shooes of leather and also of wood, both painted and both 
shodde under the heele and toes with pieces of Iron, 
making great noise as they goe. The Gentlemen weare 
chaines of gold folded about their girdles, and carry in 
their hands a little hammer of silver, and perhaps guilded, 
and these of inferiour sort one of Iron. The Hungarians 
in their attire differ little from the Polonians, but no 
Hungarian may weare a feather, except he have done some 
noble act, and according to the number of his brave 
actions, so many feathers he may weare, to witnesse his 
valour. At Crakaw I did see the Castellani (that is, 
Keepers of Castles) and many Gentlemen riding to the 

[III. iv. 72.] 


little differs from the Germans, save that their apparrell 
is more sumptuous, but of them I have formerly spoken 
in the discourse of the Germans attire. 
Of the Italians it is proverbially said, that the Venetians 
are gowned, yet by night going to visit their Mistresses, 
weare short Spanish cloakes. That those of Ferrara and 
Mantua are proud in their attire, with their caps set with 
gold buttons. That the Florentines are ridiculous, (yet 
I observed none more modestly attired.) That those of 
Genoa are neate and comely m attire, but weare no gownes, 
nor lace, nor gardes. That those of Milan are decent, and 
the Neapolitans are glittering and sumptuous. Surely the 
Italians in generall, respect the conveniency more then 
ornament of their apparrell. When they take journeyes, 
they weare large bootes, that they may fling off being 
untied, but such as keepe them dry in all weathers; and 
to the same ende they weare thicke felt hats, and short fek 
clokes, which no raine can pierce, respecting the health, 
not the ornaments of their bodies. And howsoever their 
apparrell is soft and delicate, yet they onely weare cloth 
and stuffes made at home, not any brought from forraigne 
parts. Their garments are commonly of silke, but 
seldome embrodred, and never laid with gold or silver 
lace, and commonly of black colour. And howsoever all 
those mixed colours which we so highly esteeme, come 
from thence, yet are they not invented by the Italians, 
but by the Factors of our Merchants, who lie there of 
purpose, to feede the fantasticall pride of our Youth, in 
new Stuffes, or at least new colours and names. 
The Citizens of Genoa, weare gold Chaines, and might 
seeme proudly attired in garments of Velvet, save that we 
must remember, that they are not onely Merchants but 
Gentlemen, and some of them Princes. 
The Venetians, by reason of their strict Lawes from all 
antiquity restraining excesse in apparrell, howsoever many 
times they weare sumptuous garments, yet are they hidden 
under their gownes, not to be seene but by their Mistrisses 
at night. They make woollen cloth of such lasting, as 


they bequeath their gownes by their last testaments. All 
the Gentlemen, not one excepted, weare blacke cloth 
gownes, buttoned close at the necke, with the sleeves put 
on over their doublets, aswell young as old men, but some 
under this civill gowne weare rich furres, and imbrodred 
garments. And the Senators, Doctors, and Knights, 
weare Scarlet gownes, with large sleeves, lined in winter 
with rich furres. And their Senate is no lesse or more 
glorious in publike pompes, then the Roman Senate was 
of old. And the Gentlemen constantly weare these 
gownes, either in singular pride to be knowne from others, 
(for no Citizen, nor any Gentlemen of other Cities weare 
gownes), or for obedience to the Law, or out of an old 
custome, which the most wise Magistrates permit not to 
be broken. And for the same cause, all the Gentlemen, 
none excepted, weare little caps of Freese or Cloth, hardly 
covering the crowne, or the forepart of the head. 
All other Italians in generall weare stuffe cloakes, and 
commonly of Silke in summer, and cloth in winter, and 
light felt hats with narrow brimmes; and large breeches, 
sometimes wide, and open at the knee, after the Spanish 
fashion, but more commonly tied under the knee, and a 
loose coate or gippo, but not wide, and a doublet close to 
the body, both of silke, and lined with silke, and silke 
stockings. Also many weare Jewels, but as it were hidden, 
to bee seene onely by chance. Lastly, in great wisdome 
they care not to have rich apparrell, but hold it honourable 
to live of their owne. They make no fine linnen, & ther- 
fore use course linnen, both for shirts, and other uses of 
the Family, and commonly weare little falling bands, and 
many times ruffes of Flanders linnen, sometimes wrought 
with Italian Cut-worke, much used with us, but their 
ruffes are not so great as ours, and they have little skill 
in washing, starching, or smoothing linnen. They weare 
very short haire, as all Nations doe that live in hot climes, 
the contrary vice of wearing long haire being proper to 
the French, English, and Scots, but especially to the Irish. 
The Italians clothe very little children with doublets and 


[IIl.iv. '73-] 


breeches, but their breeches are open behind, with the shirt 
hanging out, that they may ease themselves without helpe. 
Among other Princes of Italy, I did see Ferdinand the 
third, Duke of Florence, who did weare a cloke of English 
cloth, with one little lace, and breeches of Velvet without 
and stockings of leather, and a leather 
sword, and his Coach was lined with old 
and the Horses seemed taken out of the 

any ornament, 
scabbard to his 
greene Velvet, 
The women 
light colours. 

in generall are delighted with mixed and 
The women of Venice weare choppines or 
shoos three or foure hand-bredths high, so as the lowest of 
them seeme higher then the tallest men, and for this cause 
they cannot goe in the streetes without leaning upon the 
shoulder of an old woman. They have another old woman 
to beare up the traine of their gowne, & they are not 
attended with any man, but onely with old women. In 
other parts of Italy, they weare lower shooes, yet some- 
what raised, and are attended by old women, but goe 
without any helpe of leading. The women of Venice 
weare gownes, leaving all the necke and brest bare, and 
they are closed before with a lace, so open, as a man may 
see the linnen which they lap about their bodies, to make 
them seeme fat, the Italians most loving fat women. They 
shew their naked necks and breasts, and likewise their 
dugges, bound up and swelling with linnen, and all made 
white by art. They weare large falling bands, and their 
haire is commonly yellow, made so by the Sunne and art, 
and they raise up their haire on the forehead in two 
knotted hornes, and deck their heads & uncovered haire 
with flowers of silke, and with pearle, in great part 
counterfeit. And they cast a black vaile from the head to 
the shoulders, through which the nakednesse of their 
shoulders, and neckes, and breasts, may easily be seene. 
For this attire the women of Venice are proverbially said 
to be, Grande de legni, Grosse di straci, rosse di bettito, 
bianche di calcina : that is tall with wood, fat with ragges, 
red with painting, and white with chalke. The women 

I6O5-I 7. 


The City Virgins, and especially Gentlewomen, cover 
their heads, face, and backes with a Vaile, that they may 
not be seene passing the streetes, and in many places weare 
silke or linnen breeches under their gownes. Also I have 
seene honourable Women, aswell married as Virgines, ride 
by the high way in Princes traines, apparrelled like Men, 
in a doublet close to the body, and large breeches open at 
the knees, after the Spanish fashion, both of carnation silke 
or satten, and likewise riding astride like men upon Horses 
or Mules, but their heads were attired like Women, with 
bare haires knotted, or else covered with gold netted 
cawles, and a hat with a feather. And many times in the 
Cities (as at Padua) I have seene Curtizans (in plaine 
English, whores) in the time of shroving, apparrelled like 
men, in carnation or light coloured doublets and breeches, 
and so playing with the racket at Tennis with yong men, 
at which time of shroving, the Women no lesse then Men, 
(and that honourable women in honourable company,) goe 
masked and apparrelled like men all the afternoone about 
the streetes, even from Christmasse holydaies to the first 
day in Lent. The Women wearing Mens breeches, have 
them open all before, and most part behind, onely buttoned 
with gold or silver buttons : And the Curtizans make all 
the forepart of their gownes in like manner open, to avoide 
Lastly, the Italians use to tie themselves upon a vow for 
recovery of health, or like cause, to weare certaine apparrell 
for a time or for life ; and if the vow be in repentance of 
sinne, the colour is ashcolour, vulgarly Beretino, which I 
have seene some weare for long time constantly, with 
purpose to weare them during lif. 


Of the 

Chap. II. 
Turkes, French, English, Scottish, and 
Irish Apparrell. 
He Turks shave their heads, but only in 

the very crowne, where they leave a tufft 
of haire ; and they doe not now as of old, 
onely nourish the haire of the upper lip, 
but al the beard growing round. They 
cover their head thus shaved with a close 

-- '-- cap of Scarlet, and above it weare some 
twelve or twenty elles of fine white cotton cloth, woven 
into a round globe, which in their tongue is called a 
Tulbent, and by some Tsalma: neither do they ever 
uncover their heads in honour to any man, but salute by 
bending the body, and laying their left hand on their right 
side. This cap (or this head, as they call it) is hollow, and 
so admits aire, being borne up by little hoopes, and so 
cooles the head, yet being thicke, keepes out the Sunne 
from piercing it, and being of most fine linnen, is much 
lighter then our hats. All the Orders or degrees among 
the Turkes, are knowne by the ornament of the head (or 
by their heades, as they speake.) The Azimoglanes weare 
Pyramidall caps like sugar-loves, of a mingled colour and 
light stuffe. The Janizares weare the said Tulbent, but 
have also a cap peculiar to their Order, vulgarly called 
Zarcola, which they weare going abroad into the City, 
being a standing cap, plaine at the top, with an hood hang- 
ing down behind (like that part of our French hoods), with 
a guilded home of brasse upright above the forehead. 
The Janizares that are Courtiers, weare a Feather hanging 
downe from the hinder part of the head to the very heeles. 
The Chausses, and all degrees upward to the very 
Emperour, weare the said Tulbent or Cap, with a little 
piece of red velvet appearing at the very crowne, upon 
which they set Jewels and Feathers, whereby these higher 
orders and degrees in the warre are distinguished. Like 

x6os-x 7. 

Jill.iv. 75-] 


white Tulbents, but altogether plaine, are worne by 
inferiour Turkes, that are not Souldiers, and they cannot 
bee more provoked, then by casting any spot upon their 
white heads, which they weare as an holy badge of their 
Religion, placing the purity of the soule for a great part in 
the outward purity of the body, Tulbent, and garments. 
All these Tulbents be of pure white ; but the Greekes and 
other Christians, aswell subjects as strangers, weare 
Shasses, that is, striped linnen (commonly white and blew), 
wound about the skirts of a little cap. Such a Shasse my 
selfe did weare, costing fifteene Meidines. 
The Persians weare such Tulbents for the forme, but the 
cloth is of greene colour. And the Turkes (as I thinke) 
called Seriffi, and by others called Hemir, namely, the 
Kindred or race of Mahomet, (who make great shew of 
hereditary holinesse, and are of singular reputation), doe 
not onely weare greene Tulbents, but all garments of the 
same colour, yet some of them weare garments of other 
colours, with a greene marke to be knowne from others. 
They say, that Mahomet used to weare greene garments, 
whereupon in superstition they onely permit this colour to 
his race; and if any chance to weare a shoo-string or 
garters of that colour, by ignorance of this rite, they will 
file upon him, and beate him with cudgels, and if bee still 
weare them, will punish him more severely. My self 
ignorant of this rite, passed most part of Turkey, with 
my dublet lined with greene taffety, but sleeping by nights 
in my dublet, and hiding the silke, lest they should thinke 
me rich; by great chance this error of mine was 
never detected, till I came to Constantinople, where our 
Ambassadour observing it, and telling mee the great 
cruelty they use towards such as weare any greene thing, 
did much astonish me, yet did I still weare the same, being 
safe in the priviledge of the Ambassadours house, till I 
went into a Venetian ship, to sayle into Italy. Besides 
these hypocrites of Mahomets race, (for that cause so much 
respected, as the witnesse of one of them availes more then 
of ten common Turkes), they have other orders of 


religious men, whereof the chiefe, and (as it were) Metro- 
politan Bishop is called Mophty, whom the Emperour 
highly respects, and takes counsell of him when he goes 
to warre. Also the Cady is a chiefe Judge of Ecclesiasti- 
call causes: And all these weare silke gownes of skie 
coloured blew, which colour is esteemed next greene, and 
proper to some such orders. And these religious men 
weare their gownes long to the ground, with close sleeves, 
and their tulbents are larger, but flatter, then other Turkes 
Neither men nor women of the Turkes, weare any necke 
bands or collars, but their gownes are cut close to the 
lowest part of the necke, and there made fast, so as all 
the necke is naked. And the gownes of men and women 
little differ, save that the men have them large, the women 
close at the brest. They hate the blacke colour, as 
infernall, and much used by Christians. In general, the 
men weare a long coate to the knee, and upon it a long 
OWne with gathered sleeves hanging to the calfe of the 
gge, and buttoned at the brest, and a third longer 
owne hanging behind to the ground, with sleeves 
ose to the arme. They weare a girdle of silke or 
linnen twice or thrice about the waste, or of fine 
leather with plates of gold and silver. Their breeches 
and stockings are of one peece of Kersey, like Irish 
Trouses, but larger, the stockings hanging loose without 
any garters. They weare their shirts hanging over 
their breeches, under which they have linnen breeches, 
which they weare also by night, in stead of sheetes : And 
they pull out their shirts by day, lest they should be 
spotted by their privy parts, making it a point of religion, 
to keepe their garments cleane. Lastly; they weare red 
and yellow shooes, of most thinne leather, pointed sharpe 
at the toes ; and two fingers high at the heele, with peeces 
of iron under the soles, or else leather buskins, and both 
these they put off within dores ; sitting upon the ground, 
spread with Carpets, crossing their naked feete like our 
Taylors. Their upper gowne and breeches are commonly 
M. IV 22 P 

1605-t 7. 


of English or Venetian cloth, and many times of satten or 
damaske, or some light stuffe : And their coates are loose, 
and commonly lined with blacke Conie skinnes, brought 
out of England, and much esteemed by them; as being 
soft, and coole, and keeping out the Sunne in a loose 
garment, and also warme in a close garment. Thus they 
weare the finest cloth, silkes, and stuffes, but not one is 
found so prodigall or ridiculous, as to weare any lace, and 
much lesse to cut any stuffe, all wearing them plaine, and 
laughing at our contrary fashions. They have no glooves, 
and I remember that my selfe in Syria being poorely 
attired, yet was taken for a great man, onely for wearing 
gloves. They weare very large hand-kerchers, and 
wrought all over with silke of light colours, which they 
hang by their sides about the girdle. They use linnen 
cloth or cotton cloth very thinne and fine, but of browne 
colour, for thinnesse not unlike our boulting cloths, but 
most pure and cleane, in which they are curious for al 
things worne about the body. The chief pride of the 
Turks, is in having the pummels of their Cemeters (or 
short and broad Swords) set with Jewels, which are many 
times counterfet, and commonly of small value, and like- 
wise in having good Horses, with bridles and saddles rich 
and set with like Jewels. I never observed any Turkes 
to weare gold Rings or Jewels on their fingers, excepting 
onely some Souldiers in Syria, whom I have seene weare 
great rings of white bone upon their thumbs. But the 
great men highly esteeme Christian Jewellers, not to weare 
the Jewels, but rather to have their treasure portable, and 
easie to be hidden. The Turkes weare no Swords in the 
Cities, but onely in the Campe, or in Journies. For 
Janizaries and other Souldiers have such authority without 
armes, as no man dares resist them, so as carrying onely a 
long and heavy cudgell in their hands, one of them will 
therewith beat multitudes of Turkes, like so many dogs: 
yet the Janizaries in Syria weare at their girdles short and 
heavy Knives, like daggers. 
The Turkish women weare smocks (of which fashion 



they cannot be distinguished in condition or beauty. 
Neither goe they abroad in any pompe to be seene, nor 
without the leave of their husbands, to whom, and to no 
other at any time, they shew their face open, and their 
hands unpainted, except they will by immodesty procure 
their owne danger. Under the necke of this gowne cover- 
ing all their apparrell, they thrust the end of their white 
vaile hanging downe from the hinder part of the head; 
yet the Greekish women weare this vaile loose over that 
gowne. And this singular modesty is attributed to these 
women, that they blush to come into Market places, or 
publike meetings, or great companies, and are not dis- 
pleased to be strictly kept at home. Lastly, in respect of 
their frequent bathing, and their faces covered when they 
goe abroad, and so never open to the Sunne, wind, or any 
ill weather, the Turkish and Greekish women have most 
delicate bodyes, and long preserve their beauties. 
The French, if we respect the time of these late Civill 
wars, weare light stuffes and woollen cloth, with a doublet 
close to the body, and large easie breeches, and all things 
rather commodious for use, then brave for ornament; and 
scoffed at those who came richly attired to the Campe, or 
wore long haire. But if wee consider their apparrell 
before the misery of the said civill warres, we shall find 
them authors to us English, of wearing long haire, 
doublets with long bellies to the navell, ruffes hanging 
downe to the shoulders, and breeches puffed as big as a 
tunne, with all like wanton levities. In time of peace, 
Gentlemen weare mixed and light colours, and silk 
garments, laid with silke lace, and sattens, commonly raced, 
and stockings of silke, or of some light stuffe, but never 
woollen or worsted (which only Merchants weare,) and 
imbrodered garments, with great inconstancy in the 
fashion, and negligently or carelessely, which the Germans 
call slovenly, because they many times goe without hat- 
bands and garters, with their points untrust, and their 
doublets unburned. The sumptuary lawes forbid Gentle- 
men to weare cloth or lace of gold and silver, but when 


the King proclaimes an honourable warre against any 
lorraine Prince, he permits any bravery to his soldiers, yet 
so, as the warre ended, after a fit time to weare out that 
apparrel, they must returne to their former attire, except 
the king be so weake, as he cannot give life to these lawes. 
Aswell men as women commonly weare course linnen, and 
Gentlemens Lacqueis or servants ruffle in plaine ragges. 
In generall, men and women (excepting Courtiers and 
some of the Gentry) weare light stuffes, and rather delicate 
then sumptuous garments. And howsoever the Law 
forbids to weare silke lace upon silke stuffes, yet the 
execution of the Law being neglected, they ever offend 
more or lesse, according to the libertie of the time, against 
this old Law, never yet abolished, but rather in time worne 
out of respect. Merchants weare blacke garments of 
cloth, or light stuffes of silke, commonly after a modest 
fashion. The Senators weare cloakes and hats (not gownes 
and caps as ours use), and onely the Presidents and 
Counsellers of Parliaments weare scarlet gownes, and that 
onely at solemne times, as the first day that the Court sits, 
and all the Procurators daily weare gownes. The Country 
people commonly used to weare blew cloth, in loose coates 
and close breeches, with stockings hanging over their 
shooes. But they have left this fashion, and now for the 
most part, weare close doublets, and large breeches, with a 
large coate hanging downe to the knees, all of light stuffes 
made at home, and stockings of course wooll. And their 
wives in like sort attyred, have their heads all over- 
wrapped in linnen. 
In,igenerall the women, married, cover their heads with 
a coyre or netted cawle. The Gentlewomen beare up their 
haire on the fore-heades with a wier, and upon the back 
part of the head weare a cap of other haire then their owne, 
over their cawle, and above that they weare a coyfe of silke, 
lined with Velvet, and having a peake downe the forehead. 
Or else the Gentlewomen and wives of rich Merchants, 
with small difference of degree, weare upon their heads a 
black vaile of Cipers, peaked at the forehead, with a velvet 


[III.iv. I77.] 

The French 


hood hanging downe behind; onely the Gentlewomen 
weare this hood gathered, and the Merchants wives plaine. 
Women of inferiour sort weare like hoods of cloth, 
and sometimes of silke, or a light stuffe. And some 
Merchants wives and women of ordinary condition, weare 
a white coife of linnen (fine or course accordin to their 
condition) with certaine high and not very comety hornes, 
wreathed up on the forehead. Both men and women 
lately used falling bands, which the better sort starched, 
and raised up with wier, shewing their necks and breasts 
naked. But now both more commonly and especially in 
winter, weare thicke ruffes. Gentlewomen and Citizens 
wives when they goe out of dores, weare upon their faces 
little Maskes of silk, lined with fine leather, which they 
alwaies unpin, and shew their face, to any that salutes 
them. And they use a strange badge of pride, to weare 
little looking glasses at their girdles. Commonly they go 
in the streets leaning upon a mans arme. They weare 
very light gownes, commonly blacke, and hanging loose at 
the backe, and under it an upper-body close at the breast, 
with a kirtle of a mixed or light colour, and of some light 
stuff e, laid with many gardes, in which sort the women 
generally are attired. They weare sleeves to their gownes 
borne out with whalebones, and of a differing colour from 
the gowne, which besides hath other loose hanging sleeves 
cast backward, and aswel the upperbodies as the kirtles, 
differ from the gowne in colour and stuffe. And they say, 
that the sleeves borne up with whale-bones, were first 
invented, to avoid mens familiar touching of their armes. 
For it was related unto me (I know not how credibly), that 
by Phisitians advice the French make issues in their armes 
for better health, as the Italians use to make them under 
the knees, covered with a close garter of brasse. In 
France as well men as women, use richly to bee adorned 
with Jewels. The men weare rings of Diamonds, and 
abroad Jewels in their hats, placed upon the roote of their 
feathers. The Ladies weare their Jewels commonly at the 
brest, or upon the left arme, and many other wales; for 


who can containe the mutable French in one and the same 
fashion ? and they commonly weare chaines of Pearle, yea, 
the very wives of Merchants weare rings of Diamonds, 
but most commonly chaines of bugell and like toyes of 
black colour. 
The Gentlemen have no plate of silver, but some 
spoones and a salt, much lesse have they any plate of gold. 
But the great Lords or Princes eate in silver dishes, and 
use basons and ewers of silver, and no other kind of plate, 
using alwaies to drinke in glasses, and each severall man 
to have a glasse by himselfe. 
Cesar reports that the old Britans were apparrelled in 
skinnes, and wore long haire, with the beard all shaven, 
but the upper lippe. Now the English in their apparrell 
are become more light then the lightest French, and more 
sumptuous then the proudest Persians. More light I say 
then the French, because with singular inconstancy they 
have in this one age worne out all the fashions of France 
and all the Nations of Europe, and tired their owne 
inventions, which are no lesse buisie in finding out new 
and ridiculous fashions, then in scraping up money for 
such idle expences: yea, the Taylors and Shopkeepers 
daily invent fantasticall fashions for hats, and like new 
fashions and names for stuffes. Some may thinke that I 
play the Poet, in relating wonderfull but incredible things, 
but men of experience know that I write with historicall 
truth. That the English by Gods goodnesse abounding 
at home with great variety of things to be worne, are not 
onely not content therewith, and not onely seeke new 
garments from the furthest East, but are besides so light 
and vaine, as they suffer themselves to be abused by the 
English Merchants, who nourishing this generall folly of 
their Countrymen, to their own gaine, daily in forraigne 
parts cause such new colours and stuffe to be made, as 
their Masters send painted out of England to them, teach- 
ing strangers to serve our lightnesse with such inventions 
as themselves never knew before. For this cause the 
English of greater modesty in apparrell, are forced to cast 


[III.iv. 178.] 

I6O5-X 7. 

et pleasant 


off garments before they be worne, since it is the law of 
nature, that every man may eate after his owne appetite, 
but must weare his apparrell after the vulgar fashion, 
except he will looke like an old picture in cloth of Arras. 
I have heard a pleasant fable, that Jupiter sent a shower, 
wherein whosoever was wet, became a foole ; and that all 
the people were wet in this shower, excepting one 
Philosopher, who kept his study: but in the evening 
comming forth into the market place, and finding that all 
the people mocked him as a foole, who was onely wise, 
was forced to pray for another like shower, that he might 
become a foole, and so live quietly among fooles, rather 
then beare the envy of his wisedome. This happens to 
many wise men in our age, who wearing apparrell of old 
and good fashion, are by others so mocked for proud 
and obstinate fooles, till at last they are forced to be foolish 
with the fooles of their time. The English I say are 
more sumptuous then the Persians, because despising the 
golden meane, they affect all extreamities. For either 
they will be attired in plaine cloth and light stuffes, 
(alwayes provided that every day without difference their 
hats be of Bever, their shirts and bands of the finest linnen, 
their daggers and swords guilded, their garters and shooe 
roses of silke, with gold or silver lace, their stockings of 
silke wrought in the seames with silke or gold, and their 
cloakes in Summer of silke, in Winter at least all lined 
with velvet), or else they daily weare sumptuous doublets 
and breeches of silke or velvet, or cloth of gold or silver, 
so laid over with lace of gold or silke, as the stuffes 
(though of themselves rich) can hardly be seene. The 
English and French have one peculiar fashion, which I 
never observed in any other part, namely to weare 
scabbards and sheaths of velvet upon their rapiers and 
daggers: For in France very Notaries use them in the 
Cities, and ride upon their footecloaths, or in Coaches 
(both hired), and in England men of meane sort use them. 
In the time of Qeene Elizabeth the Courtiers delighted 
much in darke colours, both simple and mixt, and did often 


weare plaine blacke stuffes ; yet that being a brave time 
of warre, they, together with our Commanders, many 
times wore light colours, richly laced and embrodered, but 
the better sort of Gentlemen then esteemed simple light 
colours to be lesse comely, as red and yellow, onely white 
excepted, which was then much worne in Court. Now 
in this time of King James his Reigne, those simple light 
colours have beene much used. 
If I should begin to set downe the variety of fashions 
and forraign stuffes brought into England in these times, 
I might seeme to number the starres of Heaven and sands 
of the Sea. I will onely adde, that the English in great 
excesse affect the wearing of Jewels and Diamond Rings, 
scorning to weare plaine gold rings, or chaines of gold, the 
men seldome or never wearing any chaines, and the better 
sort of women commonly wearing rich chaines of pearle, 
or else the light chaines of France, and all these Jewels 
must be oriental and precious, it being disgracefull to 
weare any that are counterfet. In like manner among the 
better sort of Gentlemen and Merchants, few are found, 
who have not cupbords of silver and gold plate, to the 
value of two hundred pounds at the least. And if a feast 
last longer then one day, they seldome use the same plate 
of silver or guilded: yea, not only the great Lords, but 
the better sort of Knights and Gentlemen, use to eate in 
silver dishes. And whereas the French and Italians use 
to drinke in glasses, and have few vessels, no pots or boles 
of silver, and the Germans drink in peuter or stone pots, 
having little or no plate; most of the housholders in 
England of any reasonable condition, drinke in silver: 
yet howsoever the Gentlemen are served with pots and 
boles of silver, they rather delight to drinke in glasses of 
Venice, onely the common sort using other kinds of 
In the generall pride of England there is no fit difference 
made of degrees, for very Bankrouts, Players, and Cut- 
purses, goe apparrelled like Gentlemen. Many good 
Lawes have been made against this Babylonian confusion, 

Jill.iv. 79.] 


often ruffes, both starched, and chaines of pearle about 
the necke, with their brests naked. The graver sort of 
married women used to cover their head with a French- 
hood of Velvet, set with a border of gold buttons and 
pearles: but this fashion is now left, and they most 
commonly weare a coyfe of linnen, and a little hat of 
beaver or felt, with their haire somewhat raised at the 
forehead. Young married Gentlewomen sometimes goe 
bare headed, as virgins, decking their haire with Jewels, 
and silke ribbens, but more commonly they use the fore- 
said linnen coyfe and hats. All in generall, weare gownes 
hanging loose at the backe, with a Kirtle and close upper- 
body, of silke or light stuffe, but have lately left the 
French sleeves borne out with hoopes of whalebone, and 
the young married Gentlewomen no lesse then the 
Virgins, shew their breasts naked. 
The servants of Gentlemen were wont to weare blew 
coates, with their Masters badge of silver on the left 
sleeve : but now they most commonly weare clokes garded 
with lace, all the servants of one family wearing the same 
liverie for colour and ornament; and for the rest, are 
apparrelled with no lesse pride and inconstancie of fashion 
then other degrees. 
The Husbandmen in Scotland, the servants, and almost 
al in the Country did weare course cloth made at home, of 
gray or skie colour, and flat blew caps very broad. The 
Merchants in Cities were attired in English or French 
cloth, of pale colour or mingled black and blew. The 
Gentlemen did weare English cloth, or silke, or light 
stuffes, little or nothing adorned with silke lace, much 
lesse with lace of silver or gold, and all followed at this 
time the French fashion, especially in Court. Gentle- 
women married did weare close upper bodies, after the 
German manner, with large whalebone sleeves after the 
French manner, short cloakes like the Germans, French 
hoods, and large falling bands about their neckes. The 
unmarried of all sorts did goe bareheaded, and weare short 
cloakes, with most close linnen sleeves on their armes, like 


The English 


[Ill.iv. I8o.] 



the Virgins of Germany. The inferiour sort of Citizens 
wives, and the women of the Countrey, did weare cloakes 
made of a course stuffe, of two or three colours in Checker 
worke, vulgarly called Plodan. To conclude, in generall 
they would not at this time be attired after the English 
fashion, in any sort, but the men, especially at Court, 
follow the French fashion, and the women, both in Court 
and City, as well in cloakes, as naked heads, and dose 
sleeves on the armes, and all other garments, follow the 
fashion of the women in Germany. 
In Ireland the English and the English Irish are attired 
after the English manner, for the most part, yet not with 
such pride and inconstancy, perhaps for want of meanes: 
yet the English Irish forgetting their owne Countrey, are 
somewhat infected with the Irish rudenesse, and with them 
are delighted in simple light colours, as red and yellow. 
And in like sort the degenerated Citizens are somewhat 
infected with the Irish filthinesse, as well in lowsie beds, 
foule sheetes, and all linnen, as in many other particulars; 
but as well in diet as apparrell, the Citizens of Dublyn 
most of all other, and the Citizens of Waterford and 
Galloway in some good measure, retaine the English 
cleanlinesse. Touching the meere or wild Irish, it may 
truely be said of them, which of old was spoken of the 
Germans, namely, that they wander slovenly and naked, 
and lodge in the same house (if it may be called a house,) 
with their beasts. Among them the Gentlemen or Lords 
of Countries, weare close breeches and stockings of the 
same peece of cloth, of red or such light colour, and a 
loose coate, and a cloake or three cornered mantle, com- 
monly of course light stuffe made at home, and their 
linnen is course and slovenly. I say slovenly, because 
they seldome put off a shirt till it be worne: And these 
shirts in our memory before the last Rebellion, were made 
of some twenty or thirty elles, folded in wrinckles, and 
coloured with saffron to avoid lowsinesse, incident to the 
wearing of foule linnen. And let no man wonder, that 
they are lowsie, for never any barbarous people were found 


his best manner in the Latin tongue, desired him to put 
off: his apparrel, which he thought to be a burthen to him, 
and to sit naked by the tier with his naked company. But 
the Barron when he came to himselfe after some astonish- 
ment at this strange sight, professed that he was so inflamed 
therewith, as for shame he durst not put off his apparrell. 
These Rogues in Summer thus naked beare their armes, 
girding their swords to them by a with in stead of a girdle. 
To conclude, men and women, at night going to sleepe, 
lie thus naked in a round circle about the tier, with their 
feete towards it, and as I formerly said, treating of their 
diet, they fold their heads and upper partes in their woollen 
mantles, first steeped in water, to keepe them warme. For 
they say that woollen cloth wetted, preserves heate, (as 
linnen wetted preserves cold) when the smoke of their 
bodies had warmed the woollen cloth. 

TAe Aitoricall 

Chap. III. 
Of the Germans, and Bohemians Commonwealth, 
under which title I containe an Historicall 
introduction ; the Princes pedegrees, and 
Courts, the present state of things, the tributes 
and revenews, the military state for Horse, 
Foote, and Navy, the Courts of Justice, rare 
Lawes, more specially the Lawes of inheri- 
tance, and of womens Dowries, the capitall 
Judgements, and the diversitie of degrees in 
Family and Common-wealth. 
 Onstantine the great made gmperour about 
the yeere 3o6, removed his seate from 
Rome to Constantinople, and at his death 
derided the Empire among his children. 
And howsoever the Empire was after 
sometimes united in the person of one 
Prince for his reigne, yet it could never 
bee againe established in one body, but was most com- 


monly devided into the Easterne and Westerne Empires. 
In the time of Augustulus Emperour of the West, the 
remote Countries of the Empire recovered their liberty by 
the sword, and barbarous Nations in great armies, invaded 
the Empire, till they possessed Italy, so as this Emperour 
was forced to depose his Imperiall dignity about the yeere 
476. And thus the Westerne Empire ceased, till Charles 
the great, King of France, about the yeere 774 subdued 
the Lombards, and was at Rome saluted Emperour of the 
West by Pope Leo the third, and the Princes of Italy. 
From which time the Empires of the East and West, of 
old devided by inheritance among brothers and Kinsmen 
had no more any mutuall right of succession, but began 
to bee severally governed. Histories write that Charles 
the great, King of France, was descended of the Germans, 
and that all Gallia Transalpina (that is beyond the Alpes) 
and upper Germany, as farre as Hungary, were by a 
common name called France, onely devided into Easterne 
and Westerne France. And the divers Nations of 
Germany, formerly governed by their Kings and Dukes, 
were at this time first united under this Charles the great 
about the yeere 91 I. Conrade the first, son to the Duke 
of Franconia (a large Province of Germany), was first out 
of the race of Charles the great saluted Emperour of the 
West, by the Princes of Germany, though Charles the 
Simple, and others of the race of Charles the great, still 
reigned in France to the yeere 98 8, yet with lesse reputation 
then their progenitors had, and troubled with many con- 
fusions. Thus Germany deviding it selfe from France, 
drew to it selfe the Empire of the West, whereof in our 
age it retaineth rather the shadow then the old glory. 
Foure Dukes of Saxony succeeded Conrade in this 
Empire, and in the time of Otho the third Duke of 
Saxony and Emperour, contrary to the former custome, 
whereby the Emperours succeeded by right of bloud, or 
the last testament of the deceased Emperour, or by the 
consent of the Princes of Germany, the election of the 
Emperour was in the yeere 984 established hereditary to 


[III.iv. Sz.] 



seven Princes of Germany, called Electors, by a law made 
by the Emperour and the Pope. From that time the 
Empire hath remained in Germany, with free election, yet 
so as they most commonly therein respected the right of 
bloud, in which respect the house of Austria hath long 
continued in the possession of the Empire. And the 
Emperours of Germany for many ages, by this right 
governed Italy, and received their Crowne at Rome, till 
wearied and worne out by the treacheries of the Popes, 
and forced to beare the publike burthen upon their private 
revenues, they were made unable to support their former 
dignity. For these causes Rodulphus of Habsburg of the 
house of Austria chosen Emperour in the yeere 1273 , first 
laid aside all care of forraigne matters. Then the riches 
of the Emperours daily decreasing, and the riches of 
inferiour Princes no lesse increasing, the Emperours in 
processe of time, for great summes of money, sold libertie 
and absolute power to the Princes and Dukes of Italy and 
Germany, yea, their very right of investing, to the Princes 
of Italy. 
Most of the Cities in Netherland, and all the Cantons 
of the Sweitzers, were of old subject to the German 
Emperours, till by the dissentions betweene them and the 
Popes, they found meanes to gaine their liberties. Of old 
nintie sixe greater Cities thus made free, still acknow- 
ledged the Emperour in some sort: but after many of 
them, leagued with the Sweitzers and Netherlanders, quite 
forsooke the Emperour, many of the rest, and many lesse 
Cities, either pawned to Princes for money borrowed, or 
given to Princes for their good service to the Emperors 
in their warres, became subject to divers Princes by the 
Emperours consent ; so as at this day there bee onely sixty 
Cities, all seated in Germany, which are called Free and 
Imperiall Cities, having absolute power within themselves ; 
and howsoever these in a sort acknowledge the Emperour 
their chiefe Lord, yet they little or not at al feare or respect 
his weake power. 
Hitherto the Roman Bishops, not enduring a superiour 


Lord, first cast the Emperours of the East out of Italy, 
and after by al meanes weakened their power, till 
Mahumet the second Emperour of the Turkes, about the 
yeere 1453, swallowed that Empire within his foule jawes. 
Hitherto the said Bishops, that they might reigne alone, 
sometimes bewitched the barbarous Kings, which had 
destroyed the Empire of the West, and then reigned in 
Italy, for Religions sake to promote the Church of Rome, 
and at other times oppressed them with open treacheries, 
till they had conferred the Kingdome of Lombardy and 
the Empire of the West upon Charles the Great, King of 
France. Hitherto the same Bishops, for the same causes, 
had troubled the Empire of the West with Civill dissen- 
tions, till at last Italy (as I said) having bought liberty of 
the Emperours, and the said German Emperours contain- 
ing themselves at home, (for no Emperour after the said 
Rodulphus of Habsburg, but onely Lodwick the Bavarian, 
did ever leade any Army into Italy), they now thought 
good to rage no more against this dejected Empire, but 
rather to cherrish it, converting themselves wholly to bring 
all Christian Kings under their yoke. And now the 
Turkish Emperours began to threaten ruine to the German 
Empire, and in very Germany, the Popes stage, where 
they had plaied their bloudy parts, by continuall raising 
of civill warres, the reformation of Religion began freshly 
to spring, and to pull the borrowed plumes of the Popes. 
Therefore the Emperours from that time to this our age, 
have been wholly busied in resisting the Turkes, and 
composing the domesticall differences of Religion. 
And from the same time forward, the Court of Rome 
was continually distracted with the factions of France and 
Spaine, till the Popes, skilfull to use the ambitious dis- 
cussions of Princes to their owne profit and greatnesse, 
made them all subject to the Romane yoke. And the 
Kings on the contrary laboured nothing more, then to have 
the Pope on their party, at whose beck all Christendome 
was governed, to which end they gave large bribes to the 
Cardinals, who had now assumed to themselves the 
h IV 24x Q 

The Roman 

[IlI. iv. 183. ] 



election of the Popes. To conclude, the Popes to make 
their owne power transcendent, kept the power of the 
Princes in equal ballance, by sowing dissentions among 
them, and favouring now one now the other party, till for 
feare of the reformed Religion now also springing in 
France, they could no longer keepe this equality, but were 
forced to forsake the Kings of France distracted with 
civill warres, and to advance the Kings of Spaine, as pro- 
tectors of the Church, whose Clients at last got the power 
to governe all things in Rome at their pleasure : And the 
Spaniard at this time distracted abroad with the French 
and English warres, and besieged at home with the power 
of the Jesuites and religious men, seemed lesse to bee 
feared by the Romans in that respect, as likewise the Kings 
of Spaine doubted not to maintaine the awfull authority 
of the Popes, which they knew must alwayes be favourable 
to their designes, as well for the protection which they 
gave to the Roman Church, against the reformed Religion, 
as for that the massy gold of Spaine, bore so great sway 
in the Colledge of the Cardinals, that by strange successe, 
the Popes lesse inclined to the Spanish faction, were soone 
taken away by untimely death. To omit many other, I 
will onely mention Pope Sixtus Q.gintus, who lived 
happily in that Chaire, so long as he favoured Spaine, but 
assoone as he was thought to decline from that faction, 
and when he saw a white Mule presented him for the 
tribute of the Neapolitane Kingdome, was said to weepe, 
that so little a Mule should be given for so great a King- 
dome: he lived not long after, but suddenly vanished 
away. At Rome are two Images called Pasquin and 
Marphorius, upon which libels use to be fixed: And of 
late when the Pope by the mediation of the King of 
France, had made peace with the Venetians, contrary to 
the liking of the King of Spaine, a white sheete of paper 
was fixed on Pasquin, and another demanding what that 
paper ment was fixed on Marphorius, and a third paper 
was fixed on Pasquin, answering, that the cleane paper was 
for the Pope to make his last Will and Testamen b as if 


the new Emperour. And under their poore estate and 
unwarlike mindes, the Empire at this day languisheth like 
a sparke lapped in ashes: And the Popes held for Gods 
upon earth, have no more feared the Emperors authority, 
but rather supported it against the reformed religion, and 
the invasions, of the Turks, the Emperors alwayes acknow- 
ledging ths unprofitable servant of their Progenitors for 
their Benefactor and spirituall Father. The Emperour 
Rodolphus at this time living, is of the House of Austria, 
whose pedigree I will set downe. The first Family of the 
House of Austria gave many Emperours to Germany, 
but that was extinguished in Conradine the sonne of 
Fredericke, few yeeres before Rodolphus of Habspurg, 
came to the Empire, who is the roote of this second 
Family of Austria. 





' Rodulphus 
Duke of Aus- 
tria died in the 
yeare I3O8. 

made Duke of 
Suevia and 
Moravia by 
the Emperours 
gift, dyed in 
thejteare ! 33 o. 

Duke of Aus- 

Albert the 
second, Count 
of Tyroll by 
the Marriage 
of his Sonne to 
the Niece of 
the King of 
Bohemia, died 
in the yeare 


eo . Fredericke 
.  : the third, 
: E  Emperour.-- 
 ' died in the 
E  yeare ;493. 




By Jone his 



Ferdinand died a childe in the 
'eare 15 5 2. 

Rodulp 2 of that name, and the 
:ighth Emperour of this Family, 
chosen King of the Romans, 
I575, Emperour I576. succeed- 
ing King of Hungarie, 572, 
King of Bohemia I575. Hee 
was at this time Emperor, and 
lived unmarried. 

3. Sonne Ernestus governed 
Netherland, and died unmarried. 

4. Matthew, unmarried. 

5. Maximilian, unmarried. 

6. Albert surrendered his 
Cardinals Hat, maried Isabel 
daughter to the K. of Spaine, 
and governes Netherland, but 
hath no children. 

7- Wenceslaus. 8. Fredericke. 
9. Carolus, al three died yong. 

Foure sisters, Anna, married to 
the King of Spaine, anno  563, 
died anno 158o. Elizabeth 
married to Charles the 9, King 
of France, anno 57 o. Mary & 
Margaret died yong. 

I6O5-I 7. 

6o- 7. 
The houw of 

[llI. iv. 87. ] 




Thus I have shewed, that besides the branch of the 
House of Austria now raigning in Spaine, there remaine 
three branches thereof in Germany, the first of the 
Emperour Rodolphus and his brethren Ernestus (dying in 
his life time) Mathias and Maximilianus and Albertus, 
Whereof foure lived unmarried, the fifth named Albertus 
hath long been married, but hath no child. The second 
branch is that of Ferdinand of Ispruch, who married 
Philippina the daughter of a Citizen in Augsburg, where- 
upon his kinsmen disdaining that his ignoble Issue should 
enherit with them, forced him to agree, that the County 
of Tyroll should not descend upon his sonne, whereupon 
his eldest sonne by her named Charles, possesseth onely 
the City and territory of Burgh, (which was in his Fathers 
power to give) with title of the Marquesse of Burgh, 
and the said County at the Fathers death fell backe to the 
Emperour. His second sonne Andrew Cardinal of Brixia, 
besides the spirituall possessions of that County, hath also 
the Bishopricke of Costnetz in Suevia: But Ferdinand, 
of his second wife daughter to the Duke of Mantua, had 
some daughters, but no heire male. The third branch is 
of Charles of Graz, who besides his heires males, left 
eight daughters, whereof one is now married to Sigismund 
King of Poland by election, and of Suecia by inheritance, 
the second to the Prince of Transilvania, the third to 
Philip King of Spaine. 
The Emperour by right of his owne inheritance, (not of 
the. Empire) is Lord of many and large Provinces, namely, 
King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, with the annexed 
most fertile Provinces, of Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia. 
Also towards the Alpes he hath by Inheritance many large 
Provinces, gotten by his Progenitors, (as appeares by his 
Pedegree), namely, the Arch-Dukedome of Austria, the 
Provinces of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Tyroll, and other 
large territories in Suevia and Alsatia, besides great juris- 
dictions among the Sweitzers called the Grysons. 
Ferdinand the Emperour, brother to the Emperour 
Charles the fifth, married the sister and heire of Lodovicus 


,6o5- 7. 


[III.iv. 188.] 


the keeping of the Kings Crowne, in a Castle called 
Touching Hungary, it had the name of the people 
called the Hunns, who under their King Geysa, received 
the Christian Religion: his sonne Stephen was chosen 
King in the yeere lOO2, from whom in order many Kings 
have beene chosen, so as due respect was alwayes had of 
the eldest sonnes to the deceased, who sometimes refused, 
did stirre up civill warres. King Andrew about the yeere 
I-3o , first gave great priviledges to the Nobility, which 
their Kings to this day have used to confirme, as soone 
as they were elected. King Vladislaus in the yeere I49o , 
first joyned the Kingdomes of Bohemia and Hungary 
together, whose sonne Lodovicus perished in the unhappy 
battell against the Turkes in the yeere I56: At which 
time Ferdinand of the House of Austria, brother to the 
Emperor Charles the fifth, and successor to him in the 
Empire, was chosen King of Hungary, as well by the 
covenant which the Emperour Maximilian the first made 
with Mathias Huniades, as by the right of his wife, being 
sister and heire to the said Lodovicus, and he caused his 
sonne Maximilian the second, to bee chosen King in his 
life time, as his sonne Rodolphus at this time Emperour, 
was chosen King while his Father lived : and under them, 
through civill dissentions, and the fearefull neighbourhood 
of the great Turke, great part of this Kingdome hath 
beene subdued by that Tyrant, and for the rest, the 
Emperor Rodolphus, to the great reproch of the Empire, 
was forced to send yeerely tribute to Constantinople, till 
the free Cities of Germany slacking to pay this tribute, 
the Great Turke tooke that wished occasion to make warre 
against the Christians, and finding none weaker to resist 
him then the Emperour, hath in our age horribly wasted 
Hungary, and subdued the greatest part of that King- 
dome. The said tribute was said to be seven tunnes of 
gold each three yeeres, as I have heard by grave and 
learned men, but I know not how conversant in matters 
of State. 



Rodolphus the Emperour was of a middle stature, 
somewhat corpulent, with a ruddy but sower countenance, 
a short thicke beard, and browne coloured haire : At that 
time mourning for his dead sister, he wore blacke gar- 
ments of small price: Hee was said to love solitarinesse, 
and to exercise the Arts of Alchumy and Painting. Hee 
was most easie of accesse, and very affable, so as every 
man spake to him with small reverence, and in the 
Chamber of Presence the Courtiers and strangers gave no 
reverence to the Chaire of Estate, the Sword, and the 
Scepter, but stood by with their heads covered, yea, laid 
their hands or leaned upon the cushion, without any 
ceremony of reverence. He was esteemed sparing of 
speech, and liberall in his nature, so as he rewarded his 
Courtiers honourably, though slowly, for want of money, 
which made him not able to shew any magnificence. 
Nothing was more common in every roans mouth, as well 
German as Bohemian, then that hee was much addicted 
to the warfare of Venus, bearing in his body strange 
scarres and privy maimes thereof, but abhorred from the 
warre of Mars. 
At Vienna I did see Ernestus and Mathias, brothers to 
the Emperour, eating at one Table together, for they 
admit all subjects and strangers to come into the roome 
where they eate, at the times of dinner and supper. 
Before the Arch-Dukes came in, all stood with their heads 
covered: Then the Carver making himselfe ready to 
serve at the Table, laid his hat upon the Chaire of Estate, 
contrary to our English manner, who give reverence to 
that Chaire, though our Princes be absent. When the 
Arch-Dukes sate downe at Table, all the standers by 
bended their knees : They both sat on one side, with their 
backes to the wall, and each had a Foole to stand by him, 
one at the Tables end, another on the opposite side, to 
whom with their owne hands they gave largely to eate, 
which they greedily devoured. The two Arch-Dukes did 
both together feede on spoonemeates: For other dishes 
liking either of them, each called for them by a becke or 

Eraperour and 
his Court. 

16o5-I 7. 

Jill. iv. ! 89. ] 


dumbe signe, and so refused other: but if any one dish 
liked them both, it was first set before Ernestus, and after 
before Mathias. Both had one taster, but each had his 
Cupbearer. They spake not a word one to the other, or 
to any attending; and Ernestus did swallow his drinke, 
Mathias did sip it. Ernestus was somewhat like the 
Emperour his brother, save that his haire was blacker, 
and his countenance more warlike. Mathias was very 
slender with a more effeminate face, and a thinne or no 
beard, and whitish haire: Their apparrell was nothing 
lesse then sumptuous. These brothers of the Emperour, 
had no possessions of inheritance allotted unto them, but 
were content to have their expences borne by the 
Many Pensioners lived in the Emperours Court, but 
few had diet and lodging therein. The Emperour had 
one hundred Hascheres, to whom hee gave for diet to each 
twelve Rhenish Guldens by the moneth, and for apparrel 
to each foure & twenty Guldens by the yeere. Hee had 
one hundred for his Guard (called Trabantoes), of which 
each one had eight Guldens by the moneth for his diet, 
and if any one of them had served ten yeeres, to him the 
Emperor used to give a pension above his wages, granted 
for life, and to dispose them in Monasteries when they 
grew olde and unfit for service. Ten Hascheres and 
twelve Trabantoes attended each day, and watched the 
night in the Court, who for that time had at the 
Emperours charge plenty of bread and wine. Many 
Gentlemen had pensions to keepe Horses, to the number 
of some 1500, and for each Horse they were allowed ten 
guldens by the moneth: but these stipends being paid 
but once in two yeeres, and then not fully, they kept not 
these Horses at all times in full number, but only when 
they heard that the payment was like to be made, & 
because they were so paid, the officers never mustred them 
but at that time. Some few had diet and lodging in the 
Court, as 6 Gentlemen of the Chamber, whereof each had 
a pension of forty Guldens by the moneth, and sixe under 


The institution 
of the Electors, 
d dir,ers 
constitutio, of 
the Empire, 
concerning the 
Electors and 
other OJ2ffcers, 
and the 


established, about which time many tumults were at Rome 
betweene the Emperours and the Roman Prince Cres- 
centius, for the choise of the Pope, and the common 
opinion is, that Pope Gregorie in the yeere 997 made this 
Law of seven Electors to chuse the Emperour, and that 
Pope Silvester restrained it to certaine Families. And 
this Institution seemed to give great strength to the 
Empire, since the former seditions were thereby taken 
away, and it was likely these Princes would chuse a man 
of the greatest vertues and power. But Charles the 
fourth chosen Emperor, with condition not to meddle with 
Italy, first obtained of the Electors to chuse his son to be 
Cesar in his life time, and so made this Institution of no 
effect, all Emp. after him chiefely laboring as much as 
they could, to make the Empire hereditary by like 
meanes. And the successor thus chosen in the life of 
the Emp. was called King of the Romans, and after his 
death receiving the Crowne, was stiled Emp. 
Of the Electors, 3 are Churchmen and Arch-bishops, 
3 are Lay-Princes of Germany, and least by faction of sixe 
Churchmen and Laymen the voices should be equall, the 
King of Bohemia was added for the seventh Elector. 
The Archbishop of Trier, Chauncellor for France, sits 
before the Emperour. The Archbishop of Mentz 
Chansellor for Germany, sits at the Emperors right hand, 
in all places but in the Diocesse of Colon, where he gives 
place to the Archbishop therof. The Archbishop of 
Colon Chancelor for Italy, sits on the Emperors right hand 
in his own dioces, but on his left hand in al other places. 
The K. of Bohemia Arch-butler of the Empire, sits 
next the Archbishop of Mentz, on the right hand of the 
Emperor. The D. of Saxony, the Marshal of the 
Empire, carrying the sword before the Emperor, sits on 
his left hand next the Archbishop of Colen. The Count 
Palatine of the Rheine carries the first dish at the feast 
of the Emp. coronation, and sits on his right hand next 
the K. of Bohemia. And the Marquisse of Brandeburg 
Great Chamberlaine, sits on the left hand of the Emp. 


next to the D. of Saxony. It is to be remembred that 
for long time, the Emperor having been also King of 
Bohemia, to the end that upon the death of the old 
Emperour, there should not be wanting one to supply the 
place of the King of Bohemia at the Election of the new 
Emperour, the Bohemians have alwaies a Viceroy chosen 
for life, who not onely supplies that place, but also 
governes Bohemia, till the new Emperour be chosen, and 
after received for King at Prage. 
The Emperour Charles the fourth, made many Lawes 
concerning the Emperour, and the Electors, which Lawes 
are all collected together, and by the Germans called the 
Golden Bulla, and it will not be impertinent to remember 
some of them. It is decreed, that no Elector shall lie in 
ambushment for another Elector, comming to chuse the 
Emperour, neither shall denie him safe conduct through 
his Country, under the paine of perjurie, and losse of his 
Voyce for that Election. Under the same penalty, that 
no man whosoever, lye in waite to intercept the person 
or goods of any Elector : That the Arch-Bishop of Ments 
shall appoint the day of the Election by letters Pattents, 
so as the Electors, or their Deputies having full power, 
may meete for that purpose at Franckfort upon the 
Meyne, within three moneths, and if the Archbishop faile 
to appoint the day, yet that the Electors uncalled, shall 
meete there within that time. That no Elector nor 
Depute shall enter the City attended with more then two 
hundred horsemen, nor above fiftie of them armed. That 
the Elector or Deputy called, and not comming, or depart- 
ing before the Emperour be chosen, shall loose his Voyce 
for that time. That the Citizens of Franckfort, if they 
protect not those that come to the Election, shall be pro- 
scribed, and deprived of their priviledges and goods. 
That no man be admitted into the Citie, besides the 
Electors and their Deputies, and the horsemen attending 
them. That the next morning early after their entry, 
Masse bee sung in the Church of Saint Bartholmew, and 
that done, the Archbishop of Mentz at the Altar give an 
. v 57  

[III.iv. 9o.] 


yeares old, and that this Tutor for that time shall have 
all his right, which he shall then restore to him, and for 
want of heires males, that the Emperour shall give the 
Electorship to whom hee will, excepting the King of 
Bohemia, who is to bee chosen by the Bohemians. That 
mines of mettals found in the Territories of any Elector, 
shall bee proper to himselfe. That the subjects of the 
Electors shall not bee bound to answere the Law out of 
their owne Province, nor may appeale to any Court but 
their Lords, except Justice bee denied, in which case they 
shall onely appeale to the Chamber of the Empire. That 
the Electors shall meete in some Citie once in the yeare, 
where they shall have no feasting, to the end that the 
causes may be heard with more expedition. That the 
priviledges of Cities and Universities in any thing 
derogating from the right of the Electors, shall be 
revoked, and made voide, notwithstanding the Letters 
Pattents may except all eminency of persons. That the 
resignation of fees, except they be personally made, shall 
make the vassals infamous in denouncing enmity to their 
Lords. That conventicles of Cities, made to the prejudice 
of their Lords, shall be punished with losse of fame, 
goods, and priviledges. That no Citizens subjects to 
Princes, and incorporating themselves in free Cities, shall 
enjoy the priviledges thereof, except they dwell there, 
under a great penalty to bee imposed on the City receiv- 
ing them with any other condition. That the Fees of the 
Electors or Officers of the Empire, shall not be devided 
by their heires. That they who conspire the death of any 
Elector, shall be guilty of treason, and their sonnes 
deprived of their Inheritance even from the mothers side, 
shall live infamous, and they shall be noted who make 
intercession to restore them to grace; but that the 
Daughters lesse daring for the weakenesse of the sexe, 
shall have part of the inheritance, and that no enfranchise- 
ment of sonnes, or alienation of goods, shall frustrate this 
Law. That all accessaries shall be so punished, onely he 
that bewrayes the conspiracy may bee held worthy of 

[Ill.iv. I9. ] 


in order the rest, till all have performed their Offices, and 
then all seven shall sit downe at one time. The Emperour 
shall be chosen at Franckfort, crowned at Aquisgranum 
(vuloarly called Ach), and shall hold his first Court at 
Nurnberg, except there be some lawfull impediment. 
The Deputy of an Elector absent, howsoever he hath his 
voyce in chusing the Emperour, yet at the said feast shall 
not sit at the Electors table. Princes receiving their fees, 
shall pay sixtie markes to the Officers of the Court, except- 
ing the Electors, who are not bound to give any thing, 
but of free will, since the Officers are their Substitutes, 
and the Horse upon which the Prince sits when hee is 
invested in his fees, shall bee given to the Marshall, or 
to the Vice-Marshall. The Electors are presumed to bee 
Germans, and their sonnes at the age of seven yeares shall 
bee taught the Grammer, and the Italian and Sclavonian 
tongues, so as at 4 yeares of age they may be skilfull 
therein, and be worthy Assessors to the Emperor. These 
things for this purpose, taken out of the Golden Bulla, 
shall suffice. 
Touching the present generall estate of the Empire. 
The Emperor & his brethren were not much esteemed 
among their owne subjects, and had little or no authority 
in the rest of the Empire. The Germans confesse, that 
the House of Austria is most fit to beare the burthen of 
the Empire, especially since no stranger may be Emperour, 
the Law binding to choose a Prince borne in Germany; 
and because the Empire hath no principality belonging to 
it, nor any certaine revenues, but onely some accustomed 
Subsidies, which upon some occasions were of old granted 
by Parliament, & these occasions being taken away, the 
subsidies for them have also in latter times beene discon- 
tinued, so that the common affaires are to be administred 
with the charge of the Emperours private inheritance. 
And lastly, because they justly feare, if any other Prince 
of Germany should be chosen Emperour, that the House 
of Austria, having in a long line succeeded in the Empire, 
and possessing large Dominions by inheritance, would 


[III.iv. ,9z.] 

The genera# 
etate of t]e 

16o5-I 7. 


either altogether separate it selfe from the Empire, 
or at least their inheritance in Hungary, Germany, 
and Bohemia, through mutuall dissentions betweene 
them and the Emperour, would be a prey to the 
Turkish Tyrant, onely kept backe by the House of 
Austria, according to the weake meanes it hath, from 
invading Germany at this day: But when the Germans 
doe particularly observe the persons of the Princes of the 
I louse of Austria, they judge againe none more unfit to 
.beare. up the Empire, and to defend it from the Turkes 
invasions; and this common diffidence is infinitely 
encreased, by the mutuall jealousies of Germany. There 
want not jealousies in the House of Austria betweene 
themselves, were they not forced to compound them by 
feare of the Turkes. In generall, the Gcntlemen feare the 
conspiracy of the common people, lest after the example 
of the Sweitzers, they should roote out the Gentry, or at 
least yeeld either none or voluntary obedience, at their 
owne pleasure. The Princes feare the free Cities, so as 
they dare not exact absolute obedience of the Cities 
subject to them, least they should thereby be provoked, 
to make leagues with the free Cities, and so make them- 
selves free: And this cause alone makes the Princes lesse 
able to give strong helpes to the Emperour, if they were 
willing to doe it. Againe, the free Cities feare the 
ambition of the neighbouring Princes: For as most of 
the Cities of old subject to the Emperour, or to particular 
Princes, got their freedome in civill warres, by assisting 
one of the parties, or else by priviledges, granted by 
favour, or bought for money, or else by open force of 
armes, so they thinke it likely, that the Princes, upon the 
change of the state of things, will omit no fit occasion 
to bring them againe into subjection: And the said 
Princes doe not onely feare the said free Cities, for combyn- 
ing with their Subjects, but have also mutuall jealousies 
among themselves, as well for inheritance, as for the 
difference of Religion. Lastly all, and each of these 
states, feare the power of the Emperour, least hee should 


breake the absolute power they have in their owne terri- 
tories, or least hee should by force of armes make them 
more obedient to himselfe, or least hee should oppresse 
them in the cause of Religion, either of his owne motion, 
or by the instigation of the Pope. Hence it is, that hee 
who dares not make warre upon the Emperour, yet dares 
denie to helpe him, and he that dares not deny helpe, yet 
dares either fayle in performance, or by delayes make it 
unprofitable. Besides that by nature, the decrees and 
counsels of many heads, are carried with lesse secrecy, and 
are seldome executed with convenient speed, and that for 
which many care, each one neglects, as Plato saith, disput- 
ing against community. Also the Emperours power is 
many other wayes weakened: First that the Germans in 
the very warre against the Turkes, slowly grant, or 
plainely refuse any contributions or subsidies, and would 
little rejoyce that the Emperour should have a great 
victory against the Turkes, partly least hee should 
turne his Forces upon the absolute Princes or Cities 
of Germany, partly least the Emperour then being 
(as they openly professed) should spend the money con- 
tributed in his private lusts, not in the publike affayres, 
and lastly, because the charge of the Warre should be 
common, but the profit of the Conquest should onely be 
to the advancement of the House of Austria : For which 
causes the Princes and Cities used to denie contributions 
of money towards the Turkish warres, and rather chose 
to send and maintaine bands of Souldiers in Hungary, 
under their owne pay for a set time: And these bands 
were so commonly sent without order or mutuall consent, 
and so slowly, as when some of the bands came to the 
Army, other bands having served out the appointed time, 
desired leave to returne home. Thus they seldome met 
together to attempt any brave enterprise, & while part of 
the forces was expected, the occasions of good adventures 
were lost: Secondly, the Emperour is more weake; 
because the meetings of Parliaments (which they call 
Dyettaes) require the expectance of some moneths, besides 

[Ill.iv. I93. ] 


TAe tate of 

Of Cities. 

Of Bishops. 


the delayes of Counsels after the meeting, and the con- 
trariety of opinions, which must needes be great in mindes 
so ill united. Thirdly; because the Germans unwisely 
thinke, that the tyranny of the Turkes hanging over them, 
yet is a lesse and more removed evill, then the jealousie 
of their private estates, and feare to be oppressed in the 
cause of Religion. Lastly, because the Germans thinke 
it not equall, to be at publike charge, to recover the 
private Cities of the House of Austria from the Turkes. 
These things make the great power of Germany so weake, 
that as the whole body pined away, while the hands denied 
meate to the belly; so not onely the Empire, to the 
generall shame of Christians, drawes the last breath under 
the Turkish tyranny, while the disagreeing and sluggish 
Christian Princes denie helpe in this case to the House 
of Austria, and oppose the weaker branch of that House 
to the most powerfull force of the Turkes; but also it 
may justly be feared lest other Kingdomes and the very 
name of Christians, should be utterly consumed in this 
tier daily creeping and increasing upon us, which God in 
his mercy forbid. 
Next to the said vassals to the Emperour, a King, a 
Palatine, a Duke, a Marquesse, and three Archbishops, 
the seven Electors, of old were instituted foure Dukes of 
the Empire, namely, the Dukes of Bavaria, of Bruns- 
wicke, of Suevia and of Lorayne, and foure Langraves, 
and of each degree foure, whereof some are at this day 
extinguished, and many other have since beene created by 
divers Emperours. In like sort of old were instituted 
foure Metropolitan Cities of the Empire, namely, Augs- 
burg, (called of the Vandals for difference), Aquisgranum 
(vulgarly Ach), Mentz, and Lubecke. Bishops spirituall 
Princes were of old twenty seven in number, whereof 
some have secular Dominions, onely by habite distin- 
guished from secular Princes: but the Churchmen know- 
ing no meane, not content with tithes, but scarce leaving 
that portion to the Laymen, have caused Princes first to 
make Lawes against inordinate guifts to the Church, and 

tat are refractory. And the very Princes are not constant 
to their owne judgement, if you respect the iminent 
dangers from the Turks, nor active in their owne motions 
concerning the publike cause, but are diversly distracted 
betweene feare to increase the suspected power of the 
Emperour by helping him, or to stirre up Civill warres, 
to the ruine of the dis-united State, by making open 
opposition to his authority. In the meane time nothing 
is more frequent with them, then boldly to refuse either 
appearance in the Emperours Court, or obedience to any 
other of his commandements, that are unpleasing to them. 
And give me leave to say, that my selfe there observed, 
that a great Prince of Germany (for good respect name- 
lesse), to whom the Emperour had ingaged certaine Cities 
for money borrowed of him, when the Emperour sending 
the money by Ambassadors, desired restitution of the 
townes, not onely refused to restore the same, but could 
not bee induced to appeare at Prage by his Substitute, to 
compound this difference; and it seemed more strange 
to mee, that divers other Ambassadours comming to the 
City the same time, had all audience before those from the 
Emperour, who staid long before they were admitted to 
speak with the said Prince. 
The declining generositie of the Princes of Austria, 
and the fearefull danger hanging over them from the 
Turkes, nourish this confidence in the Princes of 
Germany ; and indeede the Turkish warre doth so imploy, 
or rather bind the hands of the Princes of Austria, as were 
they never so valiant, yet they should be forced, rather to 
suffer any thing from these Christian Princes, then by 
opposing them, to be devoured by Infidels. Neither can 
the private calamity of Germany, and the publike misery 
of all Christians in this point, be sufficiently bewailed. I 
say the private calamitie of Germany, because the members 
being most strong, if they were united, yet are without 
sinews thus disjoyned, and have no common force, though 
in each part they be strong. I say the publike calamity 
of Christians, because howsoever the private Princes of 


each quarter of the yeare 60000 gold Guldens or Crownes ; 
by which may bee conjectured what hee receives of his 
other large Dominions. Yet Silesia yeelds more then any 
one of the rest, in respect that of the twelve Dukedoms 
therein contained, eight are fallen to the Emperour, for 
want of heires males. The Bishop of Silesia is called the 
Golden Bishop, and the same Province hath thirty Abbies, 
being most rich in that and all other respects. At Prage, 
subject to the Emperour, as King of Bohemia, I observed, 
that every house paid him yeerely three Dollers ; but this 
burthen equally imposed on thatched houses and stately 
Pallaces, seeming unequally shared, the Citizens agreed 
among themselves of a more equall division thereof; so 
as I remember, that my Hosts house, purchased for three 
hundred Dollers, paid yeerely to the Emperor nine 
Dollers, besides other charges of maintaining poore 
Scholers, of Watches, and the like, imposed upon each 
Master of a Family, in each severall parish, for which he 
also paid two Dollers yeerely. In the Dominions of the 
Emperour, the Brewers of Beere for each brewing, paid 
six dollers to the Emperour, which tribute in one City 
of Prage, was said to passe five hundred Dollers weekely. 
Also the Emperour exacted of his subjects, for each Tun 
of Wine drawne, a Doller, and tenne Grosh; for each 
bushell of Corne, bought in the Market (not the private 
Corne of their owne, spent in their houses) one silver 
Grosh. These and like tributes were at first granted for 
certaine yeares, by consent of the three Estates: but 
Princes know well to impose exactions, and know not how 
to depose them. The Emperour gives a City to the 
Jewes for their dwelling at Prage, (who are admitted in 
no City of Germany, excepting onely at Franckfort, where 
they have assigned to them a Streete for their dwelling), 
of which Jewes upon all occasions hee borrowes money, 
and many waies sheares those bloud-suckers of Christians. 
The Germans impose great taxes upon all forraigne com- 
lnodities brought into their Havens, and not onely upon 
mens persons, and upon commodities laded on beasts to 


bee distracted from City to City, but even upon small 
burthens to be carried on amans shoulder, as they passe 
through their Forts or Cities, which they use to build 
upon their confines to that purpose, and onely Scholers 
of Universities are free from these frequent exactions, for 
their bodies and goods. 
Touching the revenews of the Empire it selfe, Boterus 
rehtes, that it receives yeerely seven thousand thousand 
Crownes, or gold Guldens; and this revenew is of small 
moment for such great affaires, if hee containe all the 
Princes of Germany under this taxation, since otherwise 
a communication of treasure cannot bee expected from so 
disunited mindes as they have. He addes, that the free 
Cities of the Empire yeeld a small yeerely tribute to the 
Emperour of fifteene thousand Guldens. It is wel 
knowne that those Cities of old custome maintained 
twenty thousand foote, and foure thousand Horses for the 
Emperours Army, when he went to be crowned at Rome : 
but this custome by long discontinuance is vanished, since 
the Emperours for many ages have forborne this expedi- 
tion. The matter of greatest moment is the contribution, 
which for the doubtfull affaires of the Empire hath been 
accustomed to be granted by the three Estates in Parlia- 
ment. And these, such as they are, yet are more easily or 
hardly obtained of that free Nation, as the Emperour hath 
more or lesse reputation with them. But that it may 
appeare, that the Empire wants not treasure, the sinew of 
war, let us gather by one particular example, what may 
generally be judged of this subsidie. In the time of the 
Emperour Maximilian the first, the following subsidie 
was granted in a Dyet or Parlament at Worms by consent 
of the Estates, for the use of the Common-wealth, and 
especially for the warre against the Turkes, which at that 
time much lesse pressed Germany, then it doth in these 
our daies. First, it was decreed, that for foure yeeres 
next following, each person of any sex or quality howso- 
ever possessing (through long and broad Germany), or 
being worth by all meanes 5oo gold Guldens, should 


I605-I 7. 

[III. iv. ,96.] 


yerely pay half a gold Gulden to this purpose, and each 
one of lesse value should pay a quarter of a gold Gulden, 
and all Jewes, as well men as women and children, should 
pay yearely by the Pole one gold gulden. That Princes 
& Barons for decency, yet of their free will should con- 
tribute much more. And that this collection should 
be made not onely in the private Dominions of the 
Emperour, but in the privat Teritories of al Princes, and 
the mony first delivered to the Superintendents or chiefe 
Ministers of Gods word, and by them be conveied to 
seven Treasurers residing at Franckfort (the first appointed 
by the Emperour, the second by the Electors, the third 
by other Princes, the fourth by the Prelates, the fifth by 
the Earles and Barons, the sixth by the Knights, the 
seventh by the free Cities), all which were to take their 
oathes for the faithfull execution of this office. After it 
was againe decreed in the Diet held at Nurnberg, that for 
the Turkish warre, each 4o inhabitants (reckoning the 
husband, wife and children for one person) should main- 
taine one Footeman. That men and maid-servants should 
give the sixth part of their yeerely wages, and each one 
having no wages, should pay a shilling of Germany. 
That spirituall persons, men and women (that is, Nunnes 
as well as others) should for each forty Guldens value, pay 
one gold Gulden, and in like sort the spirituall Orders of 
Knights, and namely those of Saint John, and all Monas- 
teries and Almes-houses, and whatsoever spirituall com- 
munities, should give the like contribution, excepting the 
foure Orders of Mendicant Friers, of which each five 
Monasteries were to maintaine one Footeman. That 
men and maid-servants of Spirituall persons, should pay 
as much as those of the Layety. That no Elector or 
Prince should maintaine lesse then five hundred Horses, 
and each Earle should maintaine one Horseman. That 
Knights should contribute according to their estates. 
That the Jewes should pay by the Pole one gold Gulden 
yearely, the rich paying for the poore. That all Preachers 
should in the Pulpit exhort men willingly to give these 


contributions, giving hope that they shall bee deminished 
according to the booties gotten by victories. And that 
Bishops should make collection of this money, and deliver 
it over to the Counsellers of the States. Twenty Noble 
men were at that time chosen to have care of the Common- 
wealth for matters of peace and warre, who in difficult 
accidents were to call unto them the sixe Electors (the 
King of Bohemia in the Emperours person not reckoned), 
and certaine other Princes. And this must alwaies be 
understood, that these collections are made in Germany 
with great severity or strictnesse, where he that dis- 
sembles his full wealth, shall be forced to repaire all the 
domage the Commonwealth hath sustained thereby, and 
shall bee also deepely fined, when the fraude is made 
knowne, which at least will appeare at the death of each 
private man, by his last will and testament. So as these 
subsidies must needs be of great moment. But the 
Germans in our daies, though ready to be devoured by 
the Lawes of the Turkish Tyrant, yet for the above- 
named causes, very unwillingly grant these contributions, 
yea, for the very Turkish warre. 
The Germans for the said mutuall jealosies, at this day 
in the greatest Peace at home, yet live as in the time of a 
Civill warre, at least in common feare of surprising, so as 
almost in all Cities, they have victuals laid up in Store- 
houses to beare a yeeres siege; and besides this publike 
provision, all housholders are commanded to make their 
private provisions before hand, of dried fishes, corne, and 
like things to eate, of fewell to burne, and of all necessaries 
to exercise their manuall trades. The Cities have Watch- 
men continually dwelling with their families on the top 
of high Steeples and Towers, who by sound of Trumpet, 
and by hanging out flags of divers colours, one for horse- 
men, another for footemen, continually give warning what 
people approch to the Towne, and in what number, and 
besides these Watchmen are injoyned to sound their 
Trumpets at certaine howers of the day and night. The 
very recreations of the Citizens are no other, then shoot- 

Their eoarlile 
proehion in 
time (peace. 

1605-I 7 . 

[Ill. iv. 97-] 

'arfare of 


ing in Pieces and Crosebowes at markes in publike 
houses, and thus they exercise themselves on Holidaies 
and at all idle times, shooting for wagers, both private 
and publike, and for like rewards and prises. So as they 
must needes bee thereby much better trained up for warre. 
Yet their footemen in warre doe not so much use the Piece 
as the Pike, and their Horsemen contrarie to the custome 
of other Nations, are generally armed with two short 
Pistols, not at all with Lances. To conclude, if any man 
in this time of peace, shoote off a piece within the wals 
of a Citie, he shall no lesse then in a Towne of Garrison, 
bee drawne by the Serjeants before the Magistrate, & be 
sure to pay a mulct for his error. 
Cesar reports, that the Scawaben (or people of Suevia, 
a great Province in Germany, most part of upper Germany 
having been so called of old) were most warlike, yet at 
the first hearing, so feared the Romans, as some thought 
to leave their dwellings, some made their last wils, and all 
mourned and were sad. He reports also, that the halfe 
part of this people was imployed and nourished in Armes, 
and the other halfe gave themselves to Husbandry, and 
that so by yeerely course they were one yeere Husband- 
men, another yeere Souldiers. That none of them had 
any private fields, nor dwelt in one place more then a 
yeere. Lastly, that freedome in youth, and hunting after 
they came to ripe yeeres, made them of huge stature. 
Many witnesse, that the Germans of old, in feasting tooke 
counsell of Peace and Warre, thinking the vigor of the 
mind then to be most inlarged, when they were warmed 
with Wine. They were wont to promise their neighbours 
that they would overcome in fighting, or else die valiantly, 
and so were led forth to the war with the peoples acclama- 
tions, exhorting them to valour, and at their returne were 
not praised, except they shewed scarres gotten in fighting. 
It was infamous for any of them to lose his shield, so as 
many for that cause hanged themselves; for it was not 
lawfull for them to be present at their Sacrifices or 
Counsels. Being ready to fight, they called upon 

t6os-t 7. 

footcmtn at 
this day. 

warfare in 
generall at 
this day. 

[Ill. iv. 98.] 


they may easily bee cast from their Horses, and have the 
disadvantage, being assayled with Horsemen bearing 
Their Footemen are vulgarly called Lantzknechten, that 
is, Servants with Lances, and the best of them are those 
of Tyroll, Suevia, and Westphalia. Commonly they are 
corpulent, and of a dull or lesse fiery spirit, yet are of 
great strength in fighting a battell, by reason of their 
.strong members, and the constant order they use in fight- 
ing. And they are armed with Lances most fit for their 
strength, rather then with Calivers, requiring nimblenesse 
in charging and discharging. 
In generall, the Germans willingly heare themselves 
compared to Bulles: for as Bulles bearing their homes 
on the ground, with firme foote attend the assault of the 
Dogges; so the Germans, neither rush fiercely on their 
enemies, nor can easily be broken by any charge. The 
Provinces of Germany being populous, and the souldiers 
being Mercenary, forraigne Princes commonly supply 
their Armies with them. And for the faithfulnesse of the 
Nation, and the strength of their bodies, the Princes of 
France and Italy willingly entertaine them for the guard 
of their persons. The Princes of Germany levie souldiers 
by absolute command, in their owne warres, but onely 
voluntary men are sent to forraigne warres, which they 
willingly undertake, out of all mens generall affection to 
the dissolute liberty of the warres, and because the 
Germans have ever been mercenary, besides that the 
pleasant wines of France and Italy draw them to those 
warres. In our age, the French having had civill warres 
betweene the Papists and Protestants, both parts have 
often hired the Germans. And they being for the most 
part Lutherans, and so hating both parts, as well the 
Papists, as the Calvinists, (so I call them for distinction, 
being so termed by their common enemies, though they 
follow neither Calvin nor Luther further, then they agree 
with the Word of God) ; I say that they hating the Papists, 
and most of all the Calvinists, nearest to them in Religion 

[III.iv. 99-] 


strength of Horse, brag that they despise the force of the 
Germans in open field, and the Turkish Horse, praised 
for swiftnesse, seemes not to feare the heavy horses of 
Surely, though I doe not thinke the Germans to 
degenerate from the valour of their old Progenitors, yet 
I have read the Histories, and have heard the Gentlemen 
of France in our time, much inveighing against them: 
First, that being in neutrall or friends Countries, farre 
distant from the enemy, they consumed wine and victuals, 
as if they had been borne to no other end, and spoyled 
all mens goods: but when the enemy drew neare, that 
not content with their former spoyles, they would then 
routine for pay, and refuse otherwise to fight, when the 
Princes had no present meanes to satisfie them ; yea, and 
for want of it, would threaten to leave their party, and 
goe to the enemy, bearing no more affection to the one 
then the other. Secondly, that in all Armies, wherein 
their strength was predominant, and especially upon the 
approch of the enemy, they were prone to threatnings and 
seditious demeanour. Thirdly, that the horse having 
given one assault without successe, could by no intreaty, 
no reward, no hope of victory, be induced to give a 
second charge. Fourthly, that once put out of order and 
routed, they could never be gathered againe together. 
Fiftly, that in the battell of Mountcontour, by confused 
feare, they had almost exposed themselves and the whole 
Armie to the sword; and that in the next battell, having 
the victory, they spared neither man, woman, nor child, 
but like Beares raged against their yeelding suppliants, stil 
crying Mountcontour, Mountcontour, for the word of 
revenge. Lastly, that the levies of them are an excessive 
charge, that they consume abundance of victuals, and 
especially wine, and cannot beare with any want of the 
least of them, and are a great burthen to an Army with 
their baggage. Touching victuals, I have heard the 
Citizens of Vienna, being themselves. Germans, yet freely 
professing, that when the Turkes made a shew to besiege 


them, and incamped on one side of the towne, they 
suffered farre greater losse by the souldiers received into 
the Towne to helpe them, then by the enemies spoiling all 
abro,d. Touching their baggage, every footeman hath 
his wench, that carries .on her backe a great packe, and a 
brasse pan, while the souldier hims'elfe goes empty, carry- 
ing nothing but his Armes. And at Strasburg I did see 
certaine troopes of horse enter the Towne, sent from the 
Marquis of Brandeburg, to aide the Citizens against the 
Duke of Loraine, which horsemen had an unspeakeable 
number of carts, to carry their Armes and other neces- 
saries, and upon each cart sat a Cocke, which creature, as 
most watchfull, the Germans have of most old custome 
used to carry with them to the warres. 
I cannot passe in silence the judgement of an Italian 
well knowne, though by mee unnamed, who because the 
Germans in our age have had some ill successes in the 
warre, doth attribute the same to the impurity of the 
reformed Religion professed by them, wherein he sophisti- 
cally obtrudes the false cause for the true; not much 
unlike the old man recorded in our Histories, who being 
asked (for his age and experience) what he thought to 
be the cause of Goodwyn sands, neare the mouth of the 
Thames, answered, that hee thought the building of 
Tenterton Steeple was the cause thereof, because no such 
sands were seene, till the time when it was built. Nothing 
is more manifest, then that the Germans of the reformed 
Religion, nothing yeeld, or rather much excell, the 
Germans continuing Papists, in all manuall Arts, Liberall 
Sciences, and all indowments of Nature; which may 
clearely be proved by one instance of the Norenbergers 
and Sweitzers, professing the reformed Religion, who in 
all Arts, and the military profession, passe all other 
Germans whatsoever. Neither am I of the same Italians 
opinion, who to make the Germans active in warre, 
thinkes they must have an Italian, or some forraigne 
Prince for their Generall, which none in the World can 
lesse indure, since they not onely most willingly heare, 


reade, and obey the Preachers, Authors, and Superiours of 
their owne Country, but above all other Nations singular 
in selfe-love, doe also despise all strangers compared with 
themselves, (though otherwise they be not unhospitall 
towards them.) 
They have one commendable custome, proper to them 
with the Sweitzers onely, namely, that after a yeeres or 
longer warfare, they returne home uncorrupted with the 
dissolute liberty of the warres, and settle themselves to 
their manuall trades, and tillage of the ground. The 
Emperour Charles the fifth did leade against the Turkes 
an Army of ninety thousand foot, and thirty thousand 
horse. And the Emperour Maximilian the second, did 
leade against the Turkes an Army of one hundred 
thousand foote, and thirty five thousand horse. And in 
the Civill warre betweene the Emperour Charles the fifth, 
and the Protestants, besides the Emperours Army, con- 
sisting partly of Germans, partly of Italians and Spaniards, 
the Protestant Princes had of their owne Country men an 
Army of eighty thousand foot, and ten thousand horse. 
And in all these Armies there was no complaint of any 
the least want of victuals. So as by these examples it 
appeares, that the Empire can leavie and nourish a most 
powerfull Army. 
And for better understanding of their warfare, I wil ad 
the decree of the Emperor & the Electors in the Expedi- 
tion against the Turks in the yeere  5cc. Albert Palatine 
of the Rheine was confirmed Generall of the Empire, and 
sixe Counsellors were chosen to assist him. And it was 
further decreed, that the Generall should not make warre 
upon any without direction from the Councell of the 
Empire, then chosen and consisting of sixe spirituall, and 
sixe temporall Princes, three Abbots, sixe chosen by the 
people, and eight chosen by the free Cities. That the 
souldiers should sweare obedience to the General, and he 
give like oath to the Emperor and the Empire. That the 
Generall should have the command of three hundreth 
Horse, with eight Guldens by the moneth allowed for 


each Horse. That the Generall should further have one 
thousand three hundreth Guldens by the moneth, or more 
by consent of the Councell. That each Horseman should 
have eight Guldens by the moneth, and each Footman 
foure Guldens. That the Generall should have twenty 
foure for his guard, with five Guldens by the moneth for 
each of them. That the Generall should have pay for 
thirty two carts, each cart drawne with foure horses, and 
allowed two Horsemenspay. That the Generall happen- 
ing to bee taken by the fortune of the warre, the Empire 
should readily pay his ransome and redeeme him. That 
no peace should be made without the consent of the 
Generall. Lastly, that the Generall should depose this 
dignitie when hee should be directed so to doe by the 
Councell, within three moneths if he were within the 
Empire, or within sixe moneths, if he should then be out 
of the confines of the Empire. To conclude, he that shall 
particularly visit and behold the Armories and storehouses 
for military provisions, as wel of the Princes as free Cities, 
shall bee forced to wonder at the quantity, varietie and 
goodnesse thereof, which if they were all under the com- 
mand of one Prince, no two of the mightiest Kings of 
Christendome might therein compare with him. 
It remaines briefely to adde something of the Navall 
power of the Germans. Almost all Germany being with- 
in hnd, onely the Cities upon the Northerne Ocean, and 
upon the Baltike sea, have any exercise of Navigation. 
And I did never reade or heare that any of them did 
ever undertake any long and dangerous voyage by sea, 
nor can their Marriners be praised for their experience or 
boldnesse, compared with the English and Netherlanders. 
The City of Dantzk (which for agreement of tongue and 
manners, I reckon among the Cities of Germany, though 
it be in some sort annexed to Poland), howsoever it is 
famous for concourse of Merchants, and rich commodities, 
yet not using to export them in their owne ships, but 
rather to sell them to strangers, or to lade their ships, & 
especially those of the Hollanders, I could not understand, 


Their Na,all 
power at thi 

I605- 7. 


and to this day the Germans in most places so call their 
Judges. The lower and upper Saxony hath a provinciall 
Law, yet determines also many causes by the civill Law. 
The Statutes of the Diots or Parliaments bind all, but the 
Statutes of private Princes onely bind their owne subjects. 
The greatest part of Germany is governed by the Civill 
Law: And therefore the Doctors of the Civill Law are 
much esteemed among them, and are Counsellors of 
Estate aswell to the Emperour as to other Princes, which 
place they thinke unfit to be conferred on any Doctors of 
Divinity. Yea, the Princes of Germany have this peculiar 
fashion, that no sonne useth his Fathers old counsellors, 
but rather new chosen by himselfe. The said Doctors of 
the Civill Law have priviledge by their degree, to weare 
chaines of gold about their neckes, and feathers in their 
There be in Germany foure kinds of Law giving, or 
rather foure cheefe Courts of Justice. The first is that of 
the Diots or Parliaments, vulgarly called Reichstagen, 
that is; Dales of the King.dome, which meetings by the 
Law should be made once in the yeere, and last no lesse 
then a moneth at least, no man having liberty to depart 
from them without leave of the Councell: Neither may 
the Emperour or his sonne, or the elect King of the 
Romans, make any warre or league, without consent of 
the same. The second Court is called Landgericht, that 
is, the Justice of the Land, wherein the cheefe men of each 
Province are to be called together thrice in the yeere, and 
are to sit three weekes, to determine the cheefe affaires of 
the Province, as the Parliaments handle the cheefe affaires 
of the Empire. The third Court is vulgarly called Cam- 
ergericht, that is, the Justice of the Imperiall Chamber, 
which is held at Spire foure times each yeere, each time 
lasting forty dayes, to determine the generall causes of 
the Empire. The fourth Court is the Burgraves right, 
by which debts by specialty are recovered. 
The Kingdome of Bohemia hath a provinciall Law, 
derived from the Law of Saxony, and for that cause there 


be few Students of the Civill Law: but because the 
Emperour hath instituted three Chaunceries, one for the 
Law of Saxony, (which Province lies upon the North side 
of the Kingdome :) the second for the Law of Bohemia: 
the third for the Civill Law, (in respect of the Emperours 
subjects of Austria, lying on the South side of Bohemia,) 
for this cause there be many Doctors of Civill Law, and 
they also much esteemed in the Emperours Court. If a 
Bohemian have a cause in any Court of the Germans, he 
is tried by the Civill Law, or by the Law of Saxony ; and 
if a German answer in the Court of the Bohemians, he is 
tried by the provinciall Law of Bohemia, and the Defend- 
ant drawes the cause to his owne Court. Moravia, a 
Province incorporated to Bohemia, useth the Language 
and Law of that Kingdome. In the old City of Prage, 
howsoever almost all speake Dutch, yet the Law is given 
in the Bohemian tongue, by a statute lately made. Silesia, 
a Province incorporated to Bohemia, hath the manners 
and language of Germany, and Justice is there adminis- 
tred by the Law of Bohemia, derived from the Law of 
Saxony; but for the greater part by the Civill Law. 
Generally in Germany, if a cause be received into any 
Court, and the defendant escape to another City, the 
Magistrate of the place must send him backe, to answer 
the Plaintife his accuser. 
The causes of the Empire (as I formerly said) are 
handled in the Imperiall Chamber at Spire. And there- 
fore it will not be amisse to relate some Statutes made in 
the Imperial meetings, which are collected into a Booke, 
vulgarly called Reichs abscheidt, that is, the Epitome or 
abstract of the Kingdome; but I will onely set downe 
breefly some of the cheefe statutes. It was decreed in the 
yeere 1556 , that no subjects of the Electors, nor any 
Inhabitants, or Earles of their Provinces, should appeale 
from them to this Court of the Imperiall Chamber. The 
Emperour Fredericke the third, in the yeere 1442 , made 
these statutes: That no Prince should by armes right 
himselfe against another, before Justice have beene denied 

6o5-I 7. 

[III. iv. 2o2.] 

The l mperiall 


to him in this Imperiall Court. That the Judge of the 
Chamber should be a Prince or Barron, and of these six- 
teene Assessors, halfe should be Civill Lawyers, and halfe 
of the Knightly Order. That the greater part should 
carry the cause, and the voices being equall, the Judges 
voyce should cast it. That the Judge should not be 
absent without leave of the Assessors, nor they without 
his leave, and that without some great cause, more then 
foure of them should not be absent at one time : That in 
absence they should have no voyce : That the cheefJudge 
being sicke, shall substitute a Prince in his place, who 
shall first take his oath. The Procters and Advocates 
shall take no more of their Clients, then the Judges shal 
appoint, and shall sweare to avoide slander and malice. 
The Notaries shall execute the judgements in the name 
of the Emperour. Appeales shall be of no force, except 
they be made in order to the next superiour Court, and so 
ascending. All that belong to this Chamber, shall be 
free from all payments, but not one of them shall either 
keepe an Inne, or trade as a Merchant. The Judge shall 
deliver over to the Senate of the City, those that are guilty 
of death. By the same decree, all fees for writing and 
processes are set downe, so as the Clyent swearing poverty, 
shall goe free, so as hee sweare to pay the fees when he 
shall be able. Further it was decreed, that the seate of 
this Chamber or Court, should not be changed but by 
the consent of the Imperial diot or Parliament. That the 
Defendants hiding themselves, the Princes or Citizens to 
whom they are subject, shall sweare upon a set day, that 
they are not privy to any of their actions, or else shall 
satisfie all damages. That the Procters shall speake 
nothing but to the purpose, and for jeasts or impertinent 
things in word or writing, shal be punished by a mulct 
in money, and by being put to silence in that cause. By 
the Emperour Charles the fifth, in the Diot at Augsburg, 
the yeere 58, two new Assessors were added, and it was 
decreed, that Charles as Emperour, should appoint the 
cheefe Judge, two Assessors of the Law, and two Gentle- 


men Assessors, and as heire to his patrimony, should 
appoint two learned Assessors. That three Gentlemen 
Assessors should be named by the three secular electors, 
three learned by the three spiritual Electors, and three 
Gentlemen with three learned, by the common consent of 
the six Communities. (For the Empire was devided into 
sixe Communities, vulgarly called Kreysen, for the collec- 
tion of tributes and like duties, as other Kingdomes are 
devided into Counties; ad since that time in the yeere 
1522, for the same purposes, the Empire was devided into 
ten Communities). Further it was decreed, that twenty 
two persons should with like equality be named yeerely to 
visit this Chamber or Court. That no appeale should be 
admitted into this Court under the value of fiftie Guldens ; 
and that the executions of judgements should be done by 
the next Magistrates, and they not willing or not daring 
to doe it, should be referred to the Emperour. At a 
Parliament in the yeere i5 , it was decreed, That no 
stranger should be appointed cheefe Judge: That for 
absence the pensions should be abated, after the rate of 
the time, and be distributed among the present: That 
the Judges should sweare to take no guifts; not to 
prolong causes, and to doe right without respect of 
persons; and that the Procters should take no fees, but 
such as are set downe by statutes. At the Parliament in 
the yeere I555, it was decreed, that no Assessors should 
be of any other Religion, then of the Roman, or the Con- 
fession of the Protestants, made at Augsburg. That one 
Assessor should not interrupt the speech of another, nor 
should rise to conferre one with the other, and that all 
speeches of ager should be punished, and all be sworne 
to keep secret the Acts of the Councell : That Advocates 
should not be more then foure and twenty in number: 
That any man should be admitted to speake for himselfe, 
first swearing to avoide slander: That this Chamber or 
Court should be yeerely visited, upon the first of May, 
by the Archbishop of Mentz, as substitute to the 
Emperour; by three other, each chosen by one of the 

[lll.iv. ao3. ] 


Electors, by two Princes, one temporall, the other 
spirituall, and by one Counsellor, chosen by each order, 
(namely one by the Earles, and one by each free City) 
to whom the complaints should be presented upon the first 
of March. That no man should forbid his subjects to 
appeale to this Court, except they should willingly 
renounce the appeale; but that all froward appeales for 
unjust causes should be punished, by paying charges, and 
being fined; and that no appeale should bee admitted 
under the value of fifty Guldens, excepting those who 
have priviledge to appeale for lesse summes, and that no 
appeale be made for corporal punishments: That the 
Chamber should be held at Spire, till it be otherwise 
decreed by Parliament, but that in time of famine or 
plague, they may for the time choose another place : That 
two brothers should not be the one an Assessor, the other 
a Procter : That the Judges shall meete three dayes in the 
weeke, and eight of them at the least shall be present: 
That executiop, of judgement shall first be required by 
letters of the Court, to which if the Defendant shal not 
yeeld obedience, he shal be cited to appeare, and shall be 
condemned in costs, and the Plaintife shall be put in 
possession of his goods ; and the Defendant by the Popes 
priviledge granted to this Court, shall be excommunicated, 
and then execution shall be desired from the Magistrate 
of the Community, or in case the defendant be powerful, 
it shall be desired from the Emperour himselfe. Lastly, 
that no appeale nor petition against the judgement of the 
Chamber shall be admitted. 
And thus much breefly written of the Imperiall 
Chamber or Court, shall suffice. Onely I will adde, that 
appeales were of old granted to the Electors subjects, and 
at this day in some cases and above a certaine value, are 
granted to the subjects of Princes and Cities ; and that in 
difficult causes, the Germans often referre them, to be 
judg.ed by the C. olledges of civill Lawyers in the Uni- 
versity: but since Princes and Cities weekely hold 
Courts of judgement, so as execution is done before 


sparing not the Inhabitants more then strangers, yea, in 
some cases favouring strangers more then the Inhabit- 
ants, (as in debts, which a stranger cannot stay to recover 
by long processe.) My selfe having a sute for money at 
Lindaw, my advocate would by no meanes take any fee 
of me, and the Judge gave mee right with great expedi- 
tion. In criminaIl offences they never have any pardons 
from Court, (which are common in forraigne Kingdomes), 
but the punishment is knowne by the fact, so the male- 
factor be apprehended. For all hope of safety is in flight, 
yet I deny not that favour is often done in the pursute. 
For since onely the Serjeants can apprehend, there is no 
place, where more malefactors escape by flight. In the 
Citie of Lubeck, most honoured for Justice, the common 
report was, that the very Judges and Senators, had lately 
wincked at a Gentlemans breaking of prison and flight 
with his keeper, whom being imprisoned for a murther, 
they could neither execute, without greatly offending the 
King of Denmark, nor otherwise set free, without scandall 
of Justice. A man suspected of any crime, or accused by 
one witnesse, is drawne to torture, yet is never condemned 
upon any probability, till himselfe confesse the fact, which 
confession is easily extorted, because most men had rather 
dye, then indure torment. So as many times innocent 
men have been after knowne to have perished by their 
owne confessions, as with us sometimes innocent men have 
been knowne to dye, being found guilty by a Jurie of 
twelve sworne men. And because it cannot be that the 
judgements of men should not often erre ; hence it is that 
the Civill Lawyers have a strange, yet good saying, that 
a mischiefe is better then an inconveniency, namely, that 
it is better one innocent man should dye by triall, then 
many nocent persons should escape for want of triall. In 
Germany not onely men but women also being accused, 
are put to torture. And for divers great crimes, the Law 
judgeth them to death with exquisite torments. And 
because they can hardly bee indured with Christian 
patience, lest the condemned should fall into despaire, the 


very Preachers, when they have heard their confessions, 
and settled their mindes in true faith, by rare example of 
too great charitie, permit and advise, that they be made 
drunken, to stupifie their sences, so as thus armed, they 
come forth with more bold then holy mindes and lookes, 
and seeme not to feele unsufferable torments of death. 
Neare Lindaw I did see a malefactor hanging in Iron 
chaines on the gallowes, with a Mastive Dogge hanging 
on each side by the heeles, so as being starved, they might 
eate the flesh of the malefactor before himselfe died by 
famine. And at Franckford I did see the like spectacle 
of a Jew hanged alive in chaines, after the same manner. 
The condemned in Germany lose not their goods, but 
onely in case of Treason against their absolute Lords. 
But in Bohemia the goods of the condemned, fall to the 
Emperour, as he is King of Bohemia, in the Territories 
belonging to the King; and to the Princes and Gentle- 
men, in the Territories whereof they are absolute Lords 
(as they are all, in their owne lands.) 
In Germany Courtiers and Students of Universities, 
have their proper Judges and Prisons, so as by singular 
priviledge they may not be tried in any other Court. 
And of old the Students of many Universities had such 
priviledges (at this day not fully allowed), a for murther 
they could not be punished further, then with expulsion. 
In Germany they have a custome to give a condemned 
man to a Virgin that desires him for her husband, but 
according to the circumstances of the crime, they grant or 
denie the same. 
The office of the hangman is hereditary, so as the sonne 
cannot refuse to succeede his father: And of late the 
hangmans sonne of Hamburg being a Student, and 
learned if not a graduate, in the University of Basil, after 
his Fathers death, was called home by the Senate of Ham- 
.burg, and forced to doe his Fathers Office, which is most 
Ignominious, but of great profit: For the Germans hold 
it reprochfull to take off the skinne of any beast, dying of 
it selfe, so as the hangman doing that Office, hath the 
M. IV 289 T 

[II I. iv. 2o5. ] 


skinnes for his labour. The Germans are so supersticious, 
as they thinke it a great reproch to touch the head or body 
of any put to death, and thinke it most ridiculous for any 
man to salute the hangman, or speake curteously to him, 
and esteeme it a foule fault to eate or drinke with them, 
or any of his Family. Therefore the Hang-man and 
those of their Family, who helpe them in their Office (and 
succeede them having no children) doe all weare a greene 
cap, or some apparent marke, by which they may be 
knowne, or at least are tied to professe their quality, when 
they come into any company, lest any man should offend 
in the former kindes. And in publike Tavernes they have 
Tables proper to them, at which the basest body will not 
sit for any reward. If they performe not their Office with 
dexterity, they feare to be stoned by the people, whose 
rage many times in that case they have hardly escaped; 
but being expert in doing their Office, and having most 
sharpe Swords, they commonly shew great dexterity in 
beheading many at one time, and (as it were) in a 
moment : They are commonly thirsty of blood, so as the 
common report was, that the hangman of Torge beheaded 
some of his companions with the Sword of Justice, 
because they would not pledge him, when they were so 
fully drunken, as they could no more; whereupon the 
Sword was taken from him, and is to this day kept in the 
Senate-house, and onely delivered to him at times of 
execution: And that this rascall could not live a weeke 
without drinking the blood of some Beast. Besides at 
Breme not long before this time, forty freebooting 
souldiers being beheaded at one time, and the hangman 
having failed in giving a foule wound to the first man 
executed, and having with much difficulty appeased the 
peoples anger for the same, hee presently drunke some of 
the marts blood that was dead, and after hee had fetched 
a strike or two, beheaded all the rest with strange dexterity 
(as it were) in a moment. 
Of old among the Germans man-slaughter was punished 
by a mulct of cattle, but no man escaped death for 
9 o 


adultery. At this day (as after will appeare) they punish 
man-killers more severely, and adultery in most places is 
death, and in no part of Germany free from severe punish- 
ment. Not onely the free Cities of the Empire have the 
priviledge of the Sword, or capitall Justice granted to 
them by Emperours; but also many Cities subject to 
inferiour Princes have that priviledge granted by some of 
their Lords: and those Cities that have it not, yet upon 
accidents of capitall offences, obtaine it for the time by 
petitionary letters at Court, so as the Prince permits 
Justice, the City gives sentence, and sees execution done 
in the place where the crime was committed, and presently 
after the fact, never using (as we doe) to send Judges from 
County to County at set times of the yeere: For casuall 
man-slaughter, or by chance medly (as we terme it), the 
Civill Law gives arbitrary punishment; but the Law of 
Saxony punisheth it with a certaine and expresse mulct, 
namely of one Wehrgeld, and by the Civill Law not onely 
the principall, but every one that is accessary, payes the 
whole mulct, whereas by the Saxon Law, if it be not 
knowne which of them killed him, all jointly pay but one 
mulct. Kil!ing in sudden anger (which we call man- 
slaughter) Is punished with beheading through all 
Germany and Bohemia, and that without delay: for if 
the offender be apprehended, he shall within few howers, 
or next day be beheaded, and put in the same Coffin with 
him that he killed, and so both are buried with one funerall 
pompe, and in the same grave: and if upon escape, the 
man-slayer live within the confines of the Empire, when- 
soever his fact is knowne, he shall be sent backe to the 
place where he committed it, contrary to the custome of 
Italy, where the Princes cherrish, or at least give safe 
aboade to the banished men of the next Countries : Onely 
I must except the Lords and Gentlemen of Bohemia, who 
upon capitall offences are not presently judged, but are 
referred to the next Parliament. In free Cities I have 
observed this forme of judgement and execution. The 
Judge sits before the tribunall, covered with blacke cloth, 


I605-I 7. 
Punishment of 
reall and 


arbitrary, and as many wounds as are given, so many are 
the punishments. But by the law of Saxony, he that strikes 
another, so as he leeseth the use of a member, is punished 
by a mulct of money uncertaine, which is given alwaies 
to him that is maimed, and if he die not, a thousand 
wounds or maimes are punished onely with one mulct, 
except they bee done at divers times and places, in which 
case severall mulcts are inflicted. Alwaies understand, 
that these Judgements are given, where the offender is 
civilly accused, for if these wounds be given of set malice, 
and if he be capitally accused, he shall dye, according to 
the circumstances, which the Germans much regard. 
Thus at Lubeck a man was beheaded, for striking a 
Citizen in his owne house. And in the way from Stoade 
to Breme, I did see a sad monument, of a wicked sonne, 
whose hand first, and then his head was cut off, for strik- 
ing his father. He that killes a man of set malice, and 
like hainous murtherers, have all their bones broken upon 
a wheele, and in some cases their flesh is pinched off, with 
hot burning pinsers, and they that kill by the high-way, 
are in like sort punished. And many times for great 
crimes, the malefactors some few dayes before the execu- 
tion of judgement, are nailed by the eares to a post in 
a publike place, that the people may see them. After the 
execution, the bones and members of the malefactor are 
gathered together, and laid upon the wheele, which is set 
up in the place of execution (commonly where the crimes 
were committed), for eternall memory of his wickednesse, 
with so many bones hanging on the sides of the wheele, 
as he committed murthers or like crimes; and my selfe 
have numbred sometimes eighteene, often fourteene bones 
thus hanging for memory of so many murthers, or like 
crimes committed by one man. These markes long 
remaining, and crosses set up in places where murthers 
were committed, though the murtherer escaped by fligh.t, 
make passengers thinke these crimes to be frequent ,n 
Germany; yet the high-way is most safe, and the nature 
of the people abhorring from such acts, which are never 


committed by Gentlemen, but only by rascals against 
footmen in the highway, and those that dwel in solitary 
houses. Yet the severity of punishments, & the more 
fierce nature of the Germans (retaining some kind of 
fiercenes from their old progenitors) make such as are thus 
en over to wickednes, to be more barbarous & unmerci- 
, and when they have once done ill, to affect extremity 
therin. To conclude, I have said, that the law of Saxony 
condemns a man to death, who threatens to kil another, 
though he never do the act. By the Civill law, difference 
is made between a day & a night thiefe, because we may 
not kil him that steales by day, but may kil him that robs 
by night, if we cannot spare him without danger to our 
selves. By the law of Saxony, he that by night steales so 
much as a little wood, shall be hanged: but stealing that 
or like goods by day, shal only be beaten with rods. In 
the civil law, it is doubtful whether theft is to be 
punished with death or no, & most commonly it 
concludes, that only theft deserves not death, if it 
be not accompanied with other crimes. But the law 
of Saxony expressely condemnes a thiefe to be hanged, 
if he steale above the value of five Hungarian Ducates 
of gold, or under that value to bee beaten with rods, 
and to be marked with a burning iron, in the eares 
or cheekes and forehead, and so to be banished. And 
howsoever generally a thiefe may not be hanged by the 
Civill Law, yet in some cases it condemnes him to be 
hanged. By the law of Saxony the thing stolen must be 
restored to the owner, and may not be detained by the 
Magistrate, and they who wittingly receive stolen goods, 
or give any helpe to theeves, are subject no lesse then the 
theeves to the punishment of hanging. In Germany 
there be very few robberies done by the high-way, and 
those onely upon footemen ; for they that passe by coach 
or horse, carry long Pistols or Carbiners, and are well 
accompanied. But if any robbers assaile, in respect of the 
severe punishment, they commonly kill. In Germany 
they who are hanged for simple theft, hang in iron chaines 

[III. iv. zoS.] 


upon the gallowes till they rot and consume to nothing, 
but in Bohemia after three dayes they are cut downe and 
buried. I did see one that had stolen lesse then five gold 
guldens, whipped about the towne, one that consented 
being led by his side for ignominy, but not whipped. I 
did see another small offender led to the gallowes with 
a condemned man, that he might beware by that example. 
And I have seene others for stealing under the said value, 
put in a basket, and thrise ducked in the river, for a warn- 
ing upon the first fault. And I have often heard them tax 
our English Justice, for hanging those that steale above 
the value of thirten pence halfe-peny, which will hardly 
buy a rope. By the Civill Law he that findes any thing, 
and for gaine keeps it, is guilty of theft ; for he ought to 
make it publikely knowne, and to restore it being owned, 
or other wise if he be poor to keep it, if he be rich, to 
distribute it among the poore. 
By the Law of Saxony, it is a theevish thing not to 
make publikely knowne any thing that is found ; but hee 
that so doth, shall not suffer death or any corporall punish- 
ment, because he did not of purpose take it away: but 
if he that lost it, doe cry it in the Church or market-place, 
then if it be more then the value of five shillings, hee is 
thought worthy to be beaten with rods, or to indure such 
arbitrary punishment, according to the value of the thing 
By the Civill Law, hee that cuts downe trees secretly, 
shall pay the double value: but by the Law of Saxony, 
the mulct is according to the value. By the Civil Law, 
they that steale the necessaries belonging to husbandry, 
shall restore foure fold, and also incurre infamy. But one 
Law of Saxony condemnes them to have their bones 
broken with wheeles ; and another Law makes the punish- 
ment arbitrary. The Civill Law confiscates oods for 
which custome is not payd, but the Law o1  Saxony 
imposeth a Fyne aswell upon those which pay not 
customes and duties, as upon those that passe not the 
beaten way, where they are paied, but go some byway, to 


defraud the Prince: By the Civill Law, sacrilegious 
persons are beheaded: but by the Law of Saxony their 
bones are broken upon the wheele, and markes are set up 
according to the number of their offences in that kynd. 
By the Civill Law, no offender may be burnt in the fore- 
head, because the face may not be disfigured, as created to 
the similitude of God: but in Saxony, those which are 
beaten with rods, or banished, are also many times 
marked, by being burnt in the hand, or by cutting off 
their eares, or by pulling out their eyes, or by being burnt 
in the cheekes, so as the haire may not cover the marke 
but it may be manifest to strangers in forraine parts.. 
Yet the interpreters of that Law, thinke at this day, that 
offenders can not be so punished by that Law, and that a 
theefe ought not so to be marked. By the civil Law, 
witches doing any act wherupon a man dies, are to be 
beheaded, but by the Law of Saxony, they are to be burnt. 
Yet by a late Statute of the Elector, they are sometimes 
beheaded, (for you must understand that in all places, the 
Provinciall Law is daily increased by new Statutes of 
Princes). And by the Law of Saxony, a witch having 
done no hurt by that art, is punished arbitrarily. And the 
Germans credibly report, that there be many witches in 
the Countries lying upon the Baltick sea, and especialy 
upon the Northern side therof, as in Lapland, being part 
of the kingdome of Suetia ; and that in those places they 
have generall meetings, and Colledges of witches, who wil 
tell any man what his fiends do at any time, in the 
remotest parts, one of them falling downe as in extasie, 
and when he comes to himselfe, relating the particulars 
thereof, and that they ordinarily sell windes to the 
Marriners to carry them out of the haven to the maine 
In Germany those that set houses on tier, either hired 
thereunto, or of their owne malice, and also witches use 
to bee burnt, or if their crime be hainous, use to be put 
to death with a burning iron or spit, thrust into their 
hinder partes. Coiners of counterfeit mony, are by the 

I6O5- 7. 



Law to dye in boiling lead. By the Civil Law the goods 
of a banished man may be seased to repaire any losse, but 
it is not lawfull for any man to kill him, neither is he 
infamous. But by the Law of Saxony, he that is banished 
by the Empire, may be killed; because he broke the 
peace, and after a yeers banishment, he is infamous; 
alwaies understanding, that he is lawfully banished. By 
the Civill Law, a traitor to his country, is to be burned 
to death ; but by the Law of Saxony, his bones are broken 
upon the wheele, and by custome many torments are in 
some crimes added to this punishment. By the Civill 
Law, he that steales a virgin, widow, or Nunne, and all 
that helpe him in that rape, are beheaded : but by the Law 
of Saxony, besides the beheading of the offenders, the 
places are to be laid waste where the force was offred, and 
the beasts to be killed that helped to doe the force, as the 
horses which carried them away ; yet this is not observed, 
but in practise only he is put to death that offered the 
Of old the women of Germany, were wont to purge 
themselves from suspition of adultery, by the combat of 
champions, or by treading on shares of hot burning iron 
with their naked feet, without taking any harme, and this 
purgation should still be observed ; neither is it abrogated 
in Saxony, but only is vanished by disusing. And the 
Germans have not only of old been severe punishers of 
breaches in wedlocke, so as it was lawfull for the husband 
to expell his adulterous wife out of his house before all 
his neighbours, with her body naked and her haire shorne, 
and so to beat her with rods through the streets, but also 
even to this day, the chastity of wives, through the 
severity of the Law against the incontinent, is no where so 
preserved, as in Germany. If a married person lie with 
one that is unmarried, aswell on the man as the womans 
side, the marled party is put to death, and the unmarried 
is punished by the purse, and with ignominy, and if both 
parties be married, both die. And our age hath seene two 
notable examples of this Justice in Germany, one of a 


Duchesse, who by authority of her husband and of her 
owne brother, was for this crime forced to drinke poison 
secretly, for preserving of all their honours. The other 
of another Duchesse who was bricked up in a most narrow 
roome, having an hole in the wall by which she received 
her meat, to prolong her miserable life, while her husband 
had another wife and lived with her in the same Castle, in 
which she thus languished. In most places of Germany 
this sinne is punished no lesse then with death; yet in 
some places, and upon some circumstances, (as of a man 
having an old and barren wife) the delinquent sometimes 
escapes with a mulct of mony : and otherwhere the judg- 
ment is drawne out with delaies of the suit, to spare the 
parties without manifest breaches of the Law. In 
Bohemia adultery is also punished with death. In 
Germany I did see a poore knave hanging and rotting on 
the gallowes, being condemned to that death for having 
two wives at one time in two severall Cities, and I did see 
another beheaded for lying with his wives sister. 
In Civill causes, I observed these laudable customes in 
Germany, namely that in many Courts, they that goe to 
Law lay downe a caution or pledge, which he loseth, who 
in the end of the triall, is found rashly and unjustly to 
have sued the other. That the Fees of Lawyers are 
limited, and that jeasts or impertinent speeches are 
punished, and they are tied to speake nothing that is not 
to the purpose. 
Of old, no beauty, age, nor riches, helped a defloured 
virgin, to get any husband at any time. And no doubt 
virgins to this day are no where so carefull of their good 
name as in Germany; no where virgins more modestly 
behave themselves, no where virgins live to so ripe yeers 
before they be married, as in Germany. At Wittenberg 
I did see harlots punished by standing at the Altar with a 
torch lighted in their hands, and by being whipped with 
rods, while many drums were beaten, & basons tinckled 
about them. At Heidelberg I did see an harlot put in a 
basket, and so ducked into the river Neccar ; and because 



I6O5-I 7. 

[III. iv. 2o.] 


she whooped and hollowed as in triumph, when she rose 
out of the water, she was for that impudency ducked the 
second time. At Prage in Bohemia, howsoever harlots be 
there as common as in Italy, and dwell in streets together, 
(where they stand at the doores, and by wanton signes 
allure passengers to them) yet I did see some men and 
women of the common sort, who for simple fornication, 
were yoked in carts, & therewith drew out of the City the 
filth of the streets. But while the Bohemians thus chasten 
the poorer sort, I feare the greater Flies escape their webs. 
In Germany at the time of publike Faires, after the 
sound of a bell, it is free for debtors, harlots, and banished 
people to enter the Citie; but they must have care to be 
out of the territories before the same bell sound againe 
at the end of the Faire, they being otherwise subject then 
to the Law. At Leipzig I did see an harlot taken after 
this second sound of the bell, who had been formerly 
banished, with two of her forefingers cut off; and shee, 
not for incontinencie, but by the law of banishment, was 
next day beheaded. Whiles I lived in the same Citie, it 
happened that a virgin of the better sort being with child, 
and cunningly concealing it, was surprised with the time 
of birth in the Church upon a Sunday, and silently 
brought forth the child in her pew or seat, covering it with 
rushes being dead, which was unknowne to all in the 
body of the Church, only some yong men sitting in a 
roode or loft with the Musitians, perceived the fact, and 
accused her for murthering the child : In the meane time, 
shee went home from the Church, in the company of the 
other virgins, without any shew of such weaknes, & after, 
upon the said accusation being imprisoned, the report was 
that shee should bee judged to death, after the old Law 
mentioned by the Poet Propertius, namely, being sewed 
in a sacke with a living cat (in steed of an Ape), and a 
living Cocke, Snake, and Dog, and so drowned in the 
river with them. But delay being used in the judgement, 
and her honourable friends making intercession for her, 
and the murther of her child being not prooved, when I 


left the Citie after six moneths shee remained in prison, 
and it was not knowne what would become of her. 
Aswell in Germany as Bohemia, bastards are excluded 
from publike profession of liberall or mechanical arts, only 
they may exercise them in the houses of private Gentle-- 
men, (in which course of life as servants they commonly 
live) but never in open shops. All graduates in Uni- 
versities take an oath, that they were begotten in lawfull 
matrimony. And if any man ignorantly should marry a 
woman great with child, howsoever the child bee borne in 
mariage, yet it shall inherit nothing from the husband. 
Bastards cannot bee sureties for any imprisoned or delin- 
quent man, nor injoy the extraordinary benefits of the law, 
and are commonely named of the Citie or Towne where 
they were borne, for a marke of ignominy, not after any 
roans sirname. But the publike Notaries by priviledges 
granted to them from Emperors and Popes, have power 
to make their posterity legitimate. 
In the lower part of Germany, which was all named Debtor. 
Saxony of old, a debtor shall not be received into prison, 
except the Creditor allow the Jaylor two pence by the day 
to give him bread and water, and after a yeeres imprison- 
ment, if the debtor take his oath that he is not able to 
pay, he shal be set free, yet the creditor hath stil his right 
reserved upon his yeerly wages for his labour, and upon 
his gaines by any art or trade, and upon any goods whatso- 
ever he shall after possesse. And before any debtor bee 
imprisoned, the Magistrate gives him eighteen weeks time 
to pay his debt, and commits him not till that time be 
past. And in some places the debtor lives at his owne 
expence, and shall be tied to pay his creditors charges, if 
he be able to doe it. 
In some places, especially at Lubecke, I have observed 
that strangers being Creditors, have more favour then the 
Creditors of the same City against a Citizen debtor, 
because strangers by reason of their trafficke, and hast 
homeward, cannot well expect the delay of sutes, in which 
respect their debtors shall presently be imprisoned, where- 

Privikdge of 

[III. iv. 21 I.] 


as mutually among the Citizens, they give the foresaid or 
like time of payment, before they will imprison them: 
Debts without specialty are tried by Oath. In Bohemia 
the debtors are imprisoned presently, and maintaine them- 
selves, not being released till the creditors be satisfied. 
In Germany, if any man draw other mens monies into 
his hands, and being able, yet payes not his debts, he is 
guilty of capital punishment ; but that ingenious and 
honest Nation hath few or no such bankerouts. By the 
Law of Saxony, he that deceives by false weights and 
measures, is to be whipped with rods. 
The Emperours of old granted the priviledge of coyn- 
ing Money, to many Princes and free Cities; and the 
Emperour in the Dyet or Parliament of the yeere i Soo , 
commanded all Princes, Persons, and Bodies so privi- 
ledged, to send their Counsellors to him at Nurnberg, and 
that in the meane time all Coyning should cease, under 
the penalty to leese the priviledge of Coyning. In the 
same place, the yeere t559, many Lawes were made for 
coyning Monies, whereof I will relate some few. First 
the weight and purity of the mettall was prescribed, 
together with the Inscriptions to be set upon the Coynes. 
Then it was decreed, that after sixe moneths no strange 
Monies should bee currant, whereof many are particularly 
named. That all forraigne Gold should after the same 
time be forbidden, excepting the Spanish single and 
double Duckets, the Portugall Crownes with the short 
crosse, the Crownes of Burgundy, Netherland, France, 
Spaine, and Italy, to each of which peeces a certaine value 
was set. Moreover it was decreed, that counterfet coyn- 
ing or melting, should be punished according to the 
quality of the offence. That uncoyned gold and silver 
should be delivered by each man into the Mints of his 
owne Prince. That it should be lawfull to Goldsmiths 
for exercise of their trade, (and no more) to melt gold and 
silver, and to devide it into parts, so as they export none 
of it. That no man should sell or pawne the priviledge 
of Coyning, heretofore granted him from the Emperours, 


and that like priviledges hereafter to be granted, should 
be of no force, without certaine conditions there pre- 
scribed. Other Lawes of Coyning I have formerly set 
downe in the Chapter of Coynes. 
Germany hath few or no beggars, the Nation being 
generally industrious, excepting leprous men, who live in 
Almes-houses, and standing frre off, beg of passengers 
with the sound of a bell, or of a woodden clapper, but no 
man denies almes to him that begs, they having small 
brasse monies of little value. The Law forbids any to 
beg, but those that are lame, and chargeth Magistrates to 
bring up their children in manuall Arts. The Lawes 
wisely" provide against all frauds in manuall Arts and in 
Trades, and since no Trade can doe more hurt then the 
Potecaries, for the preservation of health, or the lesse hurt 
of the sicke, the Law provides that their shops be yeerly 
visited, and purged of all corrupted drugges, which the 
visiters see burned. The Germans freely permit usury to 
th.e Jewes, who at Franckfort, at Prage, in the Province 
of Moravia, and in many places under Princes of the 
Papacy, have Cities, or at least streets to dwell in, where 
they lived separated from Christians, and grinde the faces 
of the poore with unsatiable avarice. For they take fifty in 
the hundred by the yeere, with a pawne of gold or silver, 
and one hundreth in the hundreth by the yeere, with a 
pawne of apparell or houshold stuffe, never lending any 
thing without a good pawne. But the Germans among 
themselves cannot by the Law take more then five or six 
in the hundreth for a yeeres use. Yet among Christians, 
there want not some, who use both the name and helpe of 
the Jewes, to put out their mony with greater gaine. 
Of old among the Germans, without respect to last 
Wils and Testaments, the sonnes lawfully begotten suc- 
ceeded alone in the inheritance, and for want of them, first 
brothers; then uncles. Cesar in his Commentaries 
writes, that the fields were yeerely divided by the Magis- 
trate, no man having fees or inheritance proper to him, 
lest husbandry should take away their warlike disposition, 

The Lawes of 
l nl, eritance. 


of Saxony, the succession depends uppon using it in 
common, from which if they depart, they are judged to 
have renounced the mutuall right of succession ; so as one 
brother dying after the division, the other hath no right 
to his part: therefore by custome one brother useth to 
retaine the fee, and to satisfie his brethren in mony and 
goods, commonly with condition that this money and 
goods shall be bestowed in getting another fee. By the 
Civill Law, if the vassall have built houses, or bestowed 
mony in bettering the old houses, the Lord of the Fee 
shall either satisfie the heire according to the estimation 
of the expence, or shall suffer him to carry away the 
houses. But by the Law of Saxony, the fee lies open to the 
Lord, with all the houses built, one case excepted. By the 
Civill Law, if the vassall die without heire male before 
the moneth of March, the fruits of that yeere pertaine to 
the Lord: but if hee die after the Calends of March, 
before the Moneth of August, the fruits pertaine to the 
heires. But by the Law of Saxony, if the vassall live past 
the day when the rent is due, the heires shall inioy the 
fruits of his labour. By the Civill Law, if the Fee upon 
the death of the Lord, fall to all his sonnes, either equally 
or otherwise, the investiture must be desired of all : but 
by the Law of Saxony, it sufficeth to aske it of one sonne 
of the dead Lord. By the Civill Law, a servant or a 
clowne may be invested in a Fee; which done, the clowne 
becomes a Gentleman, if the nature of the fee require it: 
But by the Law of Saxony, onely hee that is borne of the 
knightly order by father and mother is capeabl.e of a fee, 
though custome prevaile to the contrary. By the Civill 
Law, if the vassall leave an heire, he cannot refuse the 
inheritance, and retaine the fee, but must hold or refuse 
both: but by the Law of Saxony, he may retaine the fee, 
leaving the inheritance, and in that case is not bound to 
satisfie creditors. By the Civill Law, a man may give or 
sell his land to a Prince or Prelate, and take it againe of 
him in fee. But by the Law of Saxony, except the Prince 
or any buyer whatsoever, retaine the land a yeere and a 
. v 305 v 

The of 

The Ci,ill 
Law and the 
Law of 

[III.iv.z 3.] 


day, before he grants it backe in fee, hee that gave or sold 
it, or his heire, hath right to recover the land. By the 
Civill Law, if the vassall have lost his horse or armes in 
warre, hee hath no remedy against the Lord, because he 
is tied by duty to helpe him : but by the Law of Saxony, 
the vassall is not tied to serve the Lord any longer, except 
he repaire his losse, and the Lord is tied to pay a certaine 
ransome for his captive Vassall. By the Civill Law, the 
Lord, or the Father of the Vassall being dead, the Vassall 
is bound to aske investiture within a yeere and a moneth : 
but by the Law of Saxony, either of them being dead, he 
must aske it without delay. By the Civill Law, the 
Vassall must serve the Lord at his owne charge: but by 
the Law of Saxony, he is onely tied to serve him sixe 
weekes, and by custome the Lord must feede him and his 
horse, or give him a competent allowance. 
By the Civil law, the pupil is excused from the Lords 
service : but by the law of Saxony, the Tutor must serve 
in his place. By the Civill law, a Fee falling to a Monk, 
belongs to the Monastery during his life : but by the law 
of Sax.ony, it returnes to the Lord. And touching the 
successlon of Monks in any inheritance whatsoever, 
though by the Civil law they are accounted dead, yet the 
same law admits them to succeed with the children of the 
intestate father: but by the law of Saxony, they are not 
capable of any inheritance; yet this Law seeming unjust 
to the Popes, it was corrected, so as their succession was 
given to the Monastery. But in our age, the Judges have 
pronounced a Monke himself to be capeable of inherit- 
ance, notwithstanding the Papall Law gives his inheritance 
to the Monastery, and that because the Monkish Vowes 
being against the word of God, the persons of Monkes are 
free to take inheritance. By the Civill Law, the Vassall is 
bound to accompany his Lord when he goes with the King 
of the Romans, to take the Crowne of the Empire at 
Rome: but by the Law of Saxony, he may redeeme this 
service with paying the tenth part of his; 
and since, the golden Bulla hath restrained this service, to 


twenty thousand foote, and foure thousand horse, and the 
paiment of them hath since been equally divided through 
Germany, allowing a horseman twelve Guldens, and a 
footeman foure Guldens. By the Civill Law, he forfeites 
his Fee, who cuts downe fruitfull trees, or puls up vines, 
but by the Law of Saxony, it is free to the possessor, to 
make the lands or houses of the Fee better or worse, at his 
pleasure. By the Civill Law, if the Lord deny investiture, 
it must be asked often and humbly: but by the Law of 
Saxony, if the Vassall aske it thrice, and hath witnesses 
that the Lord denied his service, afterwards, so he have 
good witnesses thereof, hee and his heires shall possesse 
the Fee, without any bond of service, and his heire is not 
bound to aske investiture. By the Civill Law, if two 
Lords of one Vassall shall both at one time require his 
service, he is bound to serve the most ancient Lord: but 
by the Law of Saxony, the person of the Vassall must 
serve the Lord that first calles him, and he is to pay a 
summe of money (as the tenth pound) to the other. 
By the aforesaid Lawes and daily practise, it appeares, 
that the Territories of Princes (according to the old Feud- 
atory Lawes) either fall to the eldest son (who gives his 
brothers yeerely Pensions, or according to his inheritance, 
recompenceth them with money, or other lands), or else 
are equally divided among the brothers. Yet some Fees 
are also feminine, and fall to the daughters and their 
husbands, and some may be given by testament: but 
others, (as those of the Electors) for want of heires males 
are in the Emperours power, who with the consent of the 
Princes of the Empire, commonly gives them to the 
husbands of the daughters, or to the next heires by 
affinity, if there be none of consanguinity. I have heard 
of credible men, that the Dukedome of Austria first fals 
to the sons, then to the cousens, and for want of them 
to the daughters. The Duke of Wineberg and the Duke 
of Coburg (sonnes to Fredericke Duke of Saxony and 
Elector, but deprived of his Electorship by the Emperor 
Charles the fifth, for his Religion), did equally divide their 


of Bishopricks as Administrators (being so called), besides 
money, and pensions, and some lands of inheritance, and 
otherwise for better maintenance followed the warres. In 
this sort when the Elector Christian Duke of Saxony died, 
his three sonnes being yet under age, injoyed three Bishop- 
ricks, namely, those of Misen, Nauberg, and Mersberg, 
though the Emperor and the Gentlemen of those parts in 
a Provinciall meeting, were instant to have three Bishops 
chosen, and the Emperour desired that dignity tor 
one of his brothers. The same three Princes yet being 
under age, I did see coynes of Gold and Silver bearing the 
images of all three: but when they came to age, the 
Electorship and the Inheritance belonging to it, fell to the 
eldest sonne, the younger retaining the said Bishopricks 
for life, and their part of other lands that might bee 
divided, for inheritance to them and their children. 
The Fees of Princes are given by the Emperour, and 
the Fees of many Gentlemen and of some Earles are given 
by Princes : but I returne to the Lawes of Succession. 
By the Civil law, they that descend of the right line, 
have the first place in succession, al which without respect 
of sex or fatherly power, do succeede equally, the sons by 
the Pole, the nephewes to their part, namely, to the part 
which their father should have had, if he had been then 
living; so as it seemes, that fower or more nephewes, the 
sons of a third brother dead, dividing with two brothers 
living, all the nephewes shall only have a third part, 
belonging to their father being dead, and each of the two 
living brothers shall have another third part. The Law 
of Saxony changeth nothing touching the persons, but 
differs in the succession of goods: For the daughters 
shall by priviledge have their mothers apparrell, and other 
ornaments, with all utensiles (or household stuffe), so as 
they shall be valued to them in their due parts. And the 
niece, borne of one of the sisters being dead, hath the 
same right with the other sisters for her mothers part: 
but none can have these utensiles, save the women on the 
mothers side, (vulgarly called Spielmagen), for the 

[lll.iv.z4. ] 

x6o5-I 7. 

Aen tAe 
deceased AatA 
no Aeire,. 


brothers daughter hath no right to them. And I have 
heard of learned men, that these utensiles cannot bee 
alienated by the last testament, namely, vessels of brasse 
(but not of pewter), linnen, beds (excepting the heires of 
Inne-keepers, whose chiefe wealth commonly consists in 
such furniture) also sheep, geese, jewels of gold, and like 
ornaments of the mother, excepting the seale ring of gold, 
and pearles, and other jewels, which men use to weare as 
well as women. By a Law made in the Dukedome of 
Meckelburg, because the women in the yeere 388 
redeemed their captive Prince with their Jewels, many 
priviledges of succession are ranted to women. By the 
Law of Saxony, as the utensi]"es belong to the daughters, 
so besides the decree of the Civill Law, in the Knightly 
Order all goods of expedition (as Armes, and the like) 
belong to the sonnes, and the sword is alwaies given to the 
eldest sonne. But these things are not observed among 
those of common or plebean ranck, except custome have 
made them as Law, so as the Daughters by custome have 
the utensiles, and the eldest sonne have the chiefe horse 
for the plough. I have formerly said, that by the Law of 
Saxony, the nephew is excluded from succeeding in a Fee 
with his uncle on the fathers side (that is, his fathers 
brother), but that in our daies the nephew is admitted 
according to the Civill law. I have said, that in the 
succession of moveable goods, the sonnes succeede the 
father by the Pole: but the nephewes (or sonnes of 
another sonne deceased) succeede their Grand-father onely 
in the part belonging to their father. I have said, that the 
Law of Saxony changeth nothing touching the persons, 
but only differs in the succession to some goods, as the 
utensiles. Now I adde further, that the nephewes succes- 
sion and equall division with his fathers brothers, is 
decreed by an Imperiall Law, abrogating all contrary 
By the Civill Law, brothers on both sides, and together 
with them, the children of their dead brothers and sisters, 
are then first called to inheritance, when the deceased hath 


no heires in the right line descending or ascending: but 
without any respect to the Imperiall said Law, (as speak- 
ing of custome, not written Law), or to the last Civill 
Law, the Law of Saxony decrees, and of old custome it is 
observed among the Saxons, that in the succession of 
Collaterals, the living brother excludes the children of his 
dead brother, (I say in freehold, not in fee) and the brother 
on both sides excludes the brother on the one side onely 
in the third degree, and the brother on both sides excludes 
the children of his dead brother in the third degree. But 
I have observed that this law is thus practised among the 
Sa)ons, as imagining there be three brothers, Thomas, 
John, and Andrew, and it happening, that Thomas first 
dies leaving a sonne, and then John dies unmarried, or 
without issue, the goods of John at his death shall not 
fall to the sonne of Thomas his eldest brother, but to his 
brother Andrew yet living; and Andrew dying last, as 
well his owne as his brother Johns goods fall to his owne 
sonne: but if he have no sonne, then they fall to the 
sonne of Thomas. And againe putting the case, that 
Thomas and John are both dead, and each of them hath 
left a sonne or sonnes, if Andrew die without a sonne, the 
sonne of Thomas succeedes him, without any respect to 
the sonne of John. By the Civill law, the uncle of the 
deceased by the fathers side, is not onely excluded by the 
brother of the deceased, but also by the brothers children : 
but by the Law of Saxony, since the right of representa- 
tion simply hath no place, and these persons are in the 
same degree, namely, in the third degree, they are called 
together to the inheritance, yet the Scabines (or Judges) of 
Leipzig, have pr.onounced the contrary to this judgement 
of the Judges m the highest Court of the Duke of 
Saxony, rather following the Civill Law, which preferres 
the brothers sonne, before the uncle on the fathers 
side. By the Civill Law in the successions of 
Collaterals, the brothers of both sides are for a double 
bond preferred to the brothers by one parent only, so as 
the priviledge be not extended to things in Fee, but to 

[IH.iv.z 5. ] 




things in free-hold; because in Fees the bond on the 
mothers side is not regarded. By the Law of Saxon?" a 
brother on both sides excludes a brother by one parent, 
as nearer by one degree. 
By the Civill law Bastards are admitted to the inF.erit- 
ance of the mother, and the brother lawfully begotten is 
called to the inheritance of a dead bastard brother by the 
said mother, but by the Law of Saxony, as a bastard cannot 
bee admitted to inherit with one lawfully begotten, so he 
that is lawfully begotten, cannot succeede a bastard, that 
is not legitimated, and by the law of Saxony a mother 
having a bastard daughter, and dying without any other 
child, cannot leave her utensile goods to that daughter. 
Yet in all cases concerning bastards, the Judges leave the 
law of Saxony as unequall, and judge after the Civill 
so as in Saxony bastards both succeed, and are succeeded 
unto, and alwaies part of the goods is given, if not by 
law, yet by equitie, to maintaine the bastards, and the 
Interpreters will have the law of Saxony understood of 
those, that are borne in incest, who have not the benefit 
of legitimation. By the Civill law he that is borne 
in the seventh moneth after marriage, is reputed lawfully 
begotten: but by the law of Saxony, hee is reputed a 
bastard that is borne before the due time; yet because 
Phisitians agree, that the seventh moneth may be called 
due time, in custome and practise the law of Saxony 
agrees with the Civill law. 
By the Civill Law the Testament is broken by the birth 
of a Posthumus, (that is, a sonne borne after his fathers 
death), if it give no part to this child; so the birth be 
proved by two witnesses: but by the Law of Saxony 
foure men by hearesay, and two women by sight, must 
testifie the birth. In the Civill Law it is controverted how 
sonnes of brothers shall succeed the unkle by the fathers 
side ; and the greater part saith, that they succeed to the 
parts of the brothers: so as one child of a brother shall 
have as much as two or more children of another brother : 
but by the Law of Saxony when the inheritance fals to any 


that are not brothers and sisters, they succeed by pole, so 
as one brother having many children, each of them shall 
have equall part with the onely child of another brother; 
and if they be further off in degrees, those that are equall 
in degree, have equall portions. But both these Lawes 
are made to agree by a Statute of the Emperour Charles 
the fifth in the yeere i539, whereby it is determined that 
the sonnes of brothers shall not succeed to parts, but by 
pole, to the Unkle by the Fathers side; notwithstanding 
any Statute or custome to the contrary. 
By the Civill Law the division of Inheritance must be 
made by Lots, and if the parts be not so made equall, the 
Judge must determine it; but by the Law of Saxony, if 
there be onely two persons, the elder devideth, and the 
yonger chuseth, and if there be more persons, then accord- 
ing to the Civill Law, the inheritance is devided equally, 
and they cast lots for their parts. 
In this devision I have observed such equity among the 
Saxons, as if one sonne of a Citizen, have beene brought 
up in the University, or instructed in any Art or Science 
at the Fathers charge, some thing shall be taken from his 
part, and given to the other brothers wanting like educa- 
tion, or being tender in yeeres: And the Germans being 
lesse apt to disagreement, seldome goe to Law about 
inheritance, and if any difference happen, an Arbiter is 
appointed, and the Magistrate determines it with expedi- 
tion. By the Civill Law the Sonne of a banished man is 
deprived of his Fathers inheritance, but by the Law of 
Saxony he shall enjoy it. 
By the Civill Law the degrees of Consanguinity end 
in the tenth degree, excepting Barrons and noble persons, 
who dying without heires, the kinsmen succeede, though 
it be in the hundreth degree; and if all the Family of a 
King should die, and leave no man neerer then one of the 
old blood removed a thousand degrees, yet hee should 
succeed in the Kingdome. The degree of Consanguinity 
by the Law of Saxony, ends in the seventh degree, for that 
is the tenth by the Civill Law, the sonnes of two brothers 

I6O5-I 7. 

Division by 


Degrees of 

Restraint of 
him that is of 


being by the Law of Saxony in the first degree, who by the 
Civill Law, are in the fourth degree. By the Civill Law 
Cities howsoever priviledged, cannot possesse the vacant 
goods of men dying without heires, but they fall to the 
Emperour; but by the Law of Saxony Cities that have 
absolute power, confiscate these goods by custome, so as 
the goods of a stranger, or any dying without heires, are 
brought to the Judges of the place, who keepe them for 
one whole yeere : yea, they challenge unmoveable goods, 
but with prescription of yeeres: And these goods use 
to be converted to godly uses, and I have observed some 
to be deepely fined, for fraudulent detaining these goods. 
By the Civill Law he that is of age, so he be in his wits, 
and no prodigall person, may freely sell, give, or by any 
course alienate his goods: but by the Law of Saxony 
this power is restrained, for no man without the consent 
of the next heires can alienate unmoveable goods gotten 
by his Progenitors, (vulgarly called Stamgfitter), but onely 
for godly uses, or dowries given upon marriage, (for 
contracts of dowry are of force f'or use and property with- 
out consent of the heires, though made after the marriage, 
if the guilt be confirmed by the givers death) : but if any 
man will sell his Progenitors goods, first by the Civill Law 
he must offer them to be bought to the next heires, and 
they refusing to buy them, he may then freely sell them to 
any man, and if they were never offered to the heires, 
notwithstanding the possession is transferred, but the 
heires have an action for their interest. 
By the Civill Law, weakenesse (as of old age) doth not 
make the guilt of lesse force : but by the Law of Saxony, 
a man or woman sicke to death, cannot without the 
consent of the heires, give any goods above the value of 
five shillings, so as a certaine solemnity is required among 
the sicke, and also those that are healthfull, in the gift of 
any moveable or unmoveable goods: For among the 
sicke or healthfull, he that will give any goods, if he be 
of Knightly Order, hee must be of that strength, as armed 
with his Sword and Target, he can upon a stone or block 


an ell high mount his horse, and his servant is admitted 
also to hold his stirrop. If he be a Citizen, he must be 
able to walke in the way, to draw his Sword, and to stand 
upright before the Judge, while the gift is made: And a 
Clowne must be able to follow the Plow one morning. 
Lastly, a woman must be of that strength, as shee can goe 
to the Church of a certaine distance, and there stand so 
long till the guilt be made: but these things are under- 
stood of guifts. . among, the living, not of guift upon death. 
By the C1vdl Law grafts are of force, though made out of 
the place where the goods are seated: but by the Law of 
Saxony for unmoveable goods the guilt must bee made in 
the place, and before the Judge of the place, where the 
goods are seated, onely some cases excepted. 
By the Civill Law, the heire that makes no Inventory, 
is tied to the Creditors, above the goods of Inheritance; 
but by the Law of Saxony he is neither tied to make an 
Inventory, nor to pay further then the goods of the 
deceased extend. By the Civill Law, within ten dayes, 
and by the Law of Saxony, within thirty dayes after the 
death of him that dies, the heire may not be troubled by 
the creditors. An Imperiall Statute decrees, that he who 
makes a Testament, must be in his right mind, so as he 
speakes to the purpose, and must have witnesses, who 
have no profit by his Testament, and such as themselves 
have power to make a Testament. Hee that disinherites 
the next heire, is bound to give him a lawfull legacy 
according to his goods. By the Civill Law leprous 
persons and borne unperfect, are not excluded from inherit- 
ing: but by the Law of Saxony, the lame, dumbe, blind, 
leprous, and the like, are not capable of inheritance, or fee, 
yet if any man after his succession shall become leprous, 
he shall enioy the inheritance. 
By the Law of Saxony, Tutorage belongs onely to the 
Kinsmen, by the Fathers side, and not (as by the Civill 
Law) to all in the same degree, but ever to the next, and 
if many be in the same next degree, then to the eldest 
of them only, yet so as the danger of Tutorage belongs 


[III.iv.zt 7.] 



to all together. Thus Christian Duke of Saxony dying, 
the Duke of Winberg only, (not the Duke of Coburg in 
the same degree with him) was Tutor to his children, 
though the Electorship was taken from their Grandfather, 
and given to this Family with great and just envy by the 
Emperour Charles the fifth. In common judgement, 
especialy respecting such cases, the kinsmen on the 
mothers side seeme more fit to be Tutors, who have no 
profit, but rather losse by the death of the Pupill, whereas 
the kinsmen on the Fathers side are heires to him. Yet 
the common practise to the contrary, (as in this particular 
example) produceth no tragicall events among the 
Germans, being of a good and peaceable nature. By the 
Civill Law, a Pupill is said to be in minority till he be 
five and twenty yeeres old, and the tutorage ceaseth, and 
the Pupil is capable of investiture at ripe age, namely the 
Male at tbureteene, the female at twelve yeeres age: but 
by the law of Saxony the Pupill is said to be in minority 
till he be 2I yeers old, and the Male is capable to be 
invested in his fee when he is 13 yeers & six weeks old: 
for the Saxons make difference between these two things, 
Binnen Jahren unnd binnen Tagen, that is, under yeeres, 
and under dales: for the Pupill is held under yeers for 
inheritance til he be foureteen yeers old, and for Fees till 
he be thirteene yeeres and six weekes old : but he is held 
under daies or in minority, till he be twenty one yeeres 
old. The Imperial law of the golden Bulla notwithstand- 
ing, makes the Electors sonnes to be of ripe age, and free 
from Tutors at eighteene yeeres age. I have observed 
that Tutors in Saxony allow the Pupils five in the 
hundreth for all their money which they have in their 
hands. Females are under Tutors till they marrie, and 
they cannot marrie without their consent, but refusing to 
give consent, they are bound to yeeld a reason thereof 
before the Judges, lest they should fraudulently denie 
consent. By the Civill Law the Tutor is not bound to 
give account, till the Tutorage be ended, but the Adminis- 
trator may yeerely be called to account, and the eldest 


brother must give account to the younger, of the inherit- 
ance which bee administreth undevided : but by the Law 
of Saxony, if the Tutor be not heire to the Pupill, (as 
the Kinsman by the Fathers side, while the Mother lives, 
who excludes him from succession), he is tied yeerely to 
give account, but if he be heire to the Pupill, he is not 
bound to give account, which notwithstanding is restrained 
to Parents and Brothers, who for reverence of the blood, 
and naturall affection, are freed from suspition of fraud or 
fault, especially where the administration is of goods, 
which either they possesse with the Pupils undevided, or 
in which they have right of succession. Also by the Law 
of Saxony, the elder brother (when his brother hath no 
mother living) as heire to his brother, is not tied to give 
account to his brother, or to his joynt heire for the 
administration of a common and undevided Inheritance. 
In like sort by the Civill Law, the Tutor is bound to give 
sureties or sufficient caution, for preserving the Pupils 
goods; but by the Law of Saxony, (as formerly), if the 
Tutor bee heire to the Pupill, or joint heire with him in 
undevided Inheritance, bee is not tied thereunto. By the 
Civil Law whatsoever fals to the sonne in the power of the 
Father, of his mothers goods, either by Tes.tament of the 
Mother, or from her dying intestate, the Father shall have 
the use and full administration thereof for his life, and for 
the confidence and reverence of a Father, hee is not tied 
to give sureties or caution for using or restoring those 
goods to his sonne, as others having like use thereof are 
bound to doe, yet so as in regard of this use for life, the 
Father is bound according to his power to give a gift in 
marriage to his sonne leaving him: but the mother hath 
no right to the use of her sonnes goods. By the Law of 
Saxony, the use is so long granted to the Father, till his 
children depart from him: but the Lawyers so interpret 
this, if the Father be cause of the separation; for if the 
Sonne will depart of his owne motion, except he be out of 
minority, and will take upon him the care of a Family, 
the Father shall retaine the use, and is bound after to 


Jill.iv. z  8.] 


restore these goods, except they perish by misfortune 
without his fault. And the same Law, is for the Mother 
also, touching the goods of her Sonne, when the Father 
is dead: but the Law concerning the Father, must be 
understood of the unmoveable goods falling unto the Son 
from the Mother. 
By the Civill Law the Father and Mother, or others in 
the ascending line, succeed the Sonne or Daughter dying, 
in equall portions with the Brothers and Sisters: but by 
the Law of Saxony, the Parents of the Sonne dead, or if 
they be dead, the Grandfather and Grandmother, or any 
ascendants whatsoever, exclude brothers and sisters by 
both Parents, and collaterals whatsoever; and indeed by 
the Law the Father alone succeeds the dying Sonne or 
Daughter, excluding the Mother, excepting the utensile 
goods, in which the Mother is preferred : but by the late 
Statute of the Electors, this Law is changed, so as the 
Father and Mother succeed together: yet these things 
must be understood of the goods in freehold; for in Fees 
they of the ascendant line succeed not the descendants, but 
as every stranger may succeed, by contract expressed in the 
investiture. By the Civill Law the Father cannot make 
a gift to the Sonne being under his power: but by the 
Law of Saxony he may, yet the sonne receiving the gift, 
is bound to acknowledge it when his Father dies, and to 
abate so much of his portion in the division with his 
brothers, if it be of any value, and not given to supply 
his wants at that time: And by both Lawes the gift is 
good from the Father to the Sonne going to warfare. 
By the Civill Law the Wife in time of marriage, may 
have goods, in which the Husband hath no right, either 
to alienate or to administer them, as those goods which 
shee brings to her Husband above her dowry, and never 
gives them to him: but by the Law of Saxony the Man 
and Wife have all goods in common, so as all are said to 
be the Husbands, and the Wife can call nothing her owne, 
and the Husband hath the use of all without exception, 
even while they live together, for the burthens he beares 


yet he hath not the property of these goods, onely they 
both possesse them undevided so long as they live to- 
gether. The Husband at marriage takes his wife and all 
her goods into his tuition, but this tuition is onely under- 
stood for the use, which ends when the wife dies, but the 
wife hath not like use in her husbands goods: And the 
husband in administring the goods of his wife, must deale 
honestly, and neither sell nor ingage them, because he is 
onely her Tutor. By the Civill Law the wife hath power, 
without the presence or consent of her husband, to give 
or alienate her moveable or unmoveable goods, onely dur- 
ing the marriage shee cannot give away her dowry to the 
prejudice of her husband, without his consent ; but by the 
Law of Saxony, the wife cannot give her unmoveable 
goods, nor sell or alienate any goods without her 
husbands consent, because shee is under his power as 
her Tutor. Yea, the wife cannot give her goods to 
her husband, because hee being her Tutor, cannot bee 
actor to his owne profit: but if before the Magis- 
trate shee chuse another Tutor, by whose authority 
the gift is made, then it is of force. For in all 
cases in which a gift betweene man and wife is of force 
by the Civill Law, in the same cases at this day by custome 
it is of force among the Saxons, so as the former manner 
be observed: But all these things of the Wives gift to 
her Husband, and of alienating her goods by contract, 
(which shee cannot make without the consent of the 
Husband her Tutor), are not understood of the alienation 
by her last Will and Testament. For by the Law of 
Saxony it is controverted, whether the wife may give a 
gift to her husband at her death, without the authority of 
the foresaid Tutor chosen by her, and if it be given with- 
out the same, whether after the death of the wife, (accord- 
ing to the Civill Law) this gift be confirmed. And some 
interpreters say, that the same authority of a chosen 
Tutor, and the same solemnity is required, as in a gift 
betweene the living, others determine that the gift at death 
without a Tutor is of force, so it be made before the Judge, 


[III.iv.z 9. ] 


because it is not a simple giving, but participates some 
thing of the last Will and Testament, and for that cause 
five witnesses are required to it, or that it be registred; 
which done, the gift is of force, because favour is to be 
given to the last Testament, which must not be captious, 
but free. Also because he that is of ripe age, but in 
nfinority, though hee cannot give or contract without the 
authority of his Tutor, yet bee may give for death. And 
so it is concluded, that in doubtfull cases the gift must be 
favoured, that it may subsist, rather then be made voyd. 
Lastly, the Law of Saxony in this, consents with the Civill 
Law; that a wife may make a Will, and for death give 
her unmovable goods to any other but her husband, with- 
out the consent of the husband her Tutor. But by the 
Statute of the Elector, the gift of utensile goods made to 
the husband in prejudice of her next kinswoman, is of so 
little force, as with death it is not confirmed, except it be 
remuneratory. Yet among the living, this gift of stuffe 
(as some restraine it, so it be not to the husband) is of 
force, if it be made before a Notary, and with witnesses. 
By the Civill Law, the husband may not have the care of 
his wives goods, lest she upon affection shuld remit his ill 
administration, and so shuld be in danger to loose the 
goods of her dowry : but by the Law of Saxony, presently 
upon mariage, the husband is lawful Tutor to his wife. 
By the civil law the dowry of the wife given by her father, 
upon the death of the wife, returnes to the father, except 
it be covenanted to the contrary in the contract of the 
dowry : but by the law of Saxony, the husband upon his 
wives death, gaines all moveable goods, and so much of 
the dowry as was in ready mony, except it be expressely 
covenanted to the contrary in the contract of the dowry, 
and all the goods of the wife above that shee brought in 
dowry, fall to the husband, nothing excepted, but onely 
the utensile goods, yet this Law is not extended to the 
perpetuall and yeerely rents of the wife, which are reputed 
unmoveable goods. By the Civill Law, if either the man 
or the wife marry the second time, the party may in no 


case give more to the second husband or wife, then to the 
children of the first marriage, but among the Saxons this 
Law is abolished by contrary custome, so as not onely the 
Stepmothers use to have much more of the husbands 
goods, then the children of the first marriage, but on the 
other side also, the second husbands upon the death of 
the second wife, being to have all her moveable goods, 
excepting the utensiles, commonly gaine more then her 
children of her first marriage. 
By the Civill Law, a Widdow retaines the dwelling 
house, honour, and dignity of her Husband deceased, till 
shee marry to another, and by the Law of Saxony the 
dead Husband leaves his widdow the right of his Family 
and blood, and custome so interprets this Law, as all 
priviledges and dignities are thereby granted, as by the 
Civil law. Widows & Virgins by the Law of Saxony, if 
they be of such age as they have no Tutors, may give or 
alienate their goods, which a wife cannot do, being under 
the Tutorage of her husband: yet the interpreters 
restraine this to movable goods, being otherwise in un- 
movable goods, but by last wil & testament they may 
dispose of both. 
By the Civill Law, if there bee no Letters of Dowry or 
Jointure, the Husband dying, the Wife must have the 
fourth part of his goods: but in some parts of Saxony 
the custome is, that the Wife being a Widdow, shal have 
the third part of her Husbands goods, as it is in all 
Misen : but in other parts, as in Thuring, the Civill Law 
is observed, and shee hath.the fourth part, if the Husband 
leave but 3 or foure children, but if he have more, then 
the widdow hath onely an equall part with each of 
them : But in Misen the wife hath not the utensile goods, 
which use not to bee given to women having a third part. 
And moreover the widdow is tied not onely to leave her 
owne goods, but her part of goods gotten in marriage by 
her husband, and whatsoever her friends gave to her in 
the life of her husband, or shee any way gained, to their 
children at her death, whether shee gave them to her 
M. V 3 X 


[IlI. iv.zzo.] 


husband in time of his life, or no, for it is alwayes pre- 
sumed that shee got these things out of her husbands 
goods: And if in any place there be no custome to 
determine this, then the widow besides her fourth, or 
equall part, hath also the utensile goods. And in case the 
husband leave no children, then the widow hath her choise, 
whether shee will receive the third part, or renouncing the 
same, will retaine utensile goods, and all other her owne 
goods movable or unmovable, together with her dowry. 
But if the husband leave children, the widow hath not this 
choise, but must renounce all the rest, and sticke to her 
third part. And by custome of the Country, her dowry 
and gift for mariage is doubled; so as shee that brought 
one thousand guldens for her dowry, shall have two 
thousand guldens in the division of her husbands inherit- 
ance. And the right which married parties by statute 
have in one anothers goods, cannot be taken from them 
by last Will and Testament. Discoursing with men of 
experience, I heard that the widowes of Princes, whiles 
they remaine widowes, possesse all their husbands estate 
(excepting the Electorships, which the next kinsman by 
the Fathers side administers by his right, during the 
minority of the sonne) and injoy also the tutorage ottheir 
children: but if they marry againe, the country frees it 
selfe from them, with giving them a tun of gold for 
Dowry. And that the Daughters of Princes have Dowries 
from the subjects by subsidies collected, & use to sweare 
before the Chancellor, that their husbands being dead, or 
upon any accident whatsoever, they will not retourne to 
burthen the Country. That the Daughters of Gentlemen 
never marry to any of inferior degree then Gentlemen, 
(which is constantly kept by both sexes) and are commonly 
bestowed with a small Dowry: and since by the Law 
they cannot succeed in fees, have at the parents death only 
a part of their movable goods with the utensils proper to 
them: and one sister dying, her portion goes not to the 
brothers or their children: as also the married Sister 
dying, and leaving no Daughter, her portion goes not to 


her own sons, (except living & in health she bequeathed 
it to them in her Testament) but to the Neece on the 
Mothers side. Lastly, that in case the goods of a dead 
woman are neither given by her last Testament, nor any 
Kinswoman to her on the Mothers side can bee found, her 
goods goe not to her owne Sonnes or male-Kinsmen, but 
are confiscated to the Prince, or in free Cities to the 
It is said that the Roman Emperor Caracalla was wont 
to say, that only that Nation knew how to rule their wives, 
which added the feminine article to the Sunne, and the 
masculine to the Moone; as the Germans doe, saying; 
Die Sonn unnd der Mone. And no doubt the Germans 
are very churlish to their wives, and keep them servily at 
home: so as my selfe in Saxony have seene many wives 
of honest condition and good estate, to dresse meat in the 
kitchen, and scarce once in the weeke to eate with their 
husbands, but apart with the maides ; and after the meale, 
to come and take away their husbands table; and if they 
came to sit with him at table, yet to sit downe at the lower 
end, at least under all the men. My selfe have seene 
husbands of like quality to chide their wives bitterly, till 
they wept abundantly, and the same wives (of good ranke) 
very soone after to bring a chaire to the husband, and 
serve him with a trencher and other necessaries. The 
men being invited to friends houses, or any solemne feasts, 
never goe in company with their wives, who goe alone 
with their faces covered. It is no novelty for a husband 
to give a box on the eare to his wife. And they scoffe at 
the Law in Nurnberg, which fines the husband three or 
foure Dollers for striking his wife, as a most unjust Law. 
It is ridiculous to see the wives of German foote-soldiers 
going to the warre, laded with burthens like she-Asses, 
while the men carry not so much as their own clokes, 
but cast them also upon the womens shoulders. And I 
should hardly beleeve that the Germans can love their 
wives, since love is gained by lovelinesse, as the Poet 
saith : 



[III. iv.zs.] 


ut ameris amabilis esto. 
He that for love doth thirst, 
Let him be loving first. 
But they while they commaund all things imperiously, in 
the meane time neither for dulnes court them with any 
pleasant speech, nor in curtesie grace them in publike, so 
much as with a kisse. It is a common saying, 
Dotem accepi, Imperium vendidi. 
I tooke a Dowry with my Wife, 
And lost the freedome of my life. 
But howsoever the Germans have great Dowries in 
marriage, and their Wives have power to make a Testa- 
ment, for disposing their goods, with many like privi- 
ledges; and howsoever they be also provoked with these 
injuries, yet the men keep them within termes of duty. 
May not we then justly marvell, that Englishmen having 
great power over their Wives, so as they can neither give 
any thing in life, nor have power to make a will at death, 
nor can call any thing their owne, no not so much as 
their garters, yea, the Law (I must confesse too severely) 
permitting the Husband in some cases to beate his Wife, 
and yet the Husbands notwithstanding all their privi- 
ledges, using their Wives with all respect, and giving 
them the cheefe seates with all honours and preheminences, 
so as for the most part, they would carry burthens, goe 
on foote, fast, and suffer any thing, so their Wives might 
have ease, ride, feast, and suffer nothing, notwithstanding, 
no people in the World, (that ever I did see) beare more 
scornes, indignities, and injuries, from the pampered sort 
of Women, then they doe. Surely either these our 
Women want the modesty of the Wives, or else our Men 
have not, I will not say the severity, (which I lesse 
approve), but rather the gravity and constancy of the 
Husbands in Germany. 
But while the Germans thus use their Wives like 
Servants, they behave themselves as Companions towards 


Jill.iv. zzz.] 


and never to ride without forty or fifty Horse to attend 
him : But I cannot sufficiently marvell, that the Gentlemen, 
howsoever sometimes learned, yet proudly despise Gradu- 
ates of the University, no lesse or more then Merchants, 
which I found, not onely by common practice, but also by 
my private experience : For conversing with a Gentleman, 
hee perceiving that I spake Latin better then hee thought 
became a Gentleman, asked mee how long I did study in 
the University; and when I said that I was Master of 
Arts, (which degree our best Gentlemen disdaine not), I 
found that hee did after esteeme mee as a Pedant, where- 
upon finding by discourse with others, that Gentlemen 
dispise these degrees, I forbore after to make this my 
degree knowne to any: And it seemed more strange to 
me, that Gentlemen first rising by learning, warfare, and 
trafficke, they onely judge warfare worthy to raise and 
continue Gentlemen : but indeed the trafficke of Germany 
is poore, being cheefly of things wrought by manuall 
Artists, which they have some pretence to disdaine, 
whereas in Italy trafficke is the sinew of the Common- 
wealth, which the most noble disdaine not: And it were 
to be wished, that in England (where trafficke is no lesse 
noble) the practice thereof were no staine to Gentry. 
When I told an English Gentleman the pride of the 
Gentlemen in Germany, despising degrees of Learning, 
and he heard that the Gentlemen were vulgarly called 
Edelmen, he pleasantly said, that they were so called of the 
English words, Idle Men. The Gentlemen of Germany 
beare the Armes of their Mother, though shee be no 
Heire, as well as of their Father, and commonly they joine 
to them, in steede of a mot or sentence, certaine great 
letters, that signifie words, as D.H.I.M.T. signifying 
Der herr Ist Mein Trost, that is ; The Lord is my comfort, 
and likewise F.S.V. signifying Fide sed vide, that is, 
Trust, but beware. Also Citizens and Artists, beare 
Armes of their owne invention, and tricked out fully as 
the Armes of Gentlemen, onely the helmet is close, which 
Gentlemen beare open. 


Among the generall Orders of Knights, into which 
Gentlemen of all nations are admitted, the Templaries in 
the yeere x x 24, were confirmed by Pope Honorius, being 
so called of the Temple at Jerusalem, in part whereof 
they dwelt. Histories report that Pope Gregory the 
ninth incited them to doe great domage by their treachery 
to the Emperour Fredericke, making the holy warre in 
Asia. At last the inducing of heathenish Religion, all 
kinds of lust and intemperance, and the suspition of their 
conspiring with the Turkes, or the feare of their too great 
power, made Pope Clement the fifth, a Frenchman, and 
residing at Avignon, first to extinguish the Order in 
France, then in all Christendome, in the yeere x 3  2 ; The 
second Order of the Johanites (or Saint John), was insti- 
tuted by Balduine the second King of Jerusalem. Then 
in the yeere 3o8, they tooke the Ile of Rhodes, and were 
called the Knights of Rhodes, till they were expelled 
thence by the Turkes, in the yeere 522, and then 
possessing the Iland of Malta, they are to this day called 
the Knights of Malta : And great part of the Templaries 
rents, was given to this Order, into which of old none 
but Gentlemen were admitted. The third Order of the 
Teutonikes, that is, Germans, was instituted in the yeere 
9 o, in the time of the Emperour Henry the sixth. 
They were called Hospitals of the Hospitall which they 
kept neere the Sepulcher of Christ, to entertaine 
Pilgrimes: At last all Christians being driven out of 
Palestine, they removed their seate to Venice, whence 
being called by the Duke of Moscovy against the 
Prussians, they seated themselves in Prussia, Livonia, and 
Curlandia. They were all borne of noble Parents, and 
did weare a white cloake, with a black crosse. The 
Polonians in the yeere 4o, killed the Master of the 
Order, and many thousands of the Knights. When 
many Cities under the protection of the King of Poland, 
sought their liberty in the yeere 45 o, and this Order had 
wonne a battell against the King, at last because the 
Citizens refused to pay the Souldiers, the Knights them- 

The generall 
Orders of 

The Order 
the German 

Upon the 
dissoIution of 
this Order, 
the Duke of 
Prussia vat 

[[II.iv. zz3.] 


selves betraied their Cities to the Polonians, and after 
much blood shed on both parts, at last in the yeere 466, 
peace was made, with covenants, that the King of Poland 
should have Pomerella with other Castles and Townes, 
and that the Order should retaine Kingspurg. 
And finally in the yeere 547, this Order was totally 
extinguished, the Master thereof being (as they said) 
forced to these conditions, namely that Albert Marquesse 
of Brandeburg, (being of the Electors Family) then 
Master of the Order, should become vassall to the King of 
Poland, and should possesse Konigspurg with title of a 
Duke, to him and his brethren of the same venter, and 
their Heires Males for ever: (In which Dukedome were 
fifty route Castles and eighty sixe Townes). Moreover 
that the said Duke should take new Armes, and a Dukall 
habit, and when hee came to doe his homage at Crakaw 
in Poland, should have his seate by the Kings side, but 
that upon Male Heires failing, the Dukedome should fall 
to the Kingdome of Poland, which was to provide for the 
Daughter and Heire according to her degree, and to 
appoint no other Governour of the Province, then a 
German having inheritance in Prussia. In the time of 
my being at Dantzke, it was said, that Duke Albert was 
growne into a Frensie, by a poysoned cup given him, at 
his marriage with the Daughter of the Duke of Cleve: 
and the common speech was, that the eldest sonne to the 
Elector of Brandeburg was daily expected in the Dukes 
Court, to marry the Daughter and Heire to the sickely 
Duke, to whom himselfe was next of kinne by the Fathers 
side, and Heire. And it was a common speech, that the 
said sickely 'Duke had lately lent forty thousand Guldens 
to the King of Poland, and that the Elector of Brande- 
burg had offered seven Tunnes of gold to the King of 
Poland, that his Grandchild might succeed in the Duke- 
dome of Prussia, but that it was flatly refused by the 
Senate of Poland: so as it was diversly thought, accord- 
ing to mens divers judgements, what would become of the 
Dukedome after the said sickly Dukes death, some judg- 


ing that the King of Poland would keepe the Dukedome 
falling to him, others that the powerfull Family of Brande- 
burg, would extort the possession thereof, by force of 
money, or of armes. 
I omit the military Orders of Knights in England, 
France, and Netherland, to be mentioned in their due 
Among the Germans I could not observe any ordinary 
degree of Knights, conferred in honour upon such as 
deserve well in civill and warlike affaires, such as the 
Kings of England give to their Subjects, with the title 
of Sir to distinguish them from inferiour Gentlemen: 
But in our age we have seene Master Arundell an English 
Gentleman, created Earle of the Empire for his acceptable 
services to the Emperour. Christian Elector of Saxony 
deceased, did institute a military Order of Knights, like 
to the Teutonike Order, save that it is no Religious 
Order; and he called it, Die gulden geselschaft, that is, 
the Golden Fellowship, by which bond hee tied his neerest 
friends to him : And the badge of the Order, was a Jewell, 
hanging in a chaine of gold, having on each side of the 
Jewell engraven a Heart pierced with a Sword and a Shaft, 
and upon one side neere the Heart, was the Image of 
Faith holding a Crucifix, with these words graven about 
the Heart; Virtutis amore, that is, for love of Vertue, 
upon the other side neere the Heart was the Image of 
Constancie holding an Anker, with these words graven 
about the Heart, Q.qi per sever at adfinem, salvus erit, 
that is: He that perseveres to the end shall be saved. 
Lastly, about the circle of the Jewell, these great letters 
were engraven: F.S.V. : that is, Fide, sed vide, namely 
in English, Trust, but beware. 
The Provinces of the reformed Religion, have no 
Bishops, but the revenues of the Bishoprickes are either 
converted to godly uses, or possessed by the Princes, 
under the title of Administrators: And in like manner 
the revenues of Monasteries for the most part are 
emploied to maintaine Preachers, and to other godly uses ; 

The ordinary 
degree of 
Knighthood in 



[IIl. iv. 224. ] 


but in some places they still permit Monkes and Nunnes, 
(I meane persons living single, but not tied with Papisti- 
call vowes), for the education of their children, and the 
nourishing of the poore. In each City, and each Church 
of the City, many Ministers or Preachers serve, who have 
no tythes, but onely live upon Pensions, commonly small, 
and not much unequall: For Ministers commonly have 
one or two hundreth Guldens, and the Superintendants 
one or two thousand Guldens by the yeere, besides wood 
for tier, and Corne, and some like necessaries for food. 
These Superintendants are instead of Bishops, to oversee 
the Cleargy, but are not distinguished in habite or title 
of dignity from the other Ministers: yet to them as 
cheefe in vertue and learning, as well the Ministers as all 
other degrees yeeld due reverence, and in all Ecclesiasticall 
causes they have great authority : But otherwise Germany 
hath many rich and potent Bishops, of whom generall 
mention is made in the Chapter of Proverbs, and par- 
ticularly in this Chapter, much hath beene said of the 
three spirituall Electors. 
The Husbandmen in Germany are not so base as the 
French and Italians, or the slaves of other Kingdomes, 
but much more miserable and poore then the English 
Husbandmen: yet those of Prussia, a fat and fertile 
Country, come neerest to the English in riches and good 
fare. The other being hired by Gentlemen to plough 
their grounds, give their services at low rates, and pay so 
great rent, to their Lords, as they have scarcely meanes 
to cover nakednes with poore clothes, and to feed them- 
selves with ill smelling coleworts and like meate. In 
Moravia incorporated to Bohemia, and lying betweene it 
and Polonia, the husbandmen are meere slaves. And at 
my being there I heard that the Barron of Promnetz 
having been lately in Italy, did make free a slave of his, 
who was there a Potecary, and gave him a present. Also 
I understood by discourse, that the Marquesse of Anspach 
in Germany, hath many meere slaves for his husbandmen. 
But all other in Germany are free, howsoever without 


doubt they be greatly oppressed not only by the Gentry, 
but also by the Churchmen, so as wee find in late histories, 
that the Bawren (or clownes) in the yeare 5cz made a 
rebellion, perhaps with the mind after the example of the 
Sweitzers to get liberty by the sword, but yet pretending 
only revenge upon Bishops and Churchmen, proverbially 
saying that they would not suffer them to draw breath. 
And it is probable that the neibourhood of the Sweitzers, 
who rooted out their Noblemen, & got liberty by the 
sword, makes the Gentlemen of Germany lesse cruell 
towards the poore clownes. For either upon that cause, 
or for the fertility of the Country, no doubt the clownes 
in Suevia and places neare Sweitzerland, live much better 
then in any other parts; as likewise in places neere Den- 
marke and Poland, admittin slaves generally, the poore 
people are more oppressed men any where else through 
In Bohemia the highest degree is that of Barons, and 
the Gentlemen have the same priviledges with them; all 
other in townes and fields are meere slaves, excepting 
Cities immediatly subject to the Emperor as King of 
Bohemia, where many are either emancipated for mony, or 
find more clemency under the yoke of a German Prince. 
For in lands belonging to the Barons and Gentlemen, the 
King hath no tribute, but all is subject to the Lord, with 
absolute power of life and death; as likewise the King 
hath his lands, and some thirty Cities in like sort subject 
to him. And howsoever the Gentlemen doe not com- 
monly exercise this power against the people, lest the 
Germans should repute them tyrants, yet with wonder I 
did heare at Prage; that a Baron had lately hanged one 
of his slaves, for stealing of a fish. It is free for a Gentle- 
man to hang any of his slaves for going into strange 
Countries without being made free, if-he can apprehend 
him. Many times they give them leave to goe into 
forraigne parts, to learne manuary arts, but they call them 
home at pleasure, and when they come back, make them 
worke for the Lords behoofe. They take their Daughters 

The degrees in 


[III. iv.22.] 


for mayd servants, and Sonnes for houshold servants at 
pleasure. And these poore slaves can leave their children 
nothing by last Will and Testament, but all their goods, 
in life and at death, belong to the Lords; and they will 
find them, be they never so secretly hidden. In the 
Province of Moravia, incorporated to Bohemia, I have 
formerly said that the Gentlemen have like priviledges, and 
absolute power over their subjects, being all born slaves. 
And in Germany that the Marquis of Anspach hath like 
born slaves. And I shal in due place shew, that in Den- 
mark and Poland, the people are meere slaves, so as the 
Gentlemen and Lords recken not their estates by yearly 
rents, but by the number of their Bawren (or clownes) 
who are all slaves. In Bohemia the goods of condemned 
persons fall to the Lord of the fee. Among the Barons, 
the Baron of Rosenburg was cheefe, who for life was 
chosen Viceroy, and dwelt upon the confines of Austria, 
being said to have the yearly rents of eighty thousand 
Dollers ; but in respect he had no Sonne to succeede him, 
he was lesse esteemed, especially himselfe being decrepite, 
.and his brother also old and without probable hope of 
issue. The second family of the Barons, was that of the 
Popels, having many branches, and plenty of heires. One 
of them was at that time in great grace with the Emperor 
Rodulphus ; And the whole family for the issue was much 
estemed of the people and States of the Kingdome. In 
Bohemia (as in Pola.nd) Gentlemen cannot be judged, but 
at fower meetings in the yeare, and then are tried by 
Gentlemen ; so as the accusers being wearied with dehies, 
the offenders are commonly freed, but men of inferior 
condition, are daily judged and suddenly tried. The 
Bohemians give greater titles to Gentlemen by writing 
and in saluting, then the Germans, where notwithstanding 
(as appeares in the due place) there is great and undecent 
flattery by words among all degrees. I did not observe 
or reade that the Bohemians, have any military or civill 
order or degree of Knightes, as the English have. The 
Hussites having changed nothing in religion, save onely 


the communicating of the Lords Supper in both kinds, 
with some other small matters, yet I did not heare that 
they have any Bishops, and I am sure that the Bishopricke 
of Prage had then been long void. They and all of the 
reformed Religion in Bohemia, send their Ministers to 
Wittenberg an University in Saxony for receiving of 
Orders with imposition of hands, from the Lutheran 
Superintendant and the Ministers of that place. 

Chap. IIII. 
Of the particular Common-wealths, as well of the 
Princes of Germany, as of the Free Cities, such 
of both, as have absolute power of life and 
'T remaineth to adde something of privat 
Princes Courts, and the Governement of 
the free Cities. And since I have formerly 
said, that these Princes and Cities, having 
absolute power of life and death, are 
many in number, and that according to 
the number of the Princes, the places also 
where taxes and impositions are exacted, are no lesse 
frequent, as well for subjects as strangers passing by, both 
for persons and for wares. And that they who deceive the 
Prince in any such kind, never escape unpunished. Now 
to avoid tediousnesse, I will onely mention the chiefe 
Princes and Cities, by which, conjecture may be made 
of the rest; and this I will doe briefely, without any 
repetition of things formerly set downe. Touching the 
Electors, I have formerly related the principall lawes of 
the golden Bulla. The Duke of Saxony is one of these 
Electors, many waies powerfull, and he derives his 
pedegree from Witikind, a famous Duke of the Germans, 
in the time of the Emperour Charles the Great, who forced 
him to lay aside the name of King, permitting him the 
title of a Duke, and to become Christian in the yeere 805. 

The Prince of 
the Ernpire 
and Jree 

The Duke of 

6o5-I 7. 






George of Leipzig, called 
the Popish, was Duke of 
Saxonie, and died in the 
yeare *539. 

Henrie, Duke of Saxonie,.__. 
made Governour of Fries- 
land by his father, was 
there in danger to be put 
to death, had not his father 
come to deliver him; he 
died in the yeere I54- 


The first Elector 
of this branch. 

Mauritius made 
Elector by the 
Emperor Charles 
the 5, was borne 
I52I , died I553. 

Augustus Elec- 
tor marled Anne 
daughter to the K.-- 
of Denmarke, and 
died 1586. 

The Elector Frederike 
the %Vise, who put the 
Empire from himself, & 
chose Charles the fifth. Hee 
did found the Universitie at 
W ittenberg, and died 1525. 
John Elector exhibited / 
the reformed Confession at --- 
Augsburg, and died 1533. 


The last Elector 
of this branch. 


Eight Boyes and 
:hree Girles died. 

Christian the 
.lector married the 
daughter to the 
Elector of Brande- 
burg and died 1591. 

Elizabeth married 
to Casimire Ad- 
aainistrator to the 
Electorship of the 

Three young daughters. 
Christian the second Elec- 
tor, but then a Pupill borne 
I583, the five and twentieth 
of September, at three of the 
i clocke in the morning. 

John George, borne 585, 
the fifth of March, at ten of 
'the clock in the night. 

, Dorothy, married 
'to the Duke of 
Brunswick ; and 
Anne to John 
Casimire Duke of 

John Frederike 
proscribed by the 
Empire, and prose- 
cuted by Augustus 
Elector of Saxonie 
in the Emperours-- 
name, was taken 
prisoner by him at 
thetaking and razing 
of Gotha. 
John William I-- 
served the King of I 
France in those---' 
Civill warres, and 
died 573. 

Augustus borne the seventh 
.of September, 1589. 

I605-I 7. 

f John Casimire borne of his) 
! fathers second wife Elizabeth,/ 
daughter of Fredenke Elector] 
Palatine. He was borne I564,1 
and married Anna, daughter to' 
Augustus Elector of Saxonie. 

John Ernest, then un- 
married, borne in the yeere 

Will. Frederik borne of 
nother daughter to l'rederike 
Elector Palatine I562 he 
buried the daughter to the 
Duke of Wittenberg, and 
married the daughter of Philip 
Lodowick Prince Palatine 
I59. He was Tutor to the 
sonnes of Christian Elector, 
preferred to the Duke of Co- 
burg, because his father was 
proscribed, and never restored. 

John borne 57o then un-- 

. v 337 v 

[III. iv. tS.] 


The Princes borne of these three Families, are Dukes 
of upper Saxony (for there bee also poore Dukes of lower 
Saxonie, as one residing at Angria). While I lived at 
Leipzig, Christian the Elector of Saxonie died 
whose Uncle by the Fathers side Mauritius, was the first 
Elector of that Family. For the Emperour Charles the 
fifth making warre against John Frederike then Duke and 
Elector of Saxonie, and against the Langrave of Hessen, 
as Rebels to the Empire; but indeede with purpose to 
suppresse these chiefe defenders of the Reformed Religion, 
and to bring the free Empire of Germany under the 
Spanish yoke, he cunningly warned Mauritius, as next 
heire, to sease the lands of John Frederike, or otherwise 
they should fall to him that tooke possession of them. 
Whereupon Mauritius, though he professed the Reformed 
Religion, which now had great need of his helpe, yet 
invaded his kinsmans lands, under a faire pretext, that he 
tooke them, least the Emperour should alienate them to 
strangers, professing that he would restore them to his 
kinseman, when he should be reconciled to the Emperour. 
But such is the power of ambition, as in the end he did 
nothing lesse, but further received the title of Elector, 
taken from John Frederike and his children, and conferred 
upon him and his heires males, by the Emperour. The 
report was, that Luther seeing Mauritius brought up in 
the Court of the Elector John Frederike, foretold the 
Elector that he should one day confesse, hee had nourished 
a Serpent in his bosome. True it is, that Mauritius 
shortly after restored the cause of Religion, in like sort 
deceiving the Emperours hope, by making a league with 
the King of France. But ever since, the posteritie of 
Mauritius hath been jealous of the heires to John 
Frederike, and hath gladly taken all occasions to suppresse 
them. Whereupon Augustus succeeding his brother 
Mauritius, was easily induced, by vertue of" his OfFice, as 
Arch Marshall of the Empire, to prosecute with fire and 
sword John Frederike, the eldest sonne of the said John 
Frederike, whom the Empire had proscribed. At which 

[lll.iv.zzg. ] 


to hunting, to be prone to anger, not to be sollicited by 
petition, but at some fit times; to affect solitarinesse, and 
little to be seene of the people, hardly to admit strangers 
to his presence at any time, much lesse when he sat at 
the table to eate, (contrary to the use of the Princes of the 
house of Austria), to have skill in the Art of Gold- 
Smithes, and to spare no charge in keeping brave Horses. 
And no doubt hee was so carried away with this last 
delight, as he would take in gift from his very enemies, 
any beautifull thing belonging to the Stable. And while 
I was at Wittenberg, a Scholer having spoken some words, 
that he loved Horses better then Scholers, was sent to 
Dresden, and there whipped about the streetes. Beyond 
measure he was given to large drinking, (in plaine termes 
to drunkennesse), and that of the most strong Wines, so 
as this intemperance was thought the cause of his untimely 
death. And for these drinking games, he had certaine 
faire chambers over his Stable, something distant from his 
lodgings of his Court, which were appropriated to festivall 
solaces. As soone as he was made Elector, he presently 
ordained the new Judges for the Saxon Law, vulgarly 
called Schoppenstuel, and the Consistories. In the yeere 
i586 hee had a meeting at Lubeck, with the King of 
Denmarke, and the Elector of Brandeburg. In the yeere 
i589, at Naumberg he renewed the hereditarie league, 
betweene his Familie, and the neighbour Princes, namely, 
the Elector of Brandeburg, his eldest sonne Joachim 
Frederike, then called the Administrator of Hall, the three 
brothers a William, Lodwike, and George, Langraves of 
Hessen, Frederike William Duke of Saxony, (for one man 
hath often times two names in Baptisme), John Duke of 
Saxony, (for the title is common to younger brothers and 
houses of one Family with the elder), John Casimire 
(Tutor to his Nephew the Elector Palatine), John Ernest 
Duke of Saxony, Christian Prince of Anhalt, Wolfing 
and Phillip Dukes of Grubenhagen. And to knit his 
friends love more firmely to him, I have said that he did 
institute an Order of Knighthood, called the Golden 


Fellowship. He had for his Counsell, his Officers of 
Court, and some Doctors of the Civill Law, and among 
them, Crellius Doctor of the Civill Law, and the Master of 
his Game or hunting (whose name I have forgotten), were 
in speciall grace with him; for the Princes of Germany 
admit no Phisitions nor Divines to their Counsel_l, as 
having care of the body and soule, not of the worldly 
estate. Neither doth any young Princes keep their 
Fathers Counsellors, but such as served them in their 
Fathers life time. Mysen, Voitland, and part of Thuring, 
Provinces subject to the Elector, have firtill fieldes, 
fi'equent Cities, many Castles proper to the Elector, 
innumerable Villages, and neare Friburg rich Mines of 
Silver, (as I have shewed in the first volume or part, where 
I treate of my journey through these parts). But howso- 
ever these Provinces excell in these things; yet because 
they are of no great circuit, the Elector is not so power- 
full in the number of vassals, as in yeerely revenewes. 
So as at a publike meeting, he had no more then some two 
thousand vassalls, when the Elector of Brandeburg had 
eight thousand, who notwithstanding is farre inferiour to 
him in treasure and warlike power. He then fortified the 
City of Dresden, as a Fort, and so strongly, as it was 
thought impregnable by force, and all the Citizens were 
bound to have Corne and all necessaries for the food of 
their families, for sixe moneths alwaies laid up in store. 
And in time of that secure peace, yet the walles were 
furnished with Artillery, as if an Army had line before the 
Citie. And in times of Divine service, the streetes were 
chained, and guards of souldiers were set in the Market 
place, and other parts of the City, so as nothing could bee 
added in time of the greatest warre. The Elector had in 
the Citie three hundreth Garrison souldiers, whereof those 
that were Citizens had three Guldens, and the old 
souldiers sixe Guldens by the moneth. The Captaine had 
the pay for eight and the Lieutenant for two horses, each 
horse at twelve Guldens by the moneth. The Ensigne 
had sixteene Guldens by the moneth, foure Corporals or 


1605-I 7. 

The Dnke 

[Ill.iv. 230. ] 


Campe-Masters had each ten Guldens, the Scout-Master 
ten Guldens, and the quarter-Master eight Guldens. He 
gave honourable stipends to foure great Captaines, who 
lived at home, but were bound to serve him when he 
should cal them. His Court was no lesse magnificall, 
wherein he had three Dukes for his Pensioners, namely 
Christian Prince of Anhah, John D. of Winbrooke (both 
yonger brothers), and the Duke of Desh, whose Duke- 
dome lies upon the confines of Hungary. And to each of 
these he gave the pay of twenty Horse, each Horse at 
twelve Guldens the moneth. He had also in his Court 
three Earles, Bastian Stick a Bohemian, Phillip Count of 
Hollock, and one of the Counts of Mansfield, and to 
each of them hee gave the like pay for twelve Horses. 
He had also in his Court five Barrons, namely, two 
Cousens Barrons of Zantzke in Bohemia, the Barron of 
Ausse, the Barron of Shinck, and the Barron of Done, 
and to the fower first he gave like pay for ten, and to 
the last for twelve Horses. He had in his Court twenty 
young Gentlemen, who carried his Launce and Helmet, 
vulgarly called Spissyongen (Youths of the Speare), to 
whom he gave yeerely coates of Velvet, and all necessaries, 
and to each of them he gave a chaine of gold to weare. 
Hee had twelve Gentlemen of his chamber, and to each 
of them he gave a chaine of gold, his diet in Court, and 
like pay for ten horses. He had sixteene youths of his 
Chamber, and to sixe of the eldest (yet not bearing Armes) 
he gave each like pay for two Horses, and the other ten 
he maintained with all necessaries. He had fiftie Pen- 
sioners to waite at his table, vulgarly called Druckses, and 
these did ride before him, and to each of them he gave 
his diet in the Court, and like pay for three horses. He 
had twelve Sexhsruss, and to each of them he gave like 
pay for sixe horses. He had fifty Audlepursen, so called 
of a short piece they carried (in English we call them 
Calbiners), and to each of them he gave the pay of one 
Horse, apparrell twice in the yeere, and two hundred 
Guldens yeerely stipend. These (as all other degrees) had 


their Captaines and Liefetenants, and each third night by 
turnes, they did watch at the doore of the Electors 
Chamber, having no diet in Court, but onely the night of 
their watch, both living otherwise, and lying in the City. 
He had fifty Einspauners with a Captaine and Liefetenant, 
who did ride as Scouts farre before the Elector, and looked 
to the safety of the wayes, each of which had pay for one 
Horse. He had sixteene Trumpeters, whereof three did 
ride alwaies with the Elector, and two Drummes beating 
a Drumme of brasse, vulgarly called, Kettell Drummern, 
and each riding, had sixteene Guldens by the moneth, out 
of which they kept each Man his Horse, and each staying 
at home, had ten Guldens monethly stipend, and all of 
them at solemne Feasts were apparrelled by the Elector. 
Hee had of his Guard one hundred, (vulgarly called 
Trabantoes), whereof the Gentlemen had eight, the rest 
sixe guldens mon.ethly; and the Gentlemen kept watch 
at the doore of the Electors Chamber, carrying Holbeards, 
and the rest kept watch at the gates of the Court, armed 
with Muskets, and yeerely they were apparrelled. He 
had three Chaplaines, whereof one was alwaies to be at the 
side of the Elector. He had sixteene Singingmen, 
whereof ten being Men, had each of them 400 Dollers 
stip.end, & six being boyes, had some oo dollers for 
maintenance. He had x8 Musicians of divers Nations, 
whereof each had some x4o dollers yeerely stipend. He 
had two Tumblers or Vaulters, one an English man, the 
other an Italian, with the like, or somewhat greater 
stipend. He had eight French and two Dutch Lacqueis, 
to runne by his stirrop, or the side of his Coach, whereof 
each had some oo Dollers stipend, & apparrell, besides 
extraordinary gifts. 
The Dukes Stable may not be omitted, being more 
magnificall, then any I did ever see in the World, (whereof 
! have at large spoken in the first Part, writing of my 
journey through Dresden): for therein I did see one 
hundred thirty sixe forraigne Horses of the bravest races, 
(besides two hundred Horses kept in other Stables for 


I605-I 7. 

The Dukes 

16o5-I 7. 

The Duket 


drawing of Coaches and like uses); and in this cheefe 
Stable a boy and a man were kept to attend each horse, 
the men having for diet thirty grosh weekely, the boyes 
twenty foure grosh, (that is, a Doller), and the men for 
yeerely wages had also sixteen dollers, besides apparrell 
twice in the yeere, and boots both to Men and Boyes. It 
cannot bee expressed, at least this is not the fit place to 
write, how sumptuously and curiously all things were 
prepared for the Horses and their Keepers. A Gentle- 
man of speciall account was overseer of this Stable, and 
had a great stipend for his care thereof. He had eight 
Leibknechlen, (that is, Servants for the body), who did 
leade the Horses for the Electors saddle, whereof each 
had the monethly pay for two Horses, and three hundred 
Guldens yeerely stipend. He had foure Riders, whereof 
each had two hundred Dollers yeerely stipend, and appar- 
rell. One chiefe and two inferiour Horse-leeches and 
Smiths, foure Armourers (to pollish the Armes for Tilt- 
ing), three Sadlers, two Cutlers (to pollish the Swords), 
two Feathermakers, and two Porters of the Stable, had 
each of them one hundred Guldens yeerely stipend, and 
apparell twice in the yeere. 
Besides, the Elector Christian had a Kingly Armoury, 
or Arsonall for Artillery and Munitions of warre, which 
they said had furniture for an Army of eighty thousand 
Men, overseene by a Captaine or Master of the Ordin- 
ance, his Liefetenant, and three Captaines of the watch, 
who had no small stipends; besides fifty Gunners, who 
had each of them sixe guldens by the moneth, with yeerely 
apparrell: But when I was at Dresden, this Armory was 
much unfurnished by aides newly sent into France to King 
Henry the fourth, at the instance of his Ambassadour the 
Earle of Turine. These aides, though sent with the 
consent of the foresaid Princes confederate, yet were 
levied as at the charge of the King of France, and as 
voluntary men, because the Princes are bound upon paine 
to leese their fees, and by the covenants of the peace given 
to the confession of Augsburg, not to undertake any warre 


without the Emperours knowledge, which bonds are often 
broken, the Princes of Germany administring all as 
absolute Princes, onely with consent of their confederates : 
But I passe over this, and returne to the matter in hand. 
The foresaid so many and so great stipends, were most 
readily paid without delay out of the Exchequer, called 
the Silver Chamber, monethly or yeerely, as they did 
grow due. And all the Pensioners aforesaid, did keepe 
the horses in the city, for which they had pay, to which 
if you adde the 3 6 horses of the chiefe stable, and the 
zoo kept by the D. in other stables, you shal find, that 
Dresden was never without a xooo horses of service, for 
any sudden event. And the number was not lesse of the 
horses which the Elector kept in his Castles not farre from 
the Citie; so as he had ever (as it were in a moment) 
ready zooo horses for all occasions. This Christian 
Elector of Saxony, was said to impose most heavy 
exactions upon his subjects (no lesse then the Italian 
Princes, who place all their confidence in their treasure, 
none at al in the love of their subjects, or then 
the Netherlanders, who for feare to become slaves to 
the Spaniard, beare untollerable exactions.) The Country 
people about Dresden cried, that they were no lesse 
oppressed then the Jewes in Egypt, being daily 
forced to labour at their owne charge in fortifying 
the City. And many complained, that the Red Deare, 
wilde Boares, and like beasts destroied their fields 
(for I said that the Duke was much delighted in hunting, 
which is also forbidden to all, even the best Gentlemen) 
no man daring so much as to drive the beasts out of their 
pasture and corne, he that sets a Dog on them, being 
subject to great penalty, and he that killes one of them, 
being guilty of death. But nothing did more cause the 
Duke to be maligned, then that he had left the positions 
of Luther an religion, and carefully endevoured to 
establish those of Calvin, as shal be shewed in due place. 
His subjects were wont to pay for severall goods, as a 
sheepe, a cow, and the like, a yeerely tribute ; but of late 

[III.iv. z3.] 



it had been decreed by the 3 States, that after the value 
of goods, each man for 6o grosh should pay two fennings 
yeerely, I meane as well moveable goods (namely, wares 
and ready money), as houses lands, and all unmoveable 
goods, and that not according to the yeerely value, but 
yeerely according to the value at which they were (or 
might be) bought or sold. Neither could any man 
dissemble his wealth, since that deceit will appeare at least 
upon the last Will and Testament, and once found useth 
to be punished with repairing the losse, and a great fine. 
This tribut was at first granted only for 6 yeres, but those 
ended, the terme was renewed, and so it continueth for 
ever. And this tribute alone was said to yeeld yeerely 
600000 guldens: but the chiefe revenue of the Elector 
was by the imposition upon Beare, which (as I have 
formerly said) that people drinkes in great excesse. And 
they said, that this tribute also at first was imposed only 
for certaine yeeres. But the Elector meaning nothing 
lesse then to ease them of this burthen, of late there had 
bin a paper set by some merry lad upon the Court gates, 
containing these words in the Dutch tongue : Ich wound- 
schihm fang leben; und kein gutten tag darneben: und 
darnoch den hellisch fewr: der hatt auffgehebt dab bear 
stewer." Undergeschreiben. Das wort Gottes und das 
berestewer, wheren in ewigkeit. That is." 
I wish long life may him befall, 
And not one good day therewithall: 
And Hell-tier after his life here, 
Who first did raise this Taxe of Beare. 
Post-script. The Word of God, and the Tax of Beare 
last for ever and ever. 
The Brewers pay tribute according to the value of the 
brewing, not according to the gaine they make, namely, 
some eighth part for one kind of Beare, some fifth part 
for another kind in most places. At Wittenberg ! 
observed, that for one brewing of some 48 bushels o 
Mault, worth some 48 guldens, the Dukes Treasurer 


received 8 guldens. This Treasurer doth foure times 
yeerely view the brewing vessels, and number the Students 
of Wittenberg, to prevent any defrauding of Tribute. 
For howsoever in all these parts they drinke largely, yet 
at Wittenberg, in respect of the great number of Students, 
and at Leipzig, for the same cause, and in respect of a 
great Faire, this tribute growes to an higher rate, then in 
other cities; yet the Citie Torge, though lesse in circuit 
then these, only exceeds these and all other, in yeelding 
this tribute, because the beare therof is so famously good, 
as it is in great quantitie transported to other Cities of these 
Provinces, where the better sort most commonly drink 
it and no other; so as that Citie alone yeelds one yeere 
with another seventeene thousand gold Guldens for 
tribute of Beare. The same Citie makes yeerely seven 
thousand wollen clothes, each cloth thirty two elles long, 
and worth some fourteene Dollers ; yet for each cloth they 
pay onely one silver Grosh, whereby it appeares, that the 
tribute of cloth and like commodities, is lightly esteemed, 
as of lesse importance, then the transcendent traffique of 
Beare. Torge likewise yeerely paies to the Elector 5oo 
Dollers for the fishing of a Lake neare the City, which 
once in 3 yeeres was said to yeeld 5ooo Dollars to the 
City: One sole Province, yet much inhabited, and very 
fertill, namely Misen, was said one yeere with another to 
yeeld I8OOooo Dollers for all tributes, and halfe part 
thereof onely for Beare. The Mines of Silver are of 
great importance, which by the Law belong to the Electors 
in their Provinces, not to the Emperour. And this 
Elector hath many of these Mines---namely, those of 
Friburg, those of Scheneberg, those of Anneberg, and 
those of the valey of Joachim, of al which I have written 
at large in the Geographicall description. And no doubt 
this Elector is potent in treasure, so as howsoever he be 
inferiour in dignity to the Elector Palatine, yet he is most 
powerfull of all the Electors. 
Among the walled Cities subject to him (not to speake 
of the Townes, Castles, and pleasant Villages), Leipzig 

I6O5-I 7. 

[Ill. iv. z3z.] 


Emperour in the yeere x I8o. From his younger brother 
descend the Counts of Salmes now living. But from the 
said Otho the elder brother, are descended, both the 
Pahtines Electors, and the Dukes of Bavaria now living. 
Lodwicke Duke of Bavaria, who died in the yeere I23 I, 
received the Palatinate of the Rheine in fee from the 
Emperour Fredericke the second. Otho the fourth, 
succeeded him in the Dukedome of Bavaria, and the 
Palatinate of the Rheine, and was the first Elector of this 
Family, who died in the yeere i253. His sonne Lod- 
wicke the severe, Elector Pallatine and Duke of Bavaria, 
made Rodolphus of Habsburg Emperour, who was the 
first Emperour of the House of Austria. He married 
this Emperours Daughter, & died in the yeere I294, 
leaving two sonnes, who divided the inheritance, as 




Albert the 5, 
built 3 Colledges 
for the Jesuites. 
daughter to the 
Emperor Ferdin- 
land, and died in-- 
i the yeere 1579- 

William made 
warre against the 
Duke of Wirte- 
berg, and died in 
the yeere I577. 

Sibill married 
to Lodwick the 
fourth, Elector 
Palatine, died in 
the yeere 151 I. 

Sabina married 
to Ulrich Duke 
of Wirteberg, 
died in the yeere 

Sidonia married 
to Philibert Mar- 
quis of Baden. 


borne 1 54 8, 
married Rin- 
ata, Daughter 
to Francis 
Duke of Lor- 
ayne in the 
'yeere 1568. 

borne in the 
yeere I55o. 

Bishop of 
Liege, after--' 
Arch bishop 
and Elector of 
Colon, borne 
in the yere 

Maria Maxi- 
milian borne 

Maria borne 
I553, and ma- 
ried to Charles 
Arch-Duke of 
Austria, 1572. 

D. of Ba- 

Phillip Bi- 

a Preposi- 
and Charm- 
on of Trier. 

One Sis- 
ter, Maxi- 

The Elector 
Palatine of 
the Rheine. 


It was covenanted, and stands agreed betweene the 
House of the Electors Pallatines, and the house of the 
Dukes of Bavaria, that upon want of heires males, one of 
them should succeede the other; and when the Daughter 
to the Duke of Bavaria, in the time of the Emper0ur 
Maximilian, opposed her selfe to this contract, she was 
forced to yeeld to it by the Emperour. 
I returne to the Electors Palatines. The foresaid 
Frederick the fourth, Pallatine and Elector, being under 
age, had Duke John Casimire his fathers brother for his 
Tutor, who at his brothers death besieged the Citie of 
Colen, in the name of the Bishop, whom they had driven 
out for being married. This Casimire, in his brothers 
life-time had a noble inheritance beyond the Rheine, to 
him and his heires, and then hearing of his brothers death, 
hasted to Heidleberg, where he brought the people to 
obedience, who would not have him Administrator, 
because he professed the Reformed Religion after Calvins 
doctrine, not after that of Luther. And he presently sent 
backe the Emperours Ambassadours, who were come 
thither about that controversie, refusing to yeeld his right 
in the Tutorage of his Nephew, which he defended in the 
Imperiall Chamber at Spire. After he brought up his 
Nephew wisely and religiously, appointing him his diet 
alzart with his Teachers and the Steward of his Court, to 
whose table one Professour of the University was daily 
invited, who had charge to propound a question to 
the Prince, out of the Histories, and controversies 0f 
Religion. And the Prince did not presently make 
answere, except it were in a common subject, but asked 
time to consider of it, and consulting apart with his 
Teachers, after some halle houer returned to give his 
answere. Thus by daily practise the chiefe accidents 
of Histories, and controversies of Religion were made 
familiar to him. The Citie Heidelberg, somtimes held 
in Fee from the Bishop of Wormz, was in time beutified 
with buildings and an University, and became the seate 
of the Electors. The said Elector Frederike the fourth, 



being a pupill, was after the foresaid manner brought up 
in the Reformed religion, according to the doctrine of 
Calvine: but in the meane time Richard the Duke of 
Hunnesruck his next heire, if hee should die without 
issue male, did obstinately follow the reformed doctrine 
of Luther, and so did the rest of his kinsmen, the Dukes 
of Rweybruck (their towne being so called of the two 
Bridges) excepting the second brother of them, who con- 
sented in Religion with the Elector. This Elector 
Frederick the fourth, married the daughter to the Prince 
of Orange, by his wife of the French family de Chastillion. 
His Court was not great, nor any way comparable to that 
of the Elector of Saxony. For he had scarce thirtie 
Gentlemen to attend him, and to them he gave no more 
then some twenty five Guldens for stipend, which they 
spent upon their servants that attended them and kept 
their horses. And he had no more then eight Yeomen for 
the Guard of his body. Wine was sparingly drawne, and 
all expences made with great frugalitie. But the fame of 
this Electors wisedome and affabilitie, made him much 
esteemed of strangers, and while he conversed with his 
Citizens often comming to the publike place for exercise 
of the Peece and Crosse-bow, and being easie of accesse, 
yet carried himselfe like a grave and noble Prince, bee 
became deare to his subjects. Of whom bee exacted 
moderate tribute for their lands, houses, money, and 
goods, and some two small fennings for each Mosse or 
measure of wine. In five places upon the Rheine he 
exacted impositions or taxes, which one yeere with another 
yeelded some twelve or sixteene thousand French 
Crownes, and they said, that hee received yeerely some 
fifty or sixty thousand Crownes by the silver Mines of 
Anneberg, besides extraordinarie subsidies, which his 
subjects use to grant him upon occasion of war, or like 
necessities of the Commonwealth. And I remember, 
when the Citizens of Strasburg his neighbours made warre 
with the brother of the Duke of Loraine, about their 
Bishopricke, so as the Palatine was forced to levy souldiers 


[Ill.iv. 236. ] 

I6O5- 7. 




John, Marquis of 
Brandeburg, at his fa- 
thers Commandement, 
yeelded the Electorship 
to his second brother, 
and died in the yeere 

Frederick Marquisse 
and Elector going into 
Palestine, did yeeld the 
Electorship to his bro- 
ther Albert, and died in 
the yeere x47o. 

Albert, Marquisse 
and Elector, called the 
Achilles of Germany, 
overcame the Citizens 
of Nurnberg in eight 
battels, and in the ninth 
being overcome, pro- 
mised them peace. He-- 
first made league with 
the Elector of Saxony 
and the Langrave of 
Hessen, and died sud- 
denly in a Bath in the 
yeere x486. 



Tke Spirituall 

Hitherto I have spoken of the Temporall Electors. 
The second among the Spirituall Electors is the Arch- 
bishop of Mentz, which Seate, when I passed through 
Germany, was possessed by Wolfgang of the noble Family 
of Dalberg, and all his Kinsmen, dwelling neare Heidel- 
berg, were of the Reformed Religion after the doctrine of 
Luther, and therefore lesse esteemed him, who nothwith- 
standing was thought no enemie to the Reformed 
Religion, but rather willing to permit it, did he not feare 
the opposition of the Chapter. For Gebhard Truchsesse 
Arch-bishop of Colen and Elector, had lately bin deposed, 
and another placed in that Seate, because he marled Agnes 
Countesse of Mansfield, with whom at that time he lived, 
being made a Cannon at Strasburg, (for that citie having 
abolished the Roman Religion, yet kept the places of 
Cannons without any bond of superstition, and used to 
bestow them onely upon Princes and Gentlemen of the 
Reformed Religion), and in this citie he then lived a quiet 
life, after he had in vaine tried by force of Armes to 
regaine that Arch-Bishoprick. The third Spirituall 
Elector, but first by institution, is the Arch-Bishop of 
Trier, a Citie seated beyond the Rheine, upon the confines 
of France, which Seate, when I passed through Germany, 
was possessed by John (if I mistake not his name) of the 
Noble Family of Schonburg. And whereas the other 
Electors dwell in the cities whereof they are named for the 
most part, his continuall abode was at the castle Erbrot- 
steine, seated neare the Rheine, some halle daies journey 

I6O5-I 7. 


The foresaid William Langrave of Hessen, of his 
chiefe City called the Langrave of Cassiles, had in division 
with his brethren halle his Fathers inheritance, the other 
halle being divided betweene his two brothers. And 
since that time I heard, that his brother Lodwick of Mar- 
purg was dead without issue; and that his fourth part 
of this inheritance was returned to Mauritius, eldest sonne 
to William. Yet because Mauritius was addicted to the 
reformed Religion, after the doctrine of Calvin, which hee 
and his Courtiers with many subjects professed, howso- 
ever bee had not yet made any generall alteration, whereas 
his Uncle Lodwick persisted in the doctrine of Luther, 
I remember the common speech in the land of Hessen, 
that Lodwick had threatned his Nephew Mauritius to 
disinherit him, and give his lands to the children of his 
brother George of Dormstatt, if he made any generall 
alteration in Religion. 
I have formerly said, that the dignity of the Empire 
decaying, many Principalities were given in Fee, and the 
Lords thereof became absolute Princes. At that time 
many great Cities were immediately sub'ectj to the Empire, 
whereof man were at sundrie times after in a ed for 
Y gg 
money to the said Princes. At last the power of the 
Empire being more fallen by many Civill warres raised 
by the Popes, to confirme their usurped power over the 

Margrave of 
,4 ntpac h. 


about the yeere 1414, sold that his right, and the Castle of 
Nurnberg to the Citizens thereof. Albert his sonne, 
called the Achilles of Germany, for some duety denied to 
him, made warre upon the City, drawing seventeene 
Princes to take his part, as the other flee Cities assisted 
Nurnberg. At this day the Margrave of Anspach, being 
of that Family, cals himselfe Burgrave of Nurnberg, but 
hath onely the bare title, without any command in the 
City: yet because his lands lie on some sides under the 
very wals thereof, the Citizens repute him a dangerous 
neighbour. The common report was, that this Margrave 
had lately sold to the City a great wood, growing very 
neere the walles thereof, and that shortly after hee was at 
variance with them, as if hee had sold onely the wood, and 
not the soyle, so as (if vulgar speech may be beleeved) 
they were forced againe to buy the ground : And yet he 
hath not renounced his right of hunting therein, which he 
challengeth proper to himselfe. Give me leave to digresse 
so much from my purpose, as to say, that the neighbour- 
hood of this Margrave, is no lesse suspected by the 
free City Wasenburg, not farre distant, where upon a 
mountaine in his owne ground, hanging over the City, he 
hath built a strong Castle. And because all the streetes 
of that little City lie open to it, the Citizens when first 
he beganne to build, complained to the Emperour of that 
wrong, and obtained letters to command the Margrave to 
build no further, but he not onely disobeyed those letters, 
but built the same with more speed and strength. Now 
I returne to Nurnberg, the Common-wealth whereof is 
Aristocraticall. The great Counsell hath no set number, 
but commonly consists of some three hundred persons, 
whereof many are Patricians, living honourably upon their 
rents, as Gentlemen, others are Merchants, and some few 
Artisans, of the best and richest workemen. The Senate 
referres to this Counsell, the impositions of tributes, and 
the decrees of peace and warre, which Subjects of Counsel 
being rare, this Counsell is seldome called together, but 
the authority of them is so great, as the seales of any two 


of them, set to any last Testament, serves in steed of seaven 
witnesses required by the Civill Law. Out of this great 
Counsell, the new Senate is yeerely chosen, and when the 
time of Election is at hand, this great Counsel names a 
Consull and a Scabine, of the Gentlemen called ancient, 
or out of the cheefe of the next Order; and in like sort 
the old Senate of the yeere past, names three of the 
ancient Gentlemen. These five are called the Electors of 
the new Senate, and as soone as they are chosen, all 
Magistracy ceaseth. Then these Electors being sworne, 
are shut up into a Chamber, whence they come not forth, 
till they have chosen twenty six Consuls and Scabines, of 
each thirteen. Then they chuse the rest of the new 
Senate, and assoone as they are chosen, they name among 
themselves those that are called ancient, which are com- 
monly the same men, except some bee put in the place of 
them that are dead, for it is a disgrace to be put from 
that dignity. This Election is made in one day, and the 
Senate consists of forty persons, whereof thirty foure are 
Patricians or Gentlemen, and so the governement is 
especially in the hands of the Gentlemen, as a thing 
whereof they hold the common people to be uncapable. 
Of these Gentlemen are held the seven Men, and the 
Senate of the ancient, as also the Captaines and Treasurers. 
To be a Doctor of the Civill Law, makes a Gentleman, 
or any other, to be uncapeable of a Senators place. But 
when in dificult cases they neede the advise of Doctors, 
they send two Senators to consult with them, who relate 
their judgment to the Senate. For this cause, and 
because all judgments are according to equity, not after 
the strict Law, there be fewe Doctors in that Citty, neither 
have they many Advocates; the Senate giving stipend 
only to foure, who plead all causes. Yet the Citty inter- 
taines some Doctors, to advise them, as I formerly said, 
& to assist them in judgment, exhibiting the cause in 
writing, as also to be Ambassadors. To the said 34 
Gentlemen, 8 Plebeans are added, which make the said 
Senate, and these Plebeans have free voyces, but are 

The Doctors 
of the 
Civill Law. 

[Ill.iv. z4. ] 


removed from secret Counsels, and having liberty to be 
absent, seldome meete with the Senate, except they be 
called. So as the common people have little or no 
authoritie, and are kept under, in so much as meetings 
(excepting funerals and like ceremonies) and walkings by 
night are forbidden, yet they have their priviledges in- 
violably kept, and live in great libertie, under a most 
equall governement. Of these Gentlemen governing the 
Citie, they have (as I have heard) twenty eight honourable 
Families or there about. And of the said thirty foure 
Gentlemen of the Senate, eight are called the Ancient, 
who like old soldiers are freed from service, the other 
twentie sixe diligently attending the publike affaires, with 
capitall and Civill judgements, and one of them is chosen, 
to intertaine passengers worthy of Honor, by presenting 
wine to them in name of the Senate, and also to call the 
Senate together, to propound the causes upon which they 
deliberate ; to aske their Voyces, and to doe many like 
duties. These twenty sixe Gentlemen are divided into 
thirteene Consuls, and thirteene Scabines, and these 
Scabines judge capitall causes (first examined by the whole 
Senate) as the Consuls judge Civill causes. And they so 
divide the yeere betweene them, as each of them for a 
moneth is Consull or Scabine. Out of them are chosen 
seven men, who have the greatest authority, and deter- 
mine all secrets of State, and to them the Treasurers make 
account. And howsoever two of one Family may be 
Senators, yet two of one Family cannot be of these seven 
men. Three of these seven are chosen Captaines, who 
have the keeping of the Armory, and the keyes of the 
Gates, and upon any tumult all die to them, and yeeld 
them obedience. Two of these Captaines are Treasurers, 
whereof the chiefe hath the first place in all Assemblies. 
To these Treasurers one of the Plebeans is added, to 
oversee the expence of the treasure, and two of the best 
sort of the Plebeans are Clerkes of the Exchequer, but 
onely the two chiefe Treasurers disburse and lay up all 
moneys. They have in all publike Counsels two 


Chauncellors, whereof one alwaies attends the Counsell of 
seven men, and these Chauncellors write the Decrees of 
Counsell, receive and reade, write and send, all letters, 
being as Secretaries, and they have sixe Clerkes to write 
under them. All the Senators have their severall stipends 
out of the common Treasure. Each of the seven men 
hath yeerely five hundred Guldens, besides gainefull 
Offices, as the keeping of the Seales, and each Treasurer 
hath eight hundred Guldens, and each Chauncellor two 
hundred Guldens yeerely. In Judgements they doe not 
much use the pleadings of Proctors or Advocates, but use 
to judge summarily upon oath, or to appoint Arbiters to 
compound controversies. 
But among the Courts of Judgements, one is of five 
men, from whom there is no appeale, yet they referre the 
greatest causes to the Senate. The second Court is of eight 
men, and hath two Tribunals, where the causes of citizens 
are determined, which exceede not the value of thirtie 
two Crownes, and these two Tribunals in greater causes 
are united, and have three of foure Doctors appointed by 
the Senate to advise them; for onely the Scabines judge, 
and from these Tribunals appeale is granted to the Senate, 
if the cause exceede the value of five hundred Crownes. 
These chuse a Judge to see their Decrees put in execution, 
and to see capitall offenders executed. They appoint a 
Judge for the Villages and territories subject to the City, 
for whose assistance the Senate chuseth some out of the 
great Counsell. These weekely give the Law to the 
Villages and Country people, and by the exercise of this 
Office, the Judges are inabled for the Office of Scabines. 
Also they chuse a Judge to have care of the Faires and 
Markets, who sets the price of Bread, Flesh, and all things 
there sold, and he hath foure Senators to assist him in 
weekely inquiring after the workes of Artificers, that they 
sell no unperfect workes, nor use any fraude. Of the 
Senators, three are chosen supreme Tutors for pupils and 
widowes, who divide inheritances, see that all Testaments 
be performed, and appoint new Tutors, in case the old bee 

TAe Courts of 

[lII.v. z4z. ] 



dead, suspected, or absent. These supreme Tutors pro- 
vide, that the moneis of pupils be put forth to use, and 
that the profit returnes to the pupills. They receive the 
accompts of the Tutors, and provide that the Pupils be 
religiously and honestly brought up. One Senator is set 
over each Church, Monastery, and Alines house, to see 
the revenues well administred, and to promote the causes 
thereunto belonging. Five Governors are set over the 
Territory without the walls, among which, the Chancelor 
hath yearly one hundreth Crownes, each of the rest twenty 
five Crownes for stipend. In time of warre, they chuse 
seven Senators, who take upon them the care to provide 
all necessaries for the same. I understoode there, that not 
long before, they had numbred in the City twenty two 
thousand Artificers, servants, and people of inferior rank, 
and that the last subsidy imposed in time of warre, was 
one Gold Gulden in the hundreth, of every mans movable 
and unmovable goods, and one gold Gulden by the Pole, 
for all such as had neither inheritance nor Art to live upon. 
Augsburg is one of the Imperiall Cities (vulgarly Ein 
Reichs statt) and in the yeare I364. the Senate consisted 
of two Patritian Consuls, and of ten Marchants, and 
seaven Artisans, with power of Tribunes, all yearly 
chosen. The Emperor Charles the 4 gave the City new 
priviliges, & confirmed the old, because the Citizens swore 
obedience to his Sonne. And the Emperor Sigismund 
confirmed and increased the same. When the Emperour 
Charles the fifth held a Parliament in this Citty, (as many 
Parliaments have beene held there) the old honour was 
restored to the Patritians, & the Plebean Tribunes were 
taken away, two Advocates being set in their roomes. 
Two Gentlemen Consuls, at this day governe the City, 
with six Judges for criminall causes, whereof three are 
Gentlemen, two Citizens, one Plebean. These are chosen 
by the great Senate, consisting of those three Orders : but 
in causes of Religion, the City is subject to the jurisdiction 
of the Bishop of Tilling. This City hath many noble 
and rich Merchants, whereof many have priviledges of 


chosen Emperours keepe their coronation Feast in this 
City, with great magnificence, which was lastly kept (as 
they said) by Maximilian the second, at which time among 
other solemnities, they roasted an Oxe in the middest of 
the field for the people, and when the Marshal of the 
Court had cut a peece as for the Emperor, the rest of the 
Oxe was in a moment rent in peeces by the common 
I must make at least some mention of the Cities lying 
upon the Sea of Germany towards the North, whereof 
most are not onely called free, because they are Imperiall 
Cities, but by the same name, though in divers significa- 
tion, are called Hans steten, that is, Free Cities, in respect 
of the priviledges of trafficke granted to them of old in 
the neighbour Countries. 
Among these Lubecke is the chiefe of the neighbor 
Cities joined in league for common defence, whither the 
Senators of all the other Cities come once in the yeere, to 
consult of publike affaires. The territory of the City 
reacheth not above a German mile, but after some few 
miles distance, there is a certaine Towne which belongs 
to Lubecke and Hamburg, by common right, being 
ingaged to them for money by the Duke of Lower Saxony, 
of whom they after bought the rest of his Inheritance. 
This Towne for sixe yeeres space was wont to be kept by 
those of Lubecke, appointing the Governour, and receiv- 
ing the rents ; which time ended, those of Hamburg were 
wont to have it in like sort for sixe yeeres, and 
so by turnes they were wont to enjoy it. Lubecke 
of old had a Duke, till it was subjected to the 
Empire by the Emperour Fredericke the first, after 
whose death it became subject to their Duke againe, 
and after five yeeres became subiect to the Danes, 
but by the helpe of Fredericke the scond it freed it selfe 
from the Dane in the yeere 226, and after by favour of 
the Emperours obtained freedome and absolute power: 
Both Lubecke and Hamburg are said of old to have 
acknowledged the Kings of Denmarke, but at last expel- 


[llI.iv. z44. ] 


ling the Kings Proctors, they became free, and submitted 
themselves to the defence of the Empire: For which 
cause to this day they warily observe the actions of the 
Kings of Denmarke, and live in feare and suspition of 
their attempts, and howsoever they have freedome and 
absolute power, yet they are carefull to have the favour 
of the Kings of Denmarke, because they have power to 
hinder their trafficke in the Baltike Sea: yet sometimes 
leagued with the neighbour cities (which in the common 
cause of freedome are easily drawne to give mutual] aide), 
they have made warres against the Kings of I)enmarke 
with good successe. Lubecke is commended for just 
OVernment, (not to speake of their hospitality, very 
ire and uniforme buildings, and the very pleasant seate 
of the Towne). It is governed by the civil] Law, and by 
statutes made by the Senate; as also some made by the 
consent of the confederate cities. No appeale to Uni- 
versities or to the Chamber of the Empire is admitted, 
except the cause be above the value of five hundred 
dollers. They lately made sumptuary Lawes, restraining 
the number of guests and dishes in Feasts, with penalties 
according to the excesse. The Citizens yeerely chuse 
twenty new Senators, and this Senator chuseth of their 
number route Consuls, with a Judge skilfull in the civill 
Lawes. These Magistrates define all civill and criminal 
causes, the whole Senate first examining them, and iudge- 
merits are given by common consent with the doores shut: 
but when any capitall iudgement is to be executed, at the 
day appointed to the Malefactor, and the very houre he is 
to die, the hangman pronounceth the sentence in the 
market place. The consuls take the highest place by 
turnes, one in the morning, the other in the afternoone, 
at which times they also by turnes heare Ambassadours, 
and receive complaints. Many Offices are devided among 
the Senators, two gather the rents, others have care of the 
wines, (which are sold in a publike house to publike use, 
no private man being allowed to make that gaine), others 
oversee the buildings, that they be uniforme and strongly 


built, and free from danger of tier, and likewise the 
fortifications of the City. Foure Serjeants attired in red 
gownes, attend the Senate, and summon men to appeare, 
(besides twelve inferiour Serjeants), and they neither carry 
Sword nor any Mace before the Magistrates, but follow 
them in the streetes like Servants. They doe not 
imprison any debtor or light offender, but onely summon 
such to appeare before the Magistrate, and declare to them 
the fines imposed for not appearing : but they apprehend 
capitall offenders, and prevent their escape by flight. It 
is not lawfull for a creditor to put his debtor in prison, 
but after a set time and with cautions, prescribed in the 
Law of Saxony, wherein notwithstanding, they of 
Lubecke so favour strangers, as they onely have right in 
this kind with expedition, and have a proper tribunall (or 
seate of judgement) for themselves onely: yet herein 
they seeme not favourable to strangers, in that they permit 
them not to dwell in the City, otherwise they doe as the 
common use is, to keepe all commodities in the hands 
of Citizens, not to be sold to strangers, but by a Citizen, 
especially since without the helpe of strangers they have 
their owne ships to bring in and carry out all commodities. 
Hamburg is in like sort governed, but I cannot so much 
commend them for hospitality, being rude to all strangers, 
and malicious to Englishmen above others, for no other 
cause then for that our Merchants leaving that City, seated 
themselves at Stoade: so as it was not safe for any 
stranger, much lesse for an Englishman, to walke abroade 
after dinner, when the common people are generally heated 
with drinke : And the very Justice was herein commonly 
taxed, not that they punished whoredom (which no good 
man will disallow) but that they permitted whores in great 
multitudes, and yet favoured the knavery of the Sergeants, 
who combining with the whores, intrapped men in their 
houses, so as not onely the whores & Sergeants made 
profit thereby, but the very Magistrates were justly 
suspected, to approve this course for their owne gaine. 
Brunswick an Imperiall City, worthily to be numbred 



[llI. iv. z45.] 

The Dukes of 
and of 


among the cheefe, & so called as the Village of Bruno, is 
not farre distant from Hamburg, and seated in the center 
of Saxony, was of old (as they say) the Metropolitan City 
therof. It consists of five Cities gathered into one, 
wherof each hath his severall priviledges, and they are 
thus seated, Alstatt is the part on the West side, Newstatt 
on the North side, Imsacke the part towards the East, 
Imhagen, & Altweg (built first of all the rest) are the part 
towards the South. And howsoever all these have each 
their severall Senators and priviledges, yet all of them 
jointly making the city of Brunswick, live under one 
common Law and government, the Senators of each by 
yerely courses governing the whole body of that common- 
wealth. For howsoever term Consuls be yeerly chosen, 
two of each City, yet to the two Consuls of that City 
which by course is to govern for the yeere, the other eight 
as inferiour, and much more all the Senators of the five 
Cities, yeelde for the time great reverence in the Senate 
and all meetings, and great obedience in all things com- 
manded. One Senate house is common to all the five 
Cities, yet each of them hath also a private Senate-house. 
The forme of the publike governement is Democraticall 
(or popular.) They live in such feare of the Duke of 
Brunswick, lest he should take away their liberty, as they 
have not onely fortified the Towne very strongly against 
assaults or sieges, but also willingly imploy their Citizens 
in forraigne warres as hired souldiers, insomuch as no man 
is made free who hath not first served one or two yeeres 
in the warres. 
The Dukes of Brunswick & of Luneburg, derive their 
pedegree from one root, namely, from the old family of 
the Dukes of Bavaria: for Henrie called the Lion, D. 
of Bavaria, (who was Duke and Elector of Saxony also, 
commanding a most ample Territory), being proscribed 
.by the Emperour, and for a time living as a banished man 
m Ep.gland, the Dukedome of Bavaria was by the 
Emperour given in Fee to the Palatines of the Rheine, 
and so passed to a new Family. This Henrie the Lion 

Bernard after-- 
the killing of  
his brother 
yeelded the D. 
of Brunswick 
to his Nephew 
William, & re- 
taining the D. 
of Luneburg, 
died x434. 

Henrie died-- 
before his bro- 
k ther Frederick. 


From Bernard 
descend Otho, who 
exhibited the Re- 
formed Confession 
at Augsburg and 
died *549. 

And Ernest, who 
reformed Religion, 
and died ,546, - 
buried at Celia. 

Francis of the re- 
formed religion, left 
two daughters no 
heires males, and 
,died *549. 

William the Vic- 
torious, at the death 
of his Uncle Fred- 
erick possessed the-- 
wick, which his 
Uncle Bernard did 
yeeld to him. Hee 
died 1482. 

Otho Lord of Harburg, 
had to his first wife the 
daughter to the Earle 
| of Schwartzenburg ; and 
|with the second Wife, 
| Daughter to the Earle of----- 
|Emden, bee then lived 
--- when I passed though 
[Anne borne ,526. 

Henry marled the 
daughter of the D. of the-- 
lower Saxony, dwelling 
at Angria. 

William in the yere 
156I , married Dorothy,.__ 
Daughter to Christian 
King of Denmarke. 






Three brothers, Philip 
Sigismond Bishop of Verden, 
borne 1568. Joachim Car- 
olus borne 1573- Julius 
Augustus borne 1578 . 

Henrie Julius borne 1562 
Administrator of two Bishop- 
ricks of Halberstat and Mind, 
first married Dorothy Daugh- 
ter to Augustus Elector of 
Saxony, then Elizabeth 
daughter to Frederike King--. 
of Denmark yet living. 

Five sisters, Sophia married 
to Ernest Duke of Pomern. 
Mary to Francis D. of lower 
Saxony I582. Elizabeth to 
the Count of Schaumberg. 
Dorothy borne I577. Hed- 
vigis 158o. 




governed by the Senators and the Lawes of the City, yet not 
numbered among the Imperiall Cities, because it in some 
sort acknowledgeth the King of Poland, and paies some 
covenanted tributes to his Minister residing in the City. 
In the time of Stephen Bathory Prince of Transilvania and 
King of Poland, this City was by him besieged, and forced 
to pay these tributes. Wherupon the Citizens to pay 
them without their own prejudice, doubled all Impositions 
upon strangers trading there. The Consul of the City 
there, (as in all Germany) is vulgarly called Burgomaster, 
& he judgeth all civill & criminal causes, but appeales are 
ranted from him to the Colledge of civil Lawyers, & 
trom them to the Senate of the City, and in some causes, 
from the Senate to the King of Poland. This City con- 
sists of three Cities, vulgarly called Reichstat, Furstat, & 
Altstatt (that is, the City of the Kingdome, the fore City, 
and the old City), and each hath his gates, and his Senate, 
and the Consull may be chosen out of either Senate, so 
as for the time of his Office, he reside in the cheefe City, 
called Reichstatt. Here be the furthest limits of the 
Empire towards the North and the East. 
And from hence towards the West Iles the shore of the 
Balticke Sea, and of the German Ocean, upon which are 
seated Stetinum, Meckleburg, Lubecke, Hamburg, and 
Breame, Imperiall Cities, and free, as well for privi- 
ledges of trafficke in neighbour Kingdomes, as for absolute 
governement at home : And in East-Freesland (for West- 
Freesland belongs to Netherland) the furthest limits of the 
Empire towards the West and North, end in the City of 
This City hath his Count, bearing title of the City, and 
of late he kept his Court therein: but the Citizens pro- 
fessing the reformed Doctrine of Calvin, and the Count 
attempting to force them to the profession of Luthers 
Doctrine, not long before I passed that way, the Citizens 
expelled the Count, and gave oath to the Senators of the 
City, to obey them, to be ready in armes for the defence 
of the City, and not to remove their dwellings from thence 

I605-I 7. 


Cesar overcome them, and contained them at home. And 
from that time to the dales of Charles the Great, and so 
long as his race possessed the renewed Empire of the 
West, they were still esteemed Galles: but when that 
imperiall dignity fell to the Germans, they became subjects 
to those Emperours, and were numbred among the 
Germans, having the same manners, lawes, and customes 
with them, as at this day they have. The Emperours 
governed this Nation, by Governours vulgarly called 
Reichsvogt, till at last the Commonwealth of the Sweitzers 
was severed from that of the Germans, and made a free 
state, which in the age before ours, hath gotten great 
reputation: And here it is worthy to be observed, that 
the ambition of Popes, and their divellish tyranny over 
the Emperours, not onely (after some eight hundred 
yeeres from Christ) caused almost all the Garboyles of 
States, whereof we have heard, or read, or which with 
our owne eyes wee have seene, but in particular were the 
chiefe, yea, sole causes, of rending this strong member 
from the body of the Empire. Sweitzerland about that 
time, abounded with noble Families, and them the Gover- 
hours favoured, to increase their owne power, whereupon 
they oppressed the common people, and provoked their 
extreame hatred, so as they were forced to combine them- 
selves in mutuall league against this oppression: yet the 
common people had never dared to oppose themselves to 
the Gentry, if the Empire had enioied peace: But when 
the Bishops of Rome, often cast out their spirituall 
thunderbolts (I meane excommunications) against the 
Emperours, and aswell absolved all subiects from the Oath 
of Allegiance, as heartned ambitious Traitors to be com- 
petitors against the Emperours, yea, stirred up their 
Kinsmen and their very Children to make civill warre with 
them: in this confused Anarchy, a Patron was not want- 
in to the most wicked person, to defend him, so he would 
follow his party. Hence it came, that when the Emperour 
Fredericke the second, in the yeere z4o, received the 
common people of Sweitzerland into his protection against 


the Gentlemen, they likewise, as the Clients of Monas- 
teries, followed the Popes party, whereupon the people of 
Zurech, the Urii and Suitii, (of whom the whole Nation 
is called Sweitzers) being three Communities, first in the 
yeere 1251, made a league for three yeeres against the 
Gentlemen, lying in waite to intrap them; and after by 
litde and little, they made more firme and perpetuall 
leagues for defence of absolute liberty : and serving divers 
Emperours in the Papall tumults, from time to time 
obtained great priviledges. Then they drew other Com- 
munities and neighbour Cities to be partners of their 
leagues. Finally, after they had rooted out the Families of 
Gendemen, and had by conspiracy cast out the Gover- 
nours of the Arch-Dukes of Austria (to whom the Lord- 
ship of Sweitzerland was fallen), they in processe of time 
attained this absolute State, which we see them enjoy at 
this day: For the foresaid strife continuing betweene the 
Emperours and the Popes, and Lodwick of Bavaria con- 
tending for the Empire with Fredericke of the House of 
Austria, the Sweitzers tooke part with Lodwicke, who 
expresly ratified the freedome or liberty of their Common- 
And that consists of three parts, the communities 
(vulgarly called Cantons) the fellowes or confederates, and 
the stipendary Cities, or governements, to which Semler 
addeth the forraigne leagues for a fourth part. 
The communities are vulgarly called Orts, and by the 
Italians Cantons of the Sweitzers, (as we will hereafter call 
them), and they are thirteene in number. Among these 
Cantons, the Urii (comming from the Taurisci) the Suitii 
(comming from the Cimbri) the Undervaldii (of the race 
of banished Romans) about the yeere 13o8 , made a 
mutuall league for ten yeeres, and having overcome in 
battell Leopold Arch-Duke of Austria, in the yeere 1315, 
made this league perpetuall. Lucerna the fourth Canton, 
being much wronged, while it was under the Patronage 
of the House of Austria, to avoide tyranny in that con- 
fusion of the Empire, did in the yeere 1332 , joine it selfe 
. v 385   

I605-I 7. 


Foure partt of 



in perpetuall league. Zurech a free City of the Empire, 
was in like sort received for the 5 Cantons. When these 
cantons made war upon Glarona, to have the possession 
of a country most commodious for the common good, all 
the people so hated the Governors appointed by the House 
of Austria, and so desired freedome, as they yeelded up 
themselves to the Cantons, and so Glarona the foresaid 
yeere became the sixth Canton: Likewise when the 
Canton Zurech made warre upon Zug, a Towne (possessed 
by gentlemen subject to the House of Austria) whence 
they were much annoied, the Citizens being forsaken by 
the Gentlemen, yeelded themselves, and being received 
into the league, became the seventh Canton. Berne a free 
city of the Empire, and under the power of the Governours, 
having found the faithfull love of the Cantons, in the said 
confusion of the Empire, did in the yeer ,352, make a 
perpetuall league with the three first named Cantons, 
wherein notwithstanding Zurech and Lucerna are con- 
tained, the three Cantons being bound to those two, for 
the succour of Bern, and being bound to Bern, for the 
succour of the two Cantons, and so Bern became the eight 
Canton. The Towne Friburg, subject to the House of 
Austria, being many wales oppressed in the said confusion 
of the Empire, made league with Bern, and when the 
House of Austria, upon pretence to visit them, did for 
that cause, spoile them of their goods, they in the yeere 
I48 I, after the end of the Burgundian warre, became the 
ninth Canton. Solothurn a free City of the Empire, had 
made a perpetuall league with Berne in the yeere I35I, 
and after in the yeere I48I, was received for the tenth 
Canton. Bazil a free City of the Empire, had in the yeare 
,327 made a perpetuall league with the 3 first Cantons, 
& after provoked by many injuries of the house of 
Austria, did in the yeare ,5oi make a perpetuall league 
with all the Cantons, and so was received for the Eleventh 
Canton. Scaphusen an Imperiall city, first sold or ingaged 
to the house of Austria, and againe united to the Empire, 
when the Duke of Austria was proscribed in the Councel 



The second, in respect of the Bishoprick of Chur, is called 
the league of the house of God, consisting of nineteene 
communities, (wherof two use the Language of Germany, 
the rest the Language of the country, being corrupt 
Italian), which the yeare following joined in league with 
the cantons. The third league called the tenne judg- 
ments, (or jurisdictions) & consisting of tenne com- 
munities joined in the league with the Cantons in the 
yeare 498, and at the same time the house of Austria 
preparing war against the Rhetians, they all jointly made 
a perpetuall league of fellowship with all the Cantons. 
In the fourth place the seaven tenths of the Valesians, 
and the Bishop of Sedune Earle of Valesia, for the con- 
troversies of religion in our time, made a perpetuall league 
of fellowship with seaven Cantons of the Roman Religion, 
Lucerna, Uria, Suitia, Undervaldia, Tugium, (vulgarly 
Zug), Friburg, and Solodurum, (vulgarly Solothurne). 
The Towne Rotevilla in the fifth place, made a per- 
petuall league of fellowship with all the Cantons, in the 
yeere x519; but because it is seated in Germany, out of 
the confines of the mountainous Sweitzerland, caution 
was made that without the consent of the Cantons, they 
shall make no warre, nor give any aides, and if warre be 
made upon them, in case the enemy consent, they shall 
rest in the judgement which the Cantons shall hold just 
and equall : And that they shall make no league without 
the consent of the Cantons, and in time of civill warre 
shall follow the greatest part of them. 
In the sixth place Mulhusium of old an Imperiall City, 
was incorporated to the City of Bazill in the yeere  5o6, 
and after nine yeeres, made a perpetuall league of fellow- 
ship with all the Cantons. 
In the seventh place, the Towne Bienna (or Bipennium) 
enjoying all priviledges under the Bishop of Bazell in the 
yeere x3c3, made a more firme league with Bern in the 
yeere  3 5z- 
In the eighth place is Geneva, which gave all rights, 
and kept all olde covenants with the Bishop thereof, till 


sudenly into their country, and being dismissed without 
pay, they ceased not with many threatnings to storm 
against the Pope. Yet in the yeer 15   the same Pope 
Julius being overcome by the French, he called the 
Sweitzers again to his aide, who sent him an Army of 
2ccoo foote, at which time the Sweitzers being offended 
with the French, cast them out of Milan, wherupon Pope 
Julius gave to this commonwealth the title of the 
Defender of the Church, & divers Banners charged with 
divers Images, and a Cap for signe of liberty, with a 
sword. Also Maximilianus Sfortia by their aide being 
then put into the possession of the Dukedome of Milan, 
made league with the Sweitzers, and gave them the fore- 
saide Governments in Italy. Also Pope Leo the tenth in 
the yeere x55, ]oyned himselfe to the league, made 
betweene the Emperour Maximilian, and Sfortia Duke of 
Milan, and the Sweitzers, against the King of France. 
Lastly, Pope Clement the eight, sitting in the chaire of 
Rome when I passed through Italy, had also league with 
the Sweitzers. 
But I must come to the hereditary forraigne leagues, 
which onely, and no other, can truly be called part of 
the Commonwealth. 
Among the cheefe of them, is that of Milan : And not 
to speake of the ancient leagues, which some of the 
Cantons had with the Insubres, old inhabitants of Lom- 
hardy, Galeacius Duke of Milan in the yeere 466, made 
a league with eight Cantons, (wherein mention is made of 
the said leagues with the Insubres), and he granted to 
the Urii, that they should possesse the Lepontian Valley, 
for which they were to send unto the Duke yeerely foure 
Hawkes and a Crosse-bow: Moreover he granted to the 
eight Cantons, that in his Dukedome they should bee 
free from all impositions and taxes. Afterwards these and 
other heads of that league, were confirmed and renewed 
by the Duke his successours: And Ferdinand Gonzaga 
in the name of the Emperour Charles the fifth, confirmed 
the same in the yeere I55I. And among other heads of 
39 x 

leagues, as 
that of Milan. 

[III. iv. 253.] 


Also the Emperor Frederick of the House of Austria, 
leading an Army against the said Duke, did stirre up the 
Sweitzers to assaile him. But when they had with good 
successe pierced into Burgundy, the Emperour made 
peace with the said Duke, wherein the Sweitzers were not 
contained, so as the Duke turned all his Forces upon them, 
and not to speake of light skirmishes and fights, the 
maine busines was tried betweene them in three battels, 
wherein the Duke himselfe was in person. First at the 
town Granson, where the Sweitzers had the victory, but 
they having no horse, (which could not so soone be sent to 
them from their confederates), and the horse of the Duke 
defending the foot in their flight, few of the Burgundians 
were killed there. Secondly, they fought at Morat; 
where they write that 26ooo of the Burgundians were 
slaine. And to this day huge heapes of dead bones lie 
in that place, to witnes that great overthrow. The third 
battel was at Nancy, a City of Lorain; where Charles 
Duke of Burgundy besieged Renatus Duke of Loraine, 
confederate with the Sweitzers, and then 8ccc Sweitzers 
& 3000 of their confederates sent to helpe them, overcame 
the Duke of Burgundy, and himselfe being killed in flight, 
his death gave an end to that warre in the yeere 477- 
After the house of Austria had made many wars & 
leagues for yeers with the Sweitzers, at last Sigismund 
Duke of Austria, before the Burgundian warre, made an 
hereditary league with them, Lewis the French King 
mediating the same, that hee might draw the Sweitzers to 
make warre with Charles the proud Duke of Burgundy. 
By this league it was agreed, that any controversies falling, 
they should be put to Arbiters, both parts binding them- 
selves to stand to their judgement. That al old leagues 
alwaies preserved, they should serve the Duke of Austria 
in his wars, upon the same pay they have at home serving 
the State. On the other side, that the possessors should 
hold all places, without calling into question for them. 
That neither part shold joine in league the subjects of 
the other, or make them free of their Cities. That neither 



refused to pay. By this League they are mutually bound 
to aide each other with one thousand two hundred foote : 
and the King of Spaine promised yeerely Pensions in 
generall to the Cantons, and in particular to divers chiefe 
men and Captaines. For the Sweitzers use to make no 
League without profit, since the Neighbour Princes grew 
of opinion, that they could not make warre, except their 
Armies were strengthened with a firme body of Sweitzers. 
Not onely Solothurn renounced the said League, but also 
the Cantons of the reformed religion, partly not to do any 
thing against their League with France, partly lest they 
should take part with a King, whom they judged most 
ambitious, and a great enemy to the Reformed Religion, 
howsoever he covered that hatred; and partly lest they 
should advance the House of Austria, justly suspected 
by them, whose victories might turne to their ruine. 
And at the same time the Cantons and Fellowes in 
League, being of the Reformed Religion after the 
doctrine of Calvine, made a League for defence of 
religion among themselves, and with Strasburg, a neigh- 
bour free city of Germany, being of the Reformed 
Religion after the doctrine of Luther. 
The Duke of Savoy had his Ambassadour residing at 
Lucerna, (where the Popes Ambassadours also reside, of 
whose Leagues for yeeres we formerly spake.) The old 
Allobroges, now called Savoyans, had old Leagues with 
the Cantons of Bern, Friburg, and Solothurn : but Charles 
Duke of Savoy in the yeere i512 , made a League for 
twenty five yeeres with all the Cantons, by which, among 
other things, it was covenanted, that the Duke should aide 
the Sweitzers with sixe hundred or more horse at his owne 
charge, so bee were not distracted with warres at home, 
and that .the Sweitzers should aide the Duke with sixe 
thousand foot for any warre in his owne Countrie, to 
whom the Duke should pay each man sixe Frankes by the 
moneth. But bee should not imploy them to fight at sea, 
nor leade them beyond the sea, but onely to defend 
his owne Countrie, and the confines thereof. And 


The League of 

Jill.iv. 255.] 

The Frcnch 


it was covenanted, that during this League the Duke 
should yeerely pay at Bern two hundred gold crownes 
to each Canton. When this League was expired, 
Duke Charles put out of his Dukedome by the French 
King Francis the first, followed the Emperour Charles the 
fifth, and the renewing of this League was intermitted. 
But the King of France restoring Philebert his sonne to 
the Dukedome, this Duke in the y.eere I56o made a new 
and perpetuall League with slxe Cantons, namely, 
Lucerna, Suitia, Uria, Undervaldia, Zug, and Solothurne. 
And after, the rest of the Cantons upon like conditions, 
renewed the old league with this Duke, onely in this last 
league no mention is made of mutuall aides covenanted by 
the former league. 
The French Ambassadour resided at Solothurn, (who 
of old used to reside at Bazil) and the league of the French 
Kings with the Sweitzers, is of farre greater moment then 
any of the rest. The first of the French that made warre 
with the Sweitzers, was Lewis the French Kings sonne 
(after the eleventh King of that name) who leading an 
Army to assist Pope Eugenius in dissolving the Councell 
at Bazill, was perswaded by the Emperour Fredericke to 
assaile the Sweitzers, but a small number of them possess- 
ing straight passages, did so annoy his Army, as he soone 
retired. He made peace with the Sweitzers in the yeere 
I45 o, and having tried their strength, made league with 
them for ten yeeres. His son Charles the eighth in the 
yeere 483, renewed this league, and used the Sweitzers in 
his warres with the Duke of Britany, and for the King- 
dome of Naples. Lewis the twelfth, after the league for 
yeers was expire.d, renounced the payment of all publike 
or private pensmns, wherwith the Sweitzers were so 
greatly offended, as after they refused to renew that league 
with him, and joined in league with the Pope and the 
Duke of Milan against him, so as by their aide he was in 
the yeere  512, cast out of the Dukedome of Milan. The 
French King Francis the first, fought with the Sweitzers, 
joined against him in league with the Emperour Maxi- 


milian, Pope Leo the tenth, and Sfortia Duke of Milan. 
For howsoever the Sweitzers suspected the proceeding of 
their confederates, and purposed to returne home, yet the 
Pretorian Sweitzers of the Duke of Milan, assailing the 
French, the rest of the Sweitzers, though called home, yet 
lest they should seeme to forsake their companions, joined 
with the Pretorian Sweitzers, and so by art and cunning 
drawne to fight, gave the French a notable overthrow, at 
which time the Sweitzers had the greatest Army they ever 
brought into the field, being 3ooo foot: but the French 
King Francis, the next day fighting again with the 
Sweitzers, overthrew them, yet so as the retreit (as they 
write) was nothing like a flight : And so the King casting 
Sfortia out of the Dukedome of Milan, recovered the 
After this prosperous successe, the French King sought 
nothing more then to be reconciled and joined in league 
with the Sweitzers bee had overcome, which bee did, the 
league consisting of 13 heads. I. They covenanted fo.r 
taking away all injuries & controversies. 2. For freeing of 
captives. 3- How the Sweitzers may plead any cause in 
judgement against the King. 4-- That al should enjoy the 
benefit therof, being borne within the confines.of Sweitzer- 
land, & speaking the Dutch tongue. 5- Priviledges are 
confirmed to the Merchants of Sweitzerland. 6. For 
charges in the siege of Dyiune and in Italy, the King 
covenants to pay them a great sum of mony by yeerly 
portions. 7- It is agreed that all controversies shall be 
determined by courses there set downe, not by warre. 8. 
That neither part shall give passage to the enemies of the 
other. 9. That Merchants & all subjects on both parts, 
shall freely passe, not offended with reproches, or 
oppressed with impositions. IO. That the King shall 
yeerly pay to each Canton 2000 Franks, and to the Abbot 
of S. Gallus and his subjects, and to those of Toggenburg 
6cx Frankes, and to the City of S. Gallus 4-00, to the 
Mulhusians 4-00, to the Gruerians 600, to the Valesians 
2ocx, and to the Grisons the pensions given by Lewis 

I6O5-X 7. 



the  2: and moreover yeerly 2ooo Franks (but howso- 
ever the Rhetians or Grisons by this league serve the King 
in his warres with the Sweitzers: yet Semler witnesseth, 
that they serve severally under their owne Captaines). In 
the x  Article all immunities in the Dukedome of Milan 
are confirmed to the Bilitionenses, the Inhabitants of the 
middle Valley, the Luganenses, & the Locarnenses. 
Choice is given to the Sweitzers to retaine the Castles they 
had, or to take mony for them. Lastly, it is agreed & 
covenanted, that the league shall be perpetuall, & not be 
broken upon any fraudulent pretence. In this League the 
King excepts all his confederates, & the Sweitzers except 
Pope Leo the o, the Emperor Maximilian, the Empire, 
and the House of Austria ; and all old leagues : so as if 
the King should make war upon any of these in their own 
countries, it may be free to the Sweitzers to observe their 
leagues with them, but if any of them assaile the King in 
his own Kingdome, the Sweitzers shal not permit any of 
their subjects to serve them, but shall call them home. 
This League was made at Friburg, in the yeere 56, the 
moneth of November, and upon the day of Saint Andrew. 
And the King rested not, till after five yeeres since this 
Peace was made, he leagued himselfe more strictly at 
Lucerna with all the Cantons (that of Zurech only 
excepted) and with all their fellowes in league ; of which 
league I will briefly relate some heads added to the former: 
namely, that if any man should make warre upon the King 
in France, or in the Dukedome of Milan, the King at his 
pleasure might leavy in Sweitzerland an Army of sixe 
thousand at the least, or sixteene thousand foote at the 
most (except the Senate should grant a greater number.) 
That the King might chuse the Captaines, and the Senate 
without delay should permit them to march within tenne 
dayes, and not recall them till the warre should bee ended, 
if the King shall please so long to use them. That by the 
same right, and under the same conditions, the King 
making warre upon any, may freely leavy souldiers, but 
with this caution, that the Sweitzers troubled with warre 


at home, should be free from these covenants. It was 
further cautioned, that the King should not divide the 
Army of the Sweitzers into divers places or Forts, but 
should keepe it united in one body. That he should not 

use it for any fight at Sea. That they should receive pay 
the same day they should march out of their country, and 
were they never so soone sent backe, yet three months 
pay, should be presently due unto them, and that the first 
moneths pay should be given them within the confines of 
Sweitzerland. That the King to aide the Sweitzers 
having any warre, should send them two hundred armed 
horse, and twelve great pieces of Ordinance with all 
furniture (namely, six battering pieces, and sixe middle 
pieces) and besides towards the charge of their warre, 
should each three moneths pay a certaine summe of mony 
at Lyons, and if the Sweitzers shall chuse rather to have 
mony in stead of the armed horse, the King should further 
pay them two thousand crownes each three moneths. 
That if in time of warre, the Sweitzers shall be forbidden 
to buy Salt in other places, they may buy and bring Salt 
out of France. That neither part shall make the subjects 
of the other free of their Cities, or receive them into 
patronage. That the King.., to declare his good will 
towards the Sweitzers, shall besides the two thousand 
Franckes promised by the former League to each Canton, 
pay yeerely one thousand Franckes more to each of them 
during this League; and moreover shal besides the 
former Pensions, give to their Confederates yeerely halfe 
as much more. In this League the King excepts Pope 
Leo the tenth, the Emperour, the Kings of England, Scot- 
land and Denmark, with other Princes ; and the Sweitzers 
except the Pope, the Emperor, the House of Austria, the 
house of Medici, the D. of Savoy, and some others. But 
if these so excepted should make war upon either part, 
within their territories, that aides should be sent mutually 
without any respect. This League was made to last three 
yeeres after the death of the French King Francis the first, 
and was renewed by his son Henrie the second at Solo- 


[IIl.iv.   7-] 


thurn, in the yeere 1549, & by all the Cantons (excepting 
Zurech and Bern), and was after renewed by Charles the 
ninth, and the succeeding Kings. But in the leagues 
made with the successors of Francis the first, caution is 
inserted, that the Sweitzers shal not serve the King in any 
warre for the recovery of any part of the Dukedome of 
Milan: but if the King shall recover it with any other 
Army, then they shall aide him to defend his possession, 
as formerly. 
And whereas the Cantons of Zurech and Bern refused 
to joyne in the Leagues made with Francis the first, and 
Henrie the second, these reasons thereof were then alleaged. 
First, because the Canton of Zurech was then alienated 
from the French by the Cardinall of Sedun. Secondly, 
because Zwinglius a notable Preacher of the Reformed 
Religion, did in many Sermons sharpely inveigh against 
mercenary warfare. Thirdly, because this League much 
displeased the military men of Sweitzerland, in that the 
Senate had no liberty to looke into the cause of the warre ; 
in that the Souldiers and Captaines were not to be chosen 
by the Sweitzers, but by the King at his pleasure ; in that 
the large profits of the League redounded to few; in that 
the armed horse to bee sent by the King, were of no use 
to the Sweitzers warres, commonly made in mountainous 
places and craggy passages. Lastly, because it seemed a 
point of great inconstancy, that the Sweitzers, who lately 
when the French King Francis, and Charles the deceased 
Emperors grandchild, were competitors for the Empire, 
had written to the Electors, that they would yield no 
obedience to the French King, in case he were chosen, 
should so suddenly change their minds, and make a more 
strict league with the French: but the /zreater part was 
of a contrary judgement, because Souldiers were not 
bound curiously to enquire after the causes of warre, for 
which onely the King in his conscience was bound to give 
accompt. And because their barren Countrey being also 
populous, was most fit for a mercenary warre, and that 
military experience was thereby to be retained and gained; 


by which and like reasons, they perswaded the necessity 
of this league. 
Thus have I (according to the description of Sembler) 
briefly shewed, that the Sweitzers Commonwealth consists 
of three parts at home, (not to speake of the forraigne 
leagues), namely of the Cantons, of the Fellowes in league ; 
and of the stxpendlary cataes and prefectures or govern- 
ments. Each community is vulgarly called Ort, and the 
Italians call them Cantons, whereof (I have said) that there 
be thirteene in number, namely, Suitia, (vulgarly Schweis, 
whereof the rest have the name of Sweitzers), Uria, 
Undervaldia, Lucerna, Tigurum, (vulgarly Zurech), Glar- 
ona, Tugium, (vulgarly Zug) Berna, Friburgum, Solo- 
dorum, (vulgarly Solothurn), Basilea (vulgarly Bazill), 
Scaphusium, (vulgarly Shafhusen), and Abbatiscella (vul- 
garly Apenzill). I have said that the Fellowes in league, 
are the Abbot and Towne of Saint Gallus, the Rhetians 
or Grisons, the Bishop of Sedun, the Valesians, and the 
Townes Rotavile, Mulhusium, and Bipenne: And the 
governements are Turgea, that of Baden, of the Rhegusci, 
of the Sarunetes, of the free Province, the Lugani, the 
Locarnenses, the Inhabitants of the middle Valley, and the 
Bilitionenses. That of Turgea is subject to the seven old 
Cantons, yet Bern, Friburg, and Solothurn, have also their 
rights in capitall causes. That of Baden, the Sarunetes, 
the Rhegusci, and the free Province, are subject likewise 
to the seven old Cantons, onely Bern hath beene admitted 
partner in that of Baden, and Apenzill in that of the 
Rhegusci. The foure Italian governements are equally 
subject to all the Cantons, excepting Apenzill: and the 
Bilitionenses are subject to the three old Cantons. All 
these joined, have these Cities and Townes, Zurech, 
Bern, Lucern, Zug, Bazill, Friburg, Solothurn, Schaf- 
husen, the Towne of S. Gallus, Chur of the Grisons, 
Sedun of the Valesians, Rotevil, Mulhuse, & Bipenne, 
all the rest dwell in Villages. Among the cantons, 
Bazill of the Rauraci, Schafhusen of Germany, Glarona 
in part of the Grisons, Uria in part of the Lepontii, 
M. IV 40I 2 C 

Of the 
u'ealth in 

6o5-i 7. 



are seated out of the old confines of Sweitzerland; 
and so are all the fellowes in league, excepting the 
Abbot, and Towne of S. Gallus, and the Towne Bipenne. 
Among these, the old Nation of the Rhetians, now called 
Grisons, were of old called Valesiani, Viberi, Seduni, and 
Veragri : And Rotevile is a city of Germany, and Mul- 
huse of the Sequavi in France. Among the governe- 
ments, the Rhegusci and the Sarunetes, are of the old 
Rhetians, and the Luganenses, the Locarnenses, the Men- 
drisii, and the Inhabitants of the middle Valley, and the 
Bilitionii, are of the Lepontii, an Italian Nation, which 
tongue they speake. Many doubt to number these con- 
federates among common-wealths, since each of them is 
no otherwise tied to the decrees of the other, then by free 
consent, as all private societies are, whereas in a common- 
wealth the greater part binds all: yet because they have 
one common councell, and most of the Provinces are ruled 
thereby, because warre and peace :.s made by common 
consent, and they live almost under the same lawes and 
customes, and are united strictly in perpetuall league, 
Sembler concludes, that this society comes neerest to the 
forme of a common-wealth : for whereas some hating the 
nation, object Anarchy to them, and say they got freedome 
by killing the Gentlemen ; and others interpreting it more 
mildly, and confessing the oppression of the Gentlemen, 
yet judge the revenge to have exceeded all measure, the 
truth thereof will appeare by the History of Semler and 
others, shewing that great part of the Gentry was 
extinguished by the House of Austria. Therefore it must 
be a mixt commonwealth, (if such it may be called) being 
neither a Monarchy (of one just King) Aristocraty (of just 
great men) nor Democrity (a popular state) much lesse 
any of the corrupt commonwealths, called Tyranny, 
Oligarchy, and Anarchy, (that is, the tyranny of a King, 
or of noble men, or a confused State), the equity of the 
government shewing that it much differs from them. The 
Urii, Suitii, Undervaldii, the Glaronenses dwelling 
scattered, and Zug, (though it be a Towne), governe all 

I605-I 7. 


at their owne cost, without any pay. Between Bern and 
the three old Cantons it is decreed, that if the aides be 
sent beyond certaine bounds, then they which called them 
shall give them pay, and in like sort certaine bounds of 
sending aides are limited between all the rest of the 
Cantons, in their severall leagues, with all conditions 
expressed. In any siege, the Canton which causeth it, is 
bound to find many necessaries, but if the cause be 
publike, all provisions are made at the publike charge. 
The foure old cantons and Glarona, cannot make any new 
league, which is free to the rest, alwayes preserving the old 
league, which they also may encrease or diminish by 
common consent. It is decreed, that every five or ten 
yeeres, this league shall be renewed by word or writing, 
or (if need be) by oath. Zurech, Bern, Uria, Suitla, and 
Undervaldia, in this league except the rights of the Roman 
Empire. Lucerna and Zug the rights of the Dukes of 
Austria, Glarona the rights of their lawfull Magistrates, 
and each Canton the rights of old leagues. 
When the said eight Cantons received the other five 
into their number, besides the foresaid heads, it was 
decreed among other things in their league, that the five 
last cantons howsoever wronged, should make no warre 
without the consent of the eight old Cantons, and in like 
sort that they should make no league without their con- 
sent, neither in time of warre should refuse good con- 
ditions of peace. And lastly it was decreed, that without 
great cause, no warre should be made in places out of 
the mountaines and difficult passages of that Province, 
where they could not fight with advantage. 
The thirteene Cantons have that priviledge, that they 
deliberate and determine the affaires of the common- 
wealth in publike meetings, by voices, and governe by 
equall right the governments gotten jointly by them, and 
have equal part in all booties. The greatest Senate is 
when all the Ambassadours (that is, chosen Burgesses of 
the cantons, and Fellowes in league) are called together, 
which is seldom done, but in the causes of" making warre 


or peace, onely the Ambassadors of the thirteene Cantons 
being commonly called to counsell : AI Ambassadors have 
equal right in giving voices, but two or more being sent 
from one Canton, have but one voice. In causes con- 
cerning the governements belonging to seven or eight or [llI.iv.z59. ] 
2 Cantons, onely the Ambassadours (or Burgesses, or 
States) of those Cantons meet, to whom the governement 
belongs, and so the Burgesses of all other severally for 
things belonging to themselves: but where the cause 
concernes the publike State, the full Senate of all the 
Cantons is called to the meeting. Since the late differ- 
ences of Religion, new and particular meetings have 
beene instituted. The Cantons of the Roman Religion, 
Uria, Suitia, Undervaldia, Lucerna, and Zug, joined 
in a more strict league; doe often meete together, 
& when any man names the five Cantons simply, 
they meane them, not the five old cantons, howsoever 
naming the three, seven, or eight Cantons, they are taken 
according to the time of their entring into league. And 
sometimes the Cantons of Friburg and Solothurn, being 
also of the Roman Religion, come to the meetings of the 
said five Cantons: Greatest part of the Citizens of 
Glarona and Apenzill, are of the reformed Religion, and 
the foure Cities chiefe of the Cantons, namely Zurech, 
Bern, Bazill, & Schafhusen, have altogether cast off the 
Roman Religion, & have particular meetings, but not 
often: yet when I passed through this Province, I under- 
stood that Glarona was altogether of the reformed 
Religion, and that Apenzill was numbred among the 
Cantons of the Roman Religion. The great Senate 
determines of warre, peace, & leagues, (each having free- 
dome to refuse a.ny. league), likewise of making Lawes, 
of sending, recelvlng, & answering Ambassadors, of 
governments, of distributing gainefull Offices, of difficult 
causes referred to the Senate by Governors, & of 
appeales made from Governours to the Senate. Am- 
bassadours (or Burgesses in place of Judges) are sent 
about the moneth of June, to heare the causes of 



the Italian governments, from whom they may appeale 
to the Senate, and these appeales (as all other)are 
determined by the Senate in the meetings at Baden, 
where also they deliberate of customes & imposi- 
tions, & the revenues, and if need be of punishing the 
Governours, or displacing them, (in which case the 
Canton which sent that Governour, appoints another.) 
The City Zurech chiefe of the Cantons, hath the first place, 
not by antiquity, but dignity, and of old custome hath the 
highest authority to call the Senate together, signifying 
to each canton by letters the cause & the time of each 
meeting : yet if any canton thinke it for the publike good, 
to have an extraordinary meeting, they write to Zurech 
to appoint the same, or if the cause admit no delay, they 
meet uncalled. Most commonly the generall meetings 
are at Lucern, Zurech, Bremogart, and Baden; but more 
commonly in these dales & almost continually they are 
at Baden, in respect of the commodity of the houses and 
Innes, the pleasant situation & famous medicinall Baths; 
and because it is seated in the center of Sweitzerland, and 
is subject to the 8 old cantons. The cantons of the 
Roman religion, commonly have their particular meetings 
at Lucerna, sometimes at Bockenried of the Urii, or Brame 
of the Suitii, & are called together by the canton of 
Lucern: and the cantons of the reformed religion have 
their particular meetings commonly at Arowike under 
Bern, somtimes at Bazil, & are called together by the 
canton of Zurech. Forrain Ambassadors require of 
Zurech to have audience in the Senate: but the peculiar 
meetings for French causes are called by the French 
Ambassador as often as he wil at Solothurn where he 
resideth, or at Lucern: & other Ambassadors shold not 
be denied extraordinary meetings, so they pay the 
expences, as the French Ambassador cloth. The ful Senate 
yeerly meets about September at Baden, about which time 
I said that Burgesses in place of Judges are sent to heare 
the causes of the Italian governments: And in this first 
meeting, the greatest causes are not determined, either 


because the Ambassadours (or Burgesses, or States), have 
not full power, or for other causes, but another meeting 
is there appointed, and howsoever this Senate is onely 
called for publike causes, yet those being ended, they use 
to heare private causes also. Assoone as the said 
Burgesses or States at the appointed day come to the City, 
the Burgesse of Zurech sends the Vice-governor of Baden 
to salute them, & to acquaint them with the time of meet- 
ing. Then they sit downe in the Court, first the Burgesses 
of Zurech in a place raised higher then the rest : 2. Those 
of Bern : Thirdly, Those of Lucerna, as chief, though not 
in antiquity, yet in dignity; and after the rest, according 
to the antiquity of their Cantons. The Burgesse of 
Zurech first makes an Oration, and propounds the causes 
upon which they are to consult adding what his Canton 
hath commanded him in each particulars, and then the rest 
speake in order, according to the directions given them 
at home. The under Governour of Baden, of what 
Canton soever he be, askes and numbers the voices. The 
peculiar meetings of particular Cantons, and those for 
French affaires, have no set times. 
Each Canton hath publike Magistrates, vulgarly called 
Umbgelten, who administer the Impositions upon wine 
and corne, and gather them by their deputies. They pay 
tribute only for that wine which is sold in Taverns, and 
for that corne which is exported or used by Bakers, for 
otherwise the Citizens pay not for wine and corne brought 
into their private houses, and spent therein. And I have 
observed that they pay in some places the value of 24 
measures tribute, for a vessell of wine containing ninety 
six measures: The salt which is brought in, is onely sold 
by the Senate of each Citie or Canton : and I understood 
by discourse, that the Citizens may not buy salt, or take 
it of gift out of the Citie. Particularly at Schafhusen the 
Customes are great, especially for salt, in respect that the 
water of the Rheine hath a great fall from a rocke, so as all 
ships must be unladed before they can passe by that Citie. 
In generall, the Sweitzers especially want wine, come, and 

I6O5-I 7. 

[Ill.iv. 260.] 

The Tbutet. 

The Lawc. 


salt, as may appeare by the covenants of their forraigne 
leagues, and otherwise the tributes are small, which can 
bee imposed upon such a free Nation. 
Concerning their Lawes, I have formerly said that the 
severall Cantons are not bound one to the decrees of the 
other, except they freely consent thereunto; yet that they 
all have one Common Counsell, and almost all have the 
same common Lawes and customes, which they inviolably 
keepe. They long suffered the Governours of the 
Empire to bee over them in capitall causes, though with 
prejudice to their freedome, till at last in the Suevian 
warre, about the yeere I499, the judgement of capitall 
causes was granted to them by the Emperor, among the 
conditions of peace. Whereupon the ten oldest Cantons 
who made this warre, have equal right of capitall judge- 
ment in the stipendary Cities and governments, with the 
Cantons to whom they are subject, though gotten before 
they entred into the common league, howsoever they have 
no right in the Civill causes, nor any other commaund 
over them. In the old leagues, besides the Articles con- 
cerning union, many Lawes for the publike good are con- 
tained and established. Such is that of the old league 
between the eight first Cantons, wherin they set downe 
cautions for peaceable determining of publike contro- 
versies, betwene the Cantons, and therby, two Cantons 
being at strife, are to chuse two honest men, who give 
their othes, to make an equall composition between them, 
and the rest of the Cantons are to adde one Arbiter to 
them; and in case one of the Cantons consenteth, the 
other refuseth to stand to their judgement, all the rest are 
to helpe the Canton consenting thereunto. And in the 
league of the five last Cantons, as in al other, they justly 
give curious cautions for taking away all controversies, 
and espetially labour to effect, that they breake not out 
into Civill war, in which case they should be diversly 
distracted, according to their divers combinations and 
leagues among themselves. Therefore of old, when the 
Abbot of Saint Gallus attempted to remove the teade of 




clothing, and the holy reliques (the superstitious worship 
whereof brought great profit) from Apenzill, to Rosake 
(where the Abbot had absolute commaund) and this 
matter drew them to Armes, wherin the Abbot called the 
foure Cantons his confederates, and Apenzill the six 
Cantons with whome it had league, to give them aide, 
according to their mutuall leagues, the saide Cantons thus 
called to aide both parts, earnestly endevored to make 
peace, wherby they preserved the common-welth. For if 
they should not alwaies carefully so doe in like occasions, 
many times the dissention of one or two Cantons, might 
draw all the rest into a pernicious Civill warre. In the 
foresaid league betweene the eight oldest Cantons, and in 
the Stantian Transaction in the yeere I48I Lawes were 
established. That he who killed any confederate (vulgarly 
called Eidgenossen, that is injoiers of the oath) should be 
beheaded, except he had sufficient witnesses that he did 
it to save his life, and in case of flight, he being banished 
by one Canton, should also be banished by all the rest, 
and that he should be judged guilty of the crime, who 
should helpe him; and that sentence should be given [IXI.iv. z6.] 
upon him in the Canton where the Crime was committed. 
That there should be no generall meetings of the people 
without consent of the Magistrate. That none of the 
Cantons should support any disobedient subject of another 
Canton, but should force them to obedience. That a lay 
person shall not use the helpe of an Ecclesiasticall Judge, 
but in causes of matrimony and manifest usury, which are 
referred to Ecclesiasticall judgement. That pledges or 
gages be not taken at private mens pleasures, but with con- 
sent of the Judge. That causes be judged in the Canton, 
wherein the act was done, and sentence be given without 
fraud or deceit, and that every man bee content and rest 
satisfied in the Judgements Lawes and customes of another 
Canton. That all booties in warre be divided among the 
Cantons, according to the number of Souldiers which each 
of them sent, but that Townes, Tributes, and like things 
gained by warre, shal be under the common command of 

t6o5-t 7. 



all the Cantons, of which commodities, the subjects of 
stipendary Cities and fellowes in league, shall have no 
part, though their Forces bee joined in the same warre 
with Forces of the Cantons, howsoever they are to have 
part in the devision of all other booties. 
In like sort the league of Schafhusen with the Cantons 
of the Sweitzers, determineth how debts are to be 
recovered, and what law is to be used in such suites, and 
that no leagues be made by one without the privity and 
against the will of the rest, and that the oldest leagues be 
ever most respected. 
The Common-wealth is administred with great equity, 
yet with no lesse severity of Justice, then the Germans 
use: And howsoever all the Country lies within moun- 
taines & woods, yet the high way for passengers is no 
where more safe from theeves, so as it is there proverbially 
said, that you may carry gold in the palmes of your hands: 
For all crimes are severely punished without all respect of 
persons. The scope and but whereat all their leagues 
aime, is that every man may peaceably enjoy his owne, and 
that the best men among them, may in publike counsell 
examine the causes of warre, that they be just and lawfull, 
to the end they may never rashly make warre upon any: 
And because the common people being burthened with 
debt, is more prone to seditions, curious orders are set 
downe in their leagues, for the manner of exacting debts, 
and taking pledges, neither giving liberty of oppression to 
the creditors, nor permitting fraud to the debtors. 
Also because military men, and such as drinke in 
excesse, are prone to brawling and blowes, most heavy 
penalties are thereby inflicted upon such as are Authours 
of injuries, and the leagues make not more frequent 
mention of any other thing, then of reproaches, for which 
they prescribe such good remedies and reall satisfactions, 
not passing over the least injury of the poorest man, as 
among the very Souldiers, yea, halle drunken, there very 
seldome hapeneth any murther: Wherein I could wish 
that our inferiour Magistrates would apply themselves, 


Citizens, who are absolved in that case from their oath 
given to their owne Canton, and then they are sworne, 
that they will consider of the controversie, according to 
that which seemes good and equall, and that they will 
faithfully indevour to compose it, at least so as it shall bee 
decided by Law, not by Armes. And in the old leagues 
certaine places are appointed, in which these Judgements 
are handled. The 7 Cantons commonly meete for them 
in the Monastery of the Heremites within their owne 
confines, and so other leagues in other appointed places. 
The Judges and Burgesses of those Cantons, with which 
those that have controversies have more strict league 
determine these causes, if the first arbiters cannot compose 
them, and both parts are bound to rest in the judgement 
of the greater part; and if the Voices be equall on each 
part, as many times it falleth out, a new Judge or Arbiter 
is chosen, who doth not give a new Judgement of his 
owne, but approveth one of the Judgements given by the 
equall Voices of the said Burgesses. And this Arbiter is 
chosen by those Burgesses, and so he be a Citizen of any 
one Canton, it is not required, that he should be of either 
of the Cantons, to whom the cause belongeth. Thus if 
Bern be plaintiffe against the 3 Cantons, x6 men are 
chosen by the Cantons, out of which Bern chuseth one to 
be Arbiter : but if the Cantons be plaintiffes against Bern, 
they chuse an Arbiter out of the lesser Senate of Bern. 
Likewise in controversies betweene Zurech, and Bern, the 
plaintiffe chuseth an Arbiter out of the Senate of the other 
Citie. To conclude, in all Judgements publike and 
private, they use such integrity, as this simplicitie of their 
Judgements, disallowed by subtill polititians, happily 
succeeds in all occasions, and so they retaine their old 
vertue, is like ever so to succeede. In most of the 
Cantons, namely, at Zurech, Basil, and Schafhusen, no 
Bastard may beare publike office, nor be a Senator, or 
Judge, which Law is common to the Sweitzers with the 
Germans, first instituted to restraine fornication, and to 
preserve the dignity of marriage. In some places, he 


must have been a Citizen ten yeres, in other places twenty 
yeres, who is chosen to be of the common Counsell; and 
at Zurech no stranger is ever chosen to be a Senator or 
Judge; and by Common law, no Homicide, Adulterer or 
infamous person for any crime, may be of the Senate. 
In all the Cantons, they are no lesse carefull to prevent 
damages by tier, then to keepe out their enemies ; for 
which cause they hire watchmen to walke the streetes by 
night, and Belmen to tell the howers, and in some places, 
as the Towne of Saint Gallus, they have nightly thirty 
two Watchmen, and chuse Citizens to visit the chimnies 
and ovens, that they be free from danger of tier. In other 
Cantons they have publike Officers, who in any such 
chance, see that all things be done in order, and that no 
tumult be raised upon such occasions, to which end they 
appoint some to quench the tier, and draw others in armes 
to defend the walles and the gates. And at Zurech able 
youn men are yeerely chosen, to be ready for the quench- 
ing or any such casuall tier. 
In Lucerna the Law of Retribution (an arme for an 
arme, a leg for a leg) is in many cases observed, where he 
that killes a Citizen, bee the cause never so just, as 
repelling force by force, shal die if he be taken, or be 
perpetually banished, if he escape by flight, yet when he 
hath satisfied the Kinsmen of him hee killed, hee is 
permitted to returne from banishment. And in all the 
Cantons where they dwell in Villages, he that kills a man 
in his defence, shal be banished, and his owne Senate 
cannot permit his returne, which can onely be obtained 
from the great and publike Senate. And in the same 
Cantons, no lands may be ingaged to any stranger, neither 
may any stranger buy any possessions, but onely a house 
and a Garden for herbes. 
And if any man often offend in Drunkennes, he is 
imprisoned, and may drink no Wine for a yere, till he have 
procured pardon of the publike Senate (which me thinks 
should easily be granted him, by Judges guilty of the 
same fault, except they meane quarrels and like offences, 

[III.iv. z63.] 


not simple drinking, which I thinke probable, because 
generally the Sweitzers drinke as stiffely, as those of the 
upper part of Germany. 
In the same Cantons, Matrimoniall causes are referred 
to the Consistory of the Bishop of Costnetz: but all 
adulteries are punished by the Senate at home, commonly 
with the losse of goods, sometimes with a fine of ten 
pounds, that is ten Dollers with them. 
The publike Edicts are yeerely in these Cantons con- 
firmed or abrogated by the Voices of the common people. 
And in the Towne of Friburg and the Territory, if a 
debter pay not his debt, the Creditor sends certaine 
servants and horses to the publike Inne, the charge 
whereof is paid by the debter, till he satisfie his Creditor. 
Besides in any controversie, if sureties be thrise demanded 
of any man, and he bring not in surety (or caution), he is 
punished with banishment, and the same punishment is 
inflicted on them, who violate the command of keeping 
the peace, and who without just cause take part with 
either of them that are at variance. In generall, for the 
Gentry of the whole Province, mention hath been, and is 
after to be made, that the same is extinguished, so as it 
were in vaine to seeke for any Knightly order among these 
men, who howsoever they be military men, yet universally 
are Cittizens, or of common Plebean ranck. They take to 
themselves coates of Armes devised by themselves, and 
tricked after their owne fancies, yet not with open 
Helmets, as Gentlemen beare them, but with closed 
Helmets, after the manner used by the Citizens in 
Germany. And their Lawes of inheritance and the 
dowries of wives, doe come neerest to those of Germany, 
the Civill law, (if I be not deceived) passing with 
them into Provinciall lawes and customes (by which 
they are governed) upon the old and long continued use 
of them. In one particular example I observed, that the 
younger brother, in the division of his fathers inheritance, 
first chose his part, and had libertie to buy the parts of his 
brethren if he would, and not otherwise. But I shall have 


1605=I 7. 


out against the Duke of Burgundy upon their confines, till 
the yeer I477, when in the third battaile the Duke of 
Burgundy was slaine, and so that warre ended. At which 
time only eight Cantons were united in perpetuall league, 
the other five Cantons being after united at severall times, 
fi'om the yeere 48I to the yeere I53, when the 13 and 
last Canton was united to the rest in perpetuall league. 
Touching their forraigne warres, the first league they 
made for yeeres, was in the yeere 478, and the second 
in the yeere 151o , with two Popes. The first perpetuall 
lorraine league they made, was with the Duke of Milan, 
in the yeere 1466; wherin mention is made of former 
leagues with the Insubres; but we reade no effects of 
warre produced by them. And the first perpetuall league 
they had with France was in the yeere 483, when Charles 
the eight made warre in Italy for the kingdome of Naples, 
about which time the Sweitzers Armes began to be 
knowne in lorraine parts. Guicciardine the famous writer 
of those Italian warres, among the Actions of the yeere 
 500, saith, that the Sweitzers hired by Lodwick Sforza 
Duke of Milan, fought wel on his side at the taking of 
Novara; but after, that their Captaines were corrupted 
to betray him, by the Captaines of other Sweitzers serving 
the French king, whereupon they provoked the multitude 
to Mutiny for pay; but the Duke appeasing them by 
loving words, by present pay in good part, and promise of 
the rest upon the coming of mony from Milan dayly 
expected; that the Captaines of the Dukes Sweitzers 
conspired with the Sweitzers of the French king, to make 
the French presently draw to Novara, which done, the 
Duke prepared to fight, but the Captains of his Sweitzers 
answered him, that without speciall authority from their 
Magistrates, they would not fight against their Kinsmen 
and Countrimen on the French side, and that so the 
Sweitzers serving the Duke, upon their Captaines instiga- 
tion, mingled themselves with the Sweitzers on the French 
side, as if they had been both of one Army, saying they 
would depart home. And that the Duke could with no 


praiers nor promises move their barbarous treachery, to 
stand with him in this distresse, nor so much as to conduct 
him to a safe place, onely granting him to march in their 
bands on foote disguised like a Sweitzer, in which disguise 
taken of force, he with some of his chiefe friends were 
taken by the French, moving compassion of all men 
towards him, and detestation of their treachery. And this 
Author leaves it in doubt, whether they were found out 
in this disguise by the French spies, or rather vilely 
betraied. Semler a famous writer of the Sweitzers Nation, 
thinks that souldiers in generall might be excused, who 
being in a towne unfortified, and having other just causes 
(as disability to withstand the Enemy) should make peace 
and returne home, but granting this fact to be unexcusable ; 
yet whether it were done by the Captaines, or by the 
common souldiers, or by both, and that on both sides, bee 
thinks it a great wrong to impute the same to the whole 
nation, especially those Soldiers being levied secretly, and 
without leave of the Magistrates. 
The foresaid Author Guicciardine in the Actions of the 
yeere i SiI, writes of the Sweitzers to this effect; The 
Sweitzers of old called Helvetians, inhabit the high places 
of the Mountaine Jura, men fierce by nature, clownes, and 
by reason of the barren soile, rather Grasiers then Plough- 
men. Of old they were subject to the Princes of Austria, 
but casting off their yoke, have long been free, living after 
their owne Lawes, and yeelding no signe of obedience to 
the Emperours or any other Princes, divided into thirteen 
Cantons, wherof each is governed by their owne Magis- 
Wates, Lawes & customes. The name of this so wilde and 
uncivill Nation, hath gotten honour by concord and the 
glory of Armes. For being fierce by nature, and trained 
in warlike discipline, and keeping their Orders (or rankes) 
they have not only with valour defended their Country, 
but in lorraine parts have exercised Armes with high 
praise, which no doubt had beene greater, if they had 
fought to inlarge their owne Empire, & not for wages to 
inlarge the Empire of others; & if nobly they had pro- 
M. iv 417 2 I 

I605-I 7. 



pounded to themselves other ends then the gaine of mony, 
by the love wherof being made abject, they have lost 
the occasion to become fearefull to all Italy : for since they 
never come out of their confines, but as mercenary men, 
they have had no publike fruit of their victory but by 
covetousnesse have become intollerable in exactions where 
they overcome, and in demands with other men; yea, at 
home froward and obstinat in traffick, and in following 
their Commands, under whose pay they serve in war. 
Their chiefe men have pensions of Princes to favour them 
in their publike meetings, and so publike Counsels being 
referred to private profit, they are apt to be corrupted, and 
by degrees fall at discord among themselves, with great 
lessning of the reputation they had gotten among 
strangers. He addes, that the Sweitzers, at the Popes 
instigation, armed against the French in Milan, as if it 
were onely the act of Suitia and Friburg, who pretended 
offence against the French, for a messenger of theirs killed 
by them. And that the French King for sparing a small 
addition to their Pensions, neglected to reconcile himselfe 
to them, and so lost their friendship, which after hee would 
have redeemed with great treasure, hoping that either they 
would not arme against him, or if they did, that having 
no horse nor artillery, they could do him small hurt. 
The same Guicciardine in the actions of the yere 15I 3 
witnesseth, that the Sweitzers had then gotten great 
reputation by the terrour of their Armes, and that it 
seemed then, that their States or Burgesses, and souldiers, 
began to carry themselves no more as grasers or mercenary 
men, but as Senatours and subjects of a well ordered 
Common-wealth, and that they now swaied all affaires, 
almost al Christian Princes having their Ambassadours 
with them, by pensions and great rewards seeking to have 
league with them, and to be served by them in their 
warres. But that hereupon they grew proud, and remem- 
bring that by their Armes the French King Charles the 
eighth had got the Kingdome of Naples, and Lewis the 
twelfth the Dukedome of Milan, with the City and State 

[IlI. iv. z66.] 


should recall their men from serving the French, which 
feare after increased, when they saw two thousand of them 
already returned home, and doubted that the rest would 
Also in the actions of the yeere  526, he writes, that the 
French King made request to have a great leavy of 
Sweitzers, hoping they would readily serve him, the rather 
to blot out their ignominy in the battell of Pavia: but 
that this Nation which not long before by their fierce 
nature had opportunity much to increase their State, had 
now no more either desire of glory, or care of the 
Common-wealth, but with incredible covetousnesse, made 
it their last end to returne home laded, 
managing the warre like Merchants, and using the 
necessitie of Princes to their profit, like mercenary corrupt 
men doing all things to that end in their publike meetings. 
And that the private Captaines, according to the necessity 
of Princes, stood upon high termes, making most 
impudent and intollerable demaunds. That the French 
King requiring aides of them, according to his league, 
they after their accustomed manner made long consulta- 
tions, and in the ende answered, that they would send no 
aides, except the King first paid them all pensions due in 
areare, being a great summe, and not suddenly to bee pro- 
vided, which their delay was very hurtfull to the King, 
making his Army long time lie idle. 
By the premises we may gather, that the Sweitzers 
Armes were first made knowne to forraine parts about the 
yere 483 ; that they increased in reputation to the yere 
53, when they attained to the height of their glory, 
which fel in few yeres, by the foresaid jealousies, and 
covetous practises. And no marvell; for their leagues 
and levies are made with huge expences. Their Bands 
are great consumers of victuals, and wasters of the 
Countries they passe. They make frequent and great 
mutinies for pay. They have league with the Emperour, 
as possessing the Arch-Dukedome of Austria; with the 
Kings of Spaine as Arch-Dukes of Austria by title, as 


heires to the Duke of Burgundy, and Conquerors of the 
Dukedome of Milan, and with the Kings of France upon 
ample Pensions. Now all the warres of those times 
having been managed by these Princes, and the Sweitzers 
by league serving on all sides, since they will not fight 
against their Countrimen, small trust can be placed in 
their auxiliary Bands. If any man speake of the King of 
England, he did not in those times leade any army into 
the continent, but associated with one of the Kings of 
Spaine or France, or with the Emperour, in which case the 
Sweitzers served upon the same condition on both sides. 
And if any of their confederates should make warre with 
the King of England at home, they shall have no use of 
Sweitzers, who condition in their leagues not to bee sent 
beyond the Seaes, nor to be imploied in Navall fights. If 
any man speake of the warres in Netherland, the Sweitzers 
wil be found no lesse unprofitable to their confederates, 
those wars consisting in taking and defending strong places, 
and the Sweitzers cove.nanting in their leagues, not to have 
their bodies divided, nor to serve in that kind. And in 
truth since all the rage of late warres commonly lies in 
defending and assailing Forts, and set battels are rarely 
fought, it may seeme strange they should thus divide 
themselves from the common dangers of the Armies in 
which they serve. And all these things considered, I find 
not what use their confederates can make of them, but only 
in civill warres against their owne subjects, with whom the 
Sweitzers have no league. For the rest, as we reade of 
some Indians, who light one candle to the Divell, lest hee 
should hurt them, and another to God that he may doe 
them good; so I thinke Princes still intertaine their 
expensive leagues, rather lest their enemies should be 
stxengthened by their entire aides, then for any profit 
themselves can reape thereby. 
The Sweitzers have no horse, which are of no use in 
the Mountaines and craggie places of their Country : but 
when they make their owne warre out of their owne 
confines, their confederates are by league bound to supply 

I605-I 7. 

[lll.iv. 267.] 


them therewith ; and if the warre be not their owne, their 
confederates only expect auxiliary Bands of foot from 
them. The Roman Boterus writes, that in his judgement 
the Sweitzers can make six score thousand foote for the 
defence of their owne Country. No doubt that Nation 
is very populous: but the greatest Army we ever reade 
them to have carried out of Sweitzerland, was that of 
thirty one thousand, when they joyned with the Pope Leo 
the tenth, the Emperour Maximilian, and Sfortia Duke of 
Milan, being confederates against the King of France. 
Nature and necessity have framed them to the warre ; for 
a Mountanous Region, and Woody (as of old it was, being 
stil somewhat barren and labourious to the Husbandman) 
breedes a rude people, patient of hardnesse, and of warlike 
disposition, and as taller trees and larger cattle, so stronger 
bodies of men, so as they seeme to be borne souldiers. 
Necessity likewise forced them to Armes, when the 
Gentlemen and Princes oppressed them, and they had no 
meanes of liberty, but Armes, wherein long use hath made 
them expert. And their very lawes and customes are 
fitted to the warres. All Citizens and Plebeans use and 
are commanded continually to weare their swords. All 
their severall exercises have a reference to the war, as 
shooting with muskets at Butts (which they practise for 
wagers both in Cities and Villages), leaping, casting of 
stones, wrastling, fencing, swimming, continuall hunting, 
wherein they pursue Beares, wild Boares, and Linces (a 
kind of Wolfe), the shooting of the boyes in bowes, the 
use of Drummes in stead of musick, even at feasts of 
marriages, where the Bridegroome is thought most 
honoured, who is met by his friends with most shot and 
Pikes. All private men are bound to have their Armes fit 
for war, and therewith are commonly armed, though many 
times the worst furnished are supplied out of the Armories 
of the Cities. Their kinds of Armes are muskets, 
caleivers, ashen pikes 18 foote long, halbards, long two- 
handed swords (which they carry on their shoulders, and 
with them they defeated the Burgundians comming to 


hand strokes with them), and another long sword girt to 
their side, with a dagger very heavy, the ha-ftes of silver or 
guilded, and armor of solid steele for brest and backe: 
but the poorer sort have only helmets of iron, and thick 
leather pelts in stead of armor; and some in stead of 
armor, weare coats of quilted taffety, wrought with aglet- 
holes. They who will appeare braver then the rest, carry 
feathers, white, or of some other colour, commonly neere 
the colour of their owne Banner. Each weare a right 
cornerd crosse upon his Armes, which is the military badge 
of the Sweitzers. All follow the Colors and Banners of 
their owne Canton, & use drums, trumpets and bagpipes, 
& a man can hardly distinguish betweene the beating of the 
drums of the Sweitzers, and Germans, save that the former 
march is more grave and slow, and not so tumultuous 
as that of the Germans. The Urii blow a horne of a wild 
Hart, which they call the Bul. The Undervaldii have the 
like, but those of Lucerna use a horne of brasse. No 
man that can weare Armes, is excused from warre at home, 
and no doubt their foot are of great force to fight within 
their mountaines, and keepe themselves from tyranny of 
strangers, howsoever they have not so much strength, 
when with the snaile they come out of their house. Men 
chosen in peace are trained for the warres, but in forraigne 
expeditions one man chuseth another, that being 
acquainted and friends, they may sticke closer together, 
and when they are to march, the Law commands them to 
lay aside all private quarrels, so as they may more truly 
be called brothers, then the Landtznechts or foot of 
Germany, who calling themselves brothers, yet bring home 
more wounds and scarres from their private quarrels, then 
from the Enemy. It is a capitall crime with the Sweitzers, 
to fall to the spoile, before the Enemy be fully overcome. 
The publike spoile, as Artillery, Castles, Countries, and 
tributes, or any revenues, belong equally to all the Cantons, 
though some of them set forth five times more men then 
others, yet extraordinarie rewards are given to the best 
deserving Cantons and private men. They justly give all 

 3 Cantons in 
three formes. 

[III.iv. z68.] 

Townes and 
Killages of the 
first forme. 


protection to those that bring victuals to the Campe. 
They have an old Law alwaies to spare holy places, and the 
sex of women, excepting such women as give weapons to 
their Enemy, or by casting downe stones, and like helps, 
doe hurt unto their Army. They boast that their foure- 
squared body of foote, is the best forme of battel to resist 
horsemen, & that thereby they having no horse, did over- 
throw the French horse at Novaria ; and when for want of 
artillery, and by the great number of the French, they were 
beaten by them at Marignano, yet that they retired in a 
close body & good array to Milan, so as they could not 
be justly said to flie. 
It remaines to speak somthing, but briefly of the 
government of the particular Cantons, because they have 
absolut power within themselves. Among them such as 
have no townes, but dwel in villages, cal the heads of their 
Counsels Ammans, & the chiefe power is in the common 
people. Such are Urania, Suitia, Undervaldia, Tugium, 
Glarona, Abatiscella. Again, some have towns or Cities 
which command the Cantons, and the same especially those 
that were built by Princes, or were subject to them, are 
governed Aristocratically by chief men (namely, a Senat 
chosen out of al the citizens) & cal their chiefe Magistrate 
Scultet, (vulgarly Schuldte Hessen) such are Bern, 
Lucerna, Friburg, Solothurn. Thirdly, other townes or 
cities are divided into tribes or companies, and the Senators 
are chosen out of these Tribes by the voices of the people, 
wherof the chiefe is called Burgomeister. Such are 
Zurech, Basill, and Schafhusen. 
Among those of the first forme dwelling in Villagos, I 
named Glarona, Abatiscella, (vulgarly Apenzill) and 
Tugium (vulgarly Zug), for howsoever they have Townes, 
yet the territory or Canton is not commanded by the 
Townes, having onely equall right with all the Inhabitants 
of the Country. All Townes and Villages of this forme 
(whereof I named sixe) have a President of their Counsels, 
called Amman, that is, Amptman, signifying a man of 
Office. The Urii are derided into ten parts, called 

[III. iv. z69. ] 


Scribes or Clarkes, and other Officers in order: And this 
is peculiar to these Cantons, in the seeking of any publike 
Office, that they who seeke it, are themselves present at 
the giving of voices, and themselves, their Parents and 
children, give voices in their election, which are given by 
lifting up the hand from an high place, and in case of 
doubt, are numbered by the Pole. The Senators are not 
chosen by the whole Assembly, but each by the Inhabitants 
of his owne convent or part: Besides this publike meet- 
ing, other meetings use to be appointed upon extra- 
ordinary occasions, namely, when Ambassadours are to be 
sent, or any decree is to be made of league, peace, or 
warre : Besides the two counsels, of all the people, and of 
chosen Senators, most of the cantons have a privy counsell 
of few men : Thus the Suitii have a privy counsell of one 
Senator, and one Amman chosen of each convent or part, 
and this counsel governes the publike rents and expences. 
They have two courts of Judgment, one of nine men, in 
which the Amman is President, and that determines the 
weighty causes of inheritance, of defamation, and injuries. 
The other of seven men ; in which the Ammans Deputy is 
President, and that determines civill causes of debts and 
contracts. The Urii (or canton of Urania) have the same 
course, where the Court of fifteene men, in which the 
Amman is President, determines civill controversies of 
greatest moment, and the court of seven men, in which the 
Ammans Deputy is President, judgeth of debts under the 
value of threescore pound. The Undervaldii have one 
court of judgement at Stantium, and another at Sarna, and 
each hath an Amman for President. The towne or city of 
Zug, besides the publike counsels of the Canton, hath his 
proper Senate and Magistrates or Judges. In the canton 
of Glarona, the judiciall court of nine men, determines of 
inheritance, defamation, and injuries: And that of five 
men judgeth debts, but onely in the two moneths of May 
and September, Judgements are exercised by the Judges 
yeerely chosen at the generall meeting of the Canton. 
The Canton of Apenzill hath two Courts of Judgement, 


one of twenty foure men (two of each convent or part), 
wherein fines are imposed, and defamations and injuries 
are judged. The other of twelve men called the sworne 
Court of .Judgement, because it judgeth of doubtfull 
controversies, and such as are tried upon oath, and this also 
observes the breaches of Statutes, and determine what 
causes are to be propounded before the Senate, and this 
Office is perpetuall. Of Consistories, and Matrimoniall, 
and Spirituall causes, handled in other Courts, I shall 
speake hereafter in the Chapter of Religion. Capitall 
causes almost in all these Cantons are judged by the 
Senate, or publike Counsell, and that commonly doubled, 
the Amman of the Canton, or his Deputy being President. 
At Zug Assessors out of each Convent or part are associ- 
ated to the Senate, and they sit in a publike place, where 
all men may behold the Judges, and heare their sentences : 
For the Courts of Judgements in the prefectures or 
governements, commonly a Deputy Governor, and 
Assessors, are chosen of the Inhabitants, to joyne with the 
Governour, and they determine as well of civill as 
criminall causes, and these Governours in some places are 
chosen for three yeeres. Some Villages have municipall 
rights under the Cantons, and there they chuse Magis- 
trates out of their owne Village, yet they yerely crave this 
priviledge at the publike meeting, and it is granted them 
as a singular favour. And some of these Villages have 
also their peculiar Banners and Ensignes; but they beare 
them not where the great and common Banner of the 
Canton is displaied. 
In the second place are the Cantons (as formerly is 
shewed) over which the Townes commaund not divided 
into Tribes or Companies, namely, Bern, Lucern, Friburg 
and Solothurn, in which it is forbidden by the Law that 
they should be divided into Tribes. But the Artisans 
have their Colledges (or Halles) not for the chusing of 
Magistrates, but for orders of the Art, and these they call 
Geselscafften, that is, Societies or Fellowships, not Tribes 
or Companies, which are vulgarly called Zunfften. In 

of the second 


duties, and they execute this place foure yeeres, though 
for forme they yeerely resigne their Banners up to the 
Senate; and if in the meane time any one of them die, 
another is set in his place, to fulfill the rest of the yeeres, 
as deputy to his Predecessor and then exercise the place 
foure yeeres more for himselfe. 
In all the Cities of Sweitzerland, the Treasurers or 
Tribunes of the Exchequer, are of great reputation, who 
exercise that Office not for any set time, but so long as 
the Senate will, and themselves like. At Bern the 
Consuls, the Ensignes, and the Treasurers, adding one 
Senator of the Counsel of o_oo, make the Privy Counsell, 
to which all secrets are first brought. In these Cantons 
(as I said) the Magistrates are chosen by publike voices, 
and so are the officers, but the places of lesse dignity, as 
Serjeants & watchmen, are bestowed by the lesser 
counsell. It is peculiar to those of Bern, that they admit 
no man into the lesser counsel, who was not borne in the 
City, and of old they admitted not the very sonnes of 
Senators into that Counsell, if they were borne out of 
the City: but in these daies for the publike good, the 
Sonnes of the absent are as if they were borne in the 
City: but into the greater Counsell they admit those that 
are borne out of the City, so they be the children of 
Sweitzers or any confederates, for strangers are also 
excluded from being of the Senate of oo. All bastards 
or infamous persons are excluded from being of any Senate 
at all. 
The Canton of Bern hath three Courts of Judgement, 
the Judges of them being chosen by the Ensignes and 
Treasurers, and confirmed by the lesser counsell. The 
first is called the outward Court, in which the Consull is 
President, but almost continually the chiefe Appariter or 
Sergeant supplies his place, and he hath twelve Assessors 
or Assistants, whereof one is the last chosen Ensigne, and 
another is chosen of the lesser Counsell, the rest being 
ten, are chosen out of the greater counsell, or Senate, and 
to them be added one Clarke and two Appariters. This 


[llI.iv. z7o.] 


this is common to al these Cities, that each Tribe hath 
two Masters, chosen for half or a whole yeere, which time 
ended, others succeede in that place, yet commonly he 
that was Master the last halle yeere is chosen againe, 
except there be some impediment. The lesser Senate is 
divided into new and old, and that is called the old, 
whereof the Senators have served halfe a yeere, and these 
are not alwaies called to the meetings, for some businesse 
only belongs to the new Senate. At Zurech the two 
Senates are changed each halle yeere, and the old Senate 
at the halfe yeeres end chuseth the new. But at Basil and 
Schafhusen, they remaine in Office a whole yeere. And 
the Masters of the Tribes are chosen by their owne Tribes, 
and confirmed by the greater Senate, but they are con- 
firmed by the old Senate at Basil. The voices are openly 
taken at Zurech, but secretly at Schafhusen (for certaine 
men are set over the elections, in whose eares they give 
their Voyces softly whispering.) The lesser Counsell or 
Senate meetes commonly thrice or foure times each weeke. 
The Consull is President of both Senates, and is chosen 
by the greater Senate for halfe a yeere, and in some places 
for a yeere. The Tribunes are joyned with the Consuls 
for Heads and Presidents of the Senates ; and at Basil nine 
other are joyned to them, who make the Counsell of 
thirteene, to whom the more weighty affaires are referred, 
to consider of them before they be propounded to the 
whole Senate. Zurech hath a peculiar Counsell, which 
may be called the Exchequer Court consisting of eight 
men, chosen foure out of each Senate, and to them all 
Exchequer accounts are referred. Two Clerkes or Secre- 
taries are present at publike Counsels, with assistants 
joyned to them if neede require; and the Office of these 
Secretaries, especially of the chiefe, is honourable and 
gainefull, and not easily conferred on any but a Patritian, 
because they must have full knowledge of the Lawes, Cus- 
tomes, Priviledges, and all secrets oi  the Commonwealth. 
Zurech hath two publike Courts of Judgement or 
Justice, one of eight Judges chosen out of the lesser 


Counsell or Senate, who determine Civill causes, Debts, 
and the like, and from them there is no appeale: but 
themselves referre the most difficult matters to the Senate. 
The other determines the causes of the Revenue. Basil 
hath two Courts of Justice in the great Towne, and a 
third in the lesser Towne. The greater Court consists of 
ten Judges, who are partly taken out of the Senate, partly 
out of the people, and they determine Civill and Criminall 
causes: but the Burgomaster (or Maior) is President for 
Civill causes, and the Advocate of the Empire for 
Criminall, and three men called the Capitall Triumviri of 
Senators degree, pleade and prove inditements against 
malefactors. But at Zurech and Schafhusen, the new 
Senate judgeth capitall causes, yet the Consull or Burgo- 
master is not then President as at other times: but the 
Advocate of the Empire, whom the Senate by speciall 
priviledge chuseth yeerely out of their owne body. And 
at Basil capitall Judgements are given in a publike place : 
but at Zurech in a close private Court with the doores 
shut, and at Schafhusen, the accusation and defence are 
made in open Court: but all are excluded when the 
Senate gives judgement. The lesser Court of the great 
Towne at Basil, doth onely determine small controversies 
not exceeding the value of ten pounds. The Court of 
Justice in the lesser Towne of Basill, hath his owne Burgo- 
master or Consull; and determines all causes except 
criminall. At Schafhusen the Cities Court of Justice, 
determines of debts, contracts, and the like: but if the 
summe of the controversie exceed the value of one 
hundred gold Guldens, the Senate judgeth it. And this 
Cities Court hath twenty Assessors, namely one of each 
Tribe, and eight other chosen by the Senate. It hath 
another Court of Justice for the Mulcts or Fines, con- 
sisting of twelve men, and the Advocate of the Empire 
is President thereof, and this Court imposeth Fines, and 
iu.dgeth the criminall causes of lesse weight, as small 
re, juries and vulgar reproches, for the Senate determines 
ot the greater. 

Jill. iv. 273. ] 


instituted an high Court of Justice, to which appeales are 
made from the lesser Courts, and besides he hath Officers 
of all kinds, after the manner of Princes. The Towne 
(as likewise that of Mulhuse and Rotevil) is numbered 
among the Cities of the Empire, and it (as the other two) 
hath the forme of a Commonwealth formerly described, 
saving that this Towne of Saint Gallus hath some peculiar 
things. It hath sixe Tribes, whereof one is of Gentlemen. 
It hath two Senates, the greater and the lesser, in which 
lesser Senate are foure and twenty Senators, namely three 
Consuls, nine Senators, and twelve Masters of the Tribes, 
(for each Tribe hath three Masters chosen by the Tribes, 
and confirmed by the lesser Counsell or Senate, and one 
of them yeerely by course governes each Tribe, being 
sixe in number, the other two are of the Senate, and make 
twelve) : And twice every yeere, is the choice made of the 
Senate and Magistrates. The first of the three Consuls 
exerciseth that Office for the present yeere, the second did 
exercise it the yeere before, and the third is Judge of 
capitall crimes: And the Consull is yeerely chosen by the 
whole assembly of the people. The greater Senate con- 
sists of sixty sixe men. This Towne hath also an inferiour 
Consull, or (as I may say) a Deputy Consull. The lesser 
Senate judgeth civill causes. The greater meeteth five 
times in the yeere, and judgeth of appeales, and of taking 
new inhabitants, and the like, and extraordinarily it is 
called oftner, as for judging capital causes, at which time 
the Advocate of the Empire (whom I said to be the third 
consul) is President of the counsel. The whole people is 
called together thrice in the yeere, first when the Consuls 
are chosen, z. when oath is given to the newe Consul, 
thirdly when the Ordination of Tributes is read before the 
people: & the Lawes devided into three Parts, are read 
before the people at these three meetings. The first 
Court of Justice, is of five men, which judgeth of debts, 
of wages or hires, of victuals, of injuries, and fines, with- 
out appeale. The court of Justice for the City, is of 
twelve men, changed twice each yeere; & from it apeale 

[III.iv. z74. ] 


is admitted, to the lesser Senate, so the cause be above the 
value of five pounds; but if he that appeales lose the 
cause, he pales a fine to the Judges. The common people 
of the towne and country, lives by making woollen cloth, 
whereupon strict Lawes are made for the same, that the 
web undressed be viewed by three skillfull men, and be 
marked according to the goodnes, and if it be faulty, be 
rent in the middest through the breadth, or be burnt, 
where any great fault is found, and that publikely, besides 
a fine imposed upon the weaver. After, sworne men 
measure and marke the cloth, besides other officers, who 
curiously and particularly view each cloth. I said before 
in the History of this towne, that it made warre upon the 
Abbot, when he sought to remove from it to another 
towne, more absolutely in his power, not only the gainefull 
trade of cloth-working, but also the holy reliques, whereby 
in those dales great gaine came to them. 
Among the Rhetians or Grisons, each convent or meet- 
ing or community hath his Amman, and chiefe Magis- 
trates, yeerely chosen, and a generall Governor of the 
whole leage, called Landtrichter, that is, Justice of the 
land, yeerly chosen at the publike meeting. They have 
many convents or meetings, but only three leagues. The 
head of the second league, called the house of God, is the 
City of Chur, which hath a Cathedrall Church, and the 
common-wealth thereof is not unlike that of Zurech. The 
three leagues have but one common-wealth ; for howso- 
ever most places have their owne Magistrates, and Lawes, 
or rather customes, and Courts of Justice aswell for Civill 
as criminall causes, yet the chiefe power is in the common 
or publike Senate of the three leagues, consisting of the 
Burgesses of the severall convents, not unlike the generall 
Senate of the Sweitzers, and the meeting of all the people 
is seldome called. But they have another Counsell or 
Senate of the chiefe men, namely the Provinciall Judge of 
the upper league, the Consull of Chur for the league of 
the house of God, & the Amman of the third league of the 
ten Jurisdictions, with other chosen men joined to them, 


but this Counsel] hath not full power, for the acts thereof 
are referred to the communities of the leagues, & that 
stands in force which the greater part of them doth 
confirme, and the judgments of such causes as are referred 
to the severall communities, are registred in a written 
booke. They determine controversies and give Judge- 
ments, as the Sweitzers doe. Among their Statutes, it is 
decreed by common consent, that the Bishop of Chur, or 
any Ecclesiasticall person, shall not appoint any Civill 
Magistrates, but that they shall be chosen by the voices 
of the people. The three leagues have their prefectures 
or governments under them, & the governor of their 
Italian prefectures (as of those under the Sweitzers) is 
vulgarly called I1 Podesta, from whom the subiects may 
appeale. The three leagues by course appoint these 
Governors for two yeeres, and the conventes or com- 
munities by course in their owne league, name the said 
Governors for two yeeres. 
Touching the Valesians. The convents of upper 
Valesia are seven, and of the lower are six. The Bishop 
of Sedune is the Prince of the Country or region, who is 
named the Earle and Governor of the same, and he is 
chosen by the Cannons of the Church at Sedune, and by 
the Burgesses sent from the seven convents of upper 
Valesia. The Captaine of the Country is next to the 
Bishop, and is chosen by the Bishop and the said Burgesses 
for two yeeres, and confirmed by the publike consent of 
the severall convents, and to him all Civill causes are 
referred. Each convent hath a chiefe Magistrate or 
Maior, or Castellan, who with the Senate of that convent 
judgeth Civil] and capitall causes, and under him is the 
Amman, (which is the highest officer in the Cantons dwell- 
ing in villages). Appeales are admitted from all the severall 
convents to the publike Senate of Valesia, consisting of 
Burgesses chosen by the convents, and this Senate meetes 
at Sedune twise every yere, and the Bishop sits in that 
Counsell, and the Baily takes the Voyces. By this Senate 
the Common-wealth is governed, the governours, and 

I6O5-I 7. 

Of the 

[III.iv. z75.] 

Of the Towne 
of Bipenne. 


publike Officers are chosen, and it is called the highest 
Court, from which there is no appeale. The Lords of 
Chiurone, of old were of great authority, and are the 
Marshalls of the Bishopricke of Sedune, Vicounts of 
Sedune, and Seneschalls (or Stewards) of Valesia. The 
Valesians have a peculiar Statute to represse the violence 
of mighty men. The Common-wealth is governed by the 
Bishop and the seven Convents of upper Valesia, whom 
lower Valesia obeyeth, being distributed into sixe prefec- 
tures or governments, and three other prefectures out of 
Valesia, taken or subdued in the Savoian warre, are also 
subject to them. 
The Towne of Bipenne having league with the three 
Cantons, for civill causes acknowledgeth the Bishop of 
Basil, and for Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction is under the 
Bishop of Losanna, but hath cast off the yoke of the 
Papacy, and obtained immunitie from the Bishop of 
Losanna, when that Bishoprick and Citie were taken and 
made subject to the Canton of Bern. The Bishop of 
Basil appoints the Maior, out of the Senate of the Towne, 
and the Maior taketh an oath from the Citizens, and they 
likewise an oath from him, and he with the Senate judgeth 
criminall causes, and is President for capitall Judgements. 
The Bishop hath halle of all fines above three pound, and 
certaine tythes with some other revenewes, but the 
Customes Impositions and Tributes belong to the Citie. 
The Citizens serve the Bishop of Basil in warre, but no 
further from the Towne, then they may returne home the 
same day: but if he will use them further, he must hire 
them with pay. The same priviledges were granted to 
this Towne by the Bishop, in the yeere 382, which he 
granted to the lesser Towne of Basil. The publike 
Senates, as well the greater as the lesser, are yeerely chosen 
by all the Citizens, and the Master of the Citizens, or 
Burgomaster is next in authority to the Maior, and is 
chosen by both the Senats, and when they consult of the 
Common-wealth, the Maior and the Officers of the Bishop 
goe out of the Counsell. The Consull, Tribunes, Judges, 


and other Officers are chosen by both the Senates, onely 
the Ensigne is chosen by all the people, and he with the 
Consull hath the care of Pupils. This Towne hath some 
subjects, and their Convents without any Governour 
exercise Judgements : but the greatest matters are referred 
to the Senate of the Towne. 
The Stipendiary Townes or Cities of the Cantons, have 
two Counsels or Senates, and he that is President of the 
publike Counsell is called Schuldthess (as set over debts) 
and at Baden he is chosen by both the Senates. Also they 
have their Officers, their Exchequers and Tributes belong- 
ing to each City: but at Baden the customes at the gate 
belong to the Towne: but the impositions upon Mer- 
chandise belong to the Cantons, to which the Towne is 
subject. Lastly, they have Jurisdiction in Civill criminall 
and capitall causes. Among them the Towne of Frawen- 
feld redeemed it selfe from the servitude of the Monastery 
of Augia, for no small part of the Citizens were Ecclesi- 
asticall slaves to that Monastery. At this day it gives an 
oath to the Lord of Augia, the priviledges alwaies pre- 
served, and that Monastery is incorporated to the Bishop- 
rick of Constantia (vulgarly called Costnetz.) The 
City Judges hav also power to judge and punish 
Touching the prefectures or governements under the 
Cantons, the Governours are sent by course from the 
Cantons for two yeeres, who judge according to the lawes 
of the severall people, and for those beyond the Alpes, the 
Governour hath assistants of the Country chosen and 
joyned with him to judge of capitall and more weighty 
causes, but in Civill causes he judgeth alone, though some- 
times he calles some of the wiser inhabitants to advise him 
therein. The Governours about the Solstice of the yeere, 
yeeld account before the Senate of Sweitzerland, which 
then judgeth the appeales made by the subjects. They 
serve the Cantons in warre, to which they are subject, and 
they follow the standard of that canton, which for the 
present yeere gives them a Governor, and in civill warre 

I6O5-I 7. 

Of te 

Of t,e 

6o5- 7. 

[lI. iv. z77. ] 

Te House f 


Provinces were erected to Dukedomes, did obstinately 
retaine their owne degree, least they should disgrace their 
antiquitie, with the newnesse of any Ducall or other title. 
And it is manifest, that this Earle was the first Peere of 
France, having the prerogative to carry the sword before 
the King of France at his Coronation, and to gird the same 
to his side, being not bound to appeare in Judgement 
before his Compeeres, except some controversie were about 
the property of his Earledome, or he should deny justice 
to his subjects: and finally having the badges of Sover- 
aigne Majesty, to raise an Army, to make Warre and 
Peace, to yeeld no tributes or subjection to the King of 
France, to punish or pardon his subjects, to make Statutes, 
to grant priviledges, to coine mony, and to write himself 
by the Grace of God Earle, which no other Prince of 
France might do, but only the Duke of Britany. Baldwyn 
Earle of Flaunders in the yeere 12o2, became Emperour 
of Constantinople, and held that dignity sixty yeeres, after 
which time the Empire returned to the Greekes. Earle 
Lodwick died in the yeere I383, and Margaret his 
daughter and heire was married to Phillip Duke of 
Burgundy, who by her right became Earle of Flaunders. 
Charles Duke of Burgundy died in the yeere 477, and 
Marie his daughter and heire was married to the Emperour 
Maximillian, and so Flaunders became subject to the 
House of Austria. 
For Phillip, sonne to Maximillian, died before his 
father, and left two sons, whereof Charles the eldest was 
Emperour the fifth of that name, and heire to his Grand- 
father Maximillian. And Charles the Emperour taking 
the King of France, Francis the first, prisoner, in the 
battell of Pavia, in the yeere  525, forced him to renounce 
all Soveraigne power over Flaunders and Artois, and to 
yeeld the Rightes of the House of An'ouj to the Kingdome 
of Naples, and of the House of Orleans to the Dukedome 
of Milan, and of Genoa. Charles died, and his younger 
brother Ferdinand succeeded him in the Empire, being 
long before designed his successor, by being chosen King 


of the Romans: but he left al his States of inheritance 
to his eldest son Phillip King of Spaine. The rest of the 
Provinces by like right of marriage became subject to 
Maximillian, and so fell to Charles, and lastly to the 
King of Spaine, excepting Utrecht and the Transisolan 
Dominion, which by the yeelding of the Bishop (reserving 
his spiritual rights) and of the States of those Provinces, 
were joyned to the rest, and so finally fell to Phillip King 
of Spaine. 
Histories witnesse, that some of these Provinces did 
owe homage to the Empire, and the rest to the King of 
France, till they fell into the hands of the powerfull Dukes 
of Burgundy, who by divers transactions tooke all rights 
from the Kings of France, and because the Empire hath 
been ever since in the House of Austria, it cannot seeme 
strange, the Kings of Spaine being of the same House, 
that these Provinces have been freed of the homage due 
to the Empire. The Emperour Charles the fifth happily 
governed these Provinces with great judgement, handling 
the people gently, who had alwaies been held under a 
gentle yoke by their Princes, injoying great priviledges 
inviolably kept to them, never used to absolute governe- 
ment, but having often taken Armes, when their Princes 
imposed exactions upon them, or broke any of their 
priviledges, and so bringing their Princes to just and 
equall termes. But his son Phillip K. of Spaine, and 
many other Kingdomes, straying from his Fathers example 
in the governement of Netherland, and obstinately despis- 
ing his counsell, which at his death as it were by his last 
Testament he gave him to handle this people gently, and 
not induring their voluntarie and free subjection, hath 
caused the greater, or at least the richer part of these 
Provinces to fall from him and his heires. For upon the 
first dissention about Religion, Pope Pius the fourth 
induced Phillip King of Spaine to publish a Decree in 
Netherland, for the establishing of the infamous Inquisi- 
tion (first invented in Spaine of late to punish the Jewes 
and Saracens, who being Christians yet retained their owne 

I605-I 7. 

The united 

[III. iv. 78.] 

The united 


rites), and also for the execution of the Decrees made in 
the Councell of Trent; which done, more then 400 
Gentlemen made petition to the King to abolish this 
decree, and joyning the intercession of the Emperor, sent 
this petition to the King by the hands of divers Lords and 
Gentlemen, whereof the Prince of Egmond was one, who 
had done the King very great service in the battell of 
Saint Q.gintens. These petitioners were despised by the 
Spaniards, and called Geuses (that is beggers or poore 
slaves), and the King sent them backe unregarded, and 
sent the Duke of Alva to govern Netherland, who cruelly 
raged against the Professors of the reformed religion, & 
beheaded the Prince of Egmond and the Earle of Horn, 
both Knights of the golden fleece, and on all sides pro- 
ceeded butcherly. In the meane time the Prince of 
Orange, (who formerly had in vaine perswaded the Prince 
of Egmond to fly) foreseing this tiranny, with other 
banished Gentlemen, was gone out of Netherland, and fled 
to the Prince of Condy in Fraunce. At last the Duke of 
Alva, having brought all in subjection, reformed the 
policy, and imposed an exaction of the tenth penny, was 
recalled into Spaine. whither he retourned with much 
treasure he had extorted, and Don Juan of Austria 
succeeded in that Government, in whose time the fatall 
Civill warre began in Flaunders, and shortly after 
mutinous troopes called Malecontents joined together, 
neither acknowledging the King nor the States of the 
Provinces, and while Don Juan pursued them, he died in 
the Camp in the yeere 1578. Then Alexander Farnese 
Duke of Parma, was made Governor of Netherland, and 
the King persisting in his purpose to bring that people to 
absolute subjection, and the Professors of the reformed 
religion being grievously persecuted, and all the people 
being mutinously affected for the newe and tirannicall 
exaction of the tenth penny without consent of the generall 
States, and troubles still continuing in Haunders, at last 
some few Provinces, having the Prince of Orange for their 
Generall in the warre, strictly combined themselves in 


league for mutual defence. So Flaunders and the firme 
land was left under the Spanish yoke, but the con- 
federate Provinces firmly resolving to cast off all sub- 
jection to the King of Spaine, instituted a new forme 
of common wealth; For the Prince of Orange wisely and 
valiantly procuring the publike good, was in the yeere 
158 4 traiterously slaine with a bullet by a desperate 
Roague, whereupon the cities of Flaunders lay open to the 
Duke of Parma. 
But the foresaid united Provinces cast themselves into 
the protection of the Qeene of England; and if my 
memory faile not, they are thus named, Holland, Zealand, 
Utrecht, Groning, west Freesland, besides many townes 
for Gelderland, some fortes and strong cities of Brabant, 
and Ostend in Flaunders, a towne for neerenes fit to annoy 
the Enemy. And the foresaid fortes and strong cities, for 
the most part lying upon the coast of the sea within land, 
& upon the mouth of the Rheine where it fals into the sea, 
gave free traffick by sea to the united Provinces, & forbad 
the same to the cities within land, and besides yeelded this 
commodity; that as the Spanish soldiers from their forts 
send freybooters to spoile the united countries of Gelder- 
land, Groning & Friesland, so the soldiers of the states 
might from thence make incursions upon the countries 
subject to the King of Spaine, wherby the country people 
were forced to pay large yeerly contributions, to be free 
from this spoile. The few inhabitants of these small 
Provinces, whome men will judge but a breakefast to the 
Spanish Army, notwithstanding have not only bene able 
to this day to keepe out these powerfull forces from entring 
their territories; but may justly brag, that they have 
wonne many strong forts and townes from the Spaniard, 
and carried their Army into Flaunders, where in a field 
fought at Newport, they obtained a glorious victory 
aainst the Spaniardes. And so much in small progresse 
ot time have their just and moderate Counsells increased 
their common-wealth, governed with great equity and 
equality, as at last forsaken (as it were) by the King of 


The Prince 

protects them. 


and sent him into Spaine, and she bore him likewise a 
daughter, which was married to Count Hollock, a German 
well respected by the States for his warlike reputation and 
good services done to them, and he with his wife lived in 
Holland, when I passed through these parts. His second 
wife was the sister to the Elector of Saxony, by whom he 
had the foresaid Count Maurice, who yet being young, 
succeeded his father in the generall conduct of the States 
Army, and about this time whereof I write, had taken 
two strong Cities in Brabant, the inheritance of the Prince 
of Orange, namely, Bredaw and Getrudenberg; and 
because they were part of the Earledome of Buren, some 
difference was then about them, betweene the said Count 
Maurice and his said sister by the fathers side, wherein 
it was generally said, that the States favoured the Count. 
Also the Prince had by this wife a daughter, after married 
to the Governour of Friesland. His third wife was sister 
to the Duke of Mompensier in France, which had been a 
Nun, and by her hee had sixe daughters. Lewis married 
to the Palatine of the Rhein, Marie then living at Hage, 
the third living then in France, the fourth with the Count 
of Schwarthenburg, and Francis also then living at Hage, 
and a sixth then brought up in the County of Nassaw. 
His fourth wife was a French Lady of the Family of 
Chastillon, famous in that worthy Admirall of France 
killed in the Parisian Massacre. And this wife after the 
Prince was slaine lived then at Hage, with her onely sonne 
by him, who being borne at Delph in Holland, was there- 
fore, and for many respects much regarded by the 
Hollanders, and yet being a childe, was honoured with 
military commands, and a large stipend for his mainten- 
ance, and shortly after had the title of Colonell of Holland, 
with no small addition to his meanes. 
Being now to speake of the Magistrates, Lawes and 
degrees of Orders in this Commonwealth, it will not be 
amisse, first for conjecture of the generall estate of Nether- 
land, to write some few things out of Marchantius a 
Flemming, and other approved Authours, particularly of 
M. v 449 2 F 


if these Lords impose any tribute upon their subjects, 
except it bee with the consent of the Earle of Flaunders. 
There bee some of these that are called vassals, whereof 
some are clients of an higher, some of a lower degree. 
And the Earle of Flanders hath about seventeene feud- 
atory Courts, and the number is very great of Clients in 
Fee, depending immediately upon one or other of the 
said Courts, whereby the Earle hath many pecuniary 
profits and other services, upon fines and alienations of 
In the third rancke of Gentlemen are they, who hold 
inheritance in Fee, whereof some are tied to the Jurisdic- 
tion and Counsell of the Earle, as the Chancelor (so called 
of correcting or cancelling writings ill drawne with blotting 
out lines), which dignitie is tied to the Prepositure of 
Bruges Church, and before the Counsell of Flaunders was 
erected, this Office was of greater authoritie then now it 
is. Others of this kind are Burgraves or Castellanes or 
high Sheriffes, who are set Judges over Townes and 
Castles, with prerogative to have a proportion of the 
mulcts or fines, which dignity belongs to certaine Families, 
and may be alienated to others by sale, or for dowrie in 
marriage, and all have not the like but divers jurisdiction 
and preheminence. The Burgrave of Dixmud hath the 
Lordship or command of the Towne (which no other 
Burgrave hath), the ruling of the weights in the Market, 
the customes at the Gate, capitall Judgement, the fines 
that are under three pounds of Paris, and a part with the 
Earle of the greater fines, and the power to appoint the 
Baily, Scabins and Burgomaster, and a third part of the 
goods of bastards dying without children. Also the Bur- 
grave of Ypre takes an oath to himselfe of the Officers 
of that Towne as well as to the Earle, and he hath the 
fines, and power to appoint Magistrates. Others of this 
third rancke of Gentlemen have warlike Offices by inherit- 
ance, as the Constable (so called of Coninc and stapel, as 
the stay and upholding of the King), who hath the highest 
command in the warres; and the Admirall (so called of 


[III. iv. 281 .] 


a Greeke word), who hath the chiefe command in Navall 
affaires. Then two Marshals (so called as skilfull in 
horsmanship, for the old Dutch called an Horse mar, and 
now a mare is by them called meri, and schalc signifies 
cunning.) Also the Steward of the house. And the 
militarie titles still remaine hereditary to divers families, 
but the exercise of the Office is taken from them. Other 
Gentlemen of this third ranck, are by inheritance Officers 
to oversee the Revenues, and to take accounts; such are 
the Treasurers and receivers for the Princes Rents, for 
perpetuall Tributes of land, and these honours still remaine 
to certaine Families, though these Rents are now brought 
in ready money into the Exchequer. Other Gentlemen 
of this third ranck, have Offices in Court, as the Master of 
the household, Chamberlaine, Cup.-bearer, which offices are 
proper by inheritance to certalne Families: but the 
Master of the game, as well for hunting as hawking, and 
the \,ater-Graves, (overseeing Lakes and Rivers for 
Swannes, fishing, and other like things), are offices given at 
the Princes pleasure, and not proper to any Familie. 
The fourth rancke of Gentlemen is of those, who are 
adorned with the Knightly girdle, and they are called 
guilded Knights, of their golden spurres and other orna- 
ments, which honour the Princes give for great services, 
creating them, with laying a drawne sword on their left 
shoulder, and with certaine solemnity of words, & those 
who have this title, be they never so meane, are made 
Gentlemen with their posteritie; and if they be Gentle- 
men, yet it addes dignities to them. And because I have 
made this mention of Knights, give mee leave to adde a 
word of the Knightly order of the Golden Fleece, insti- 
tuted by the Duke of Burgundy, Phillip the Good, in the 
yeere 14z9, upon the very day of his mariage with 
Elizabeth of Portugall, in imitation of Gedions Fleece, 
and of the Golden Fleece fetcht by the Argonauts of 
Greece. He received into this Order, Gentlemen un- 
blameable for life and valour in Armes, whereof the Prince 
and his successours are the Head or chiefe President, and 


hee gave each of them a Scarlet gowne of woollen cloth 
(which his son Charles changed into a red Velvet Gowne) 
and a gold chaine, with his fathers Emblem, of a steele 
striking fire out of a flint, upon which chaine hangs the 
Golden Fleece, and upon the death of any Knight this 
badge is sent backe, to be bestowed upon some other 
Gentleman of merit. At first the number of these Knights 
with the Prince their head was twenty five: but within 
five yeeres they were increased to thirty five. And the 
Emperour Charles the fifth in the yeere 56, made the 
number fifty one. At the first institution, this order had 
foure Officers, a Chancelor, a Treasurer, a King at Armes, 
and a Secretary; and in the Court of this Order, the 
unlawfull flying of any Knight out of the field, and all 
other crimes, and the dissentions among them, are judged 
without appeale. The feast of the Order hath been kept 
in divers places, according to the Princes pleasure, but the 
Armes of the Knights are set up in the Chancell of the 
chiefe Church at Bruges, where the feast thereof was kept 
at the first institution. In generall, Flaunders hath a 
great number of Lords and Gentlemen (as likewise the 
Dukedome of Luxenburg, and adjoyning Provinces), and 
they exercise themselves in feeding of Cattle and tillage, 
but ju,d,g,.ing ignoble all trade of Merchants, and profession 
of manuall arts. They have no immunities (as in Artois, 
Henault, and all France), but beare the same burthen of 
tributes with the people, to keepe them from sedition, 
while the Gentlemen, hated by them, beare the same 
burthen as they doe. 
Having spoken of the two States of the Clergy and 
Gentlemen, it remaines to adde something of the third 
State, namely, the foure members, which have the place 
of the common people in other Kingdomes ; and they are 
Ghant, Bruges, Ypre, and Terra Franca, that is, the Free 
land, which foure Territories have the chiefe, or rather all 
authoritie in Flaunders. Each of these members is 
exempted from all confiscation of goods by old priviledge, 
confirmed by the Emperour Charles the fifth, in the yeere 

[III.iv. zSz.] 


I549. Other Cities, howsoever they have their Magis- 
trates, Lawes and Revenewes to themselves, yet in the 
common Counsell or Parliament for imposing tributes, or 
leavying of souldiers, they follow the foure members, and 
all Flaunders is bound to their Decree in this generall 
meeting of the States, the Clergie, Gentlemen, Lords and 
Burgesses of other Cities consulting with the foure 
members: but they challenging all authoritie to decree, 
and solely representing the whole bodie of Flaunders in 
the generall meetings of all Netherland. John Duke of 
Burgundie removed from Lile to Ghant the Senate, called 
the Counsell of Flaunders, and giving the Law to all 
Flaunders. Bruges, a most pleasant Citie is the second 
member, having this priviledge above all other Cities, that 
bee who is free of the same by birth, gift, buying, or 
marriage, is freed from all confiscation of any goods where- 
soever found, no crime or case excepted; whereas the 
priviledges of other Cities alwaies except violence offered 
to the persons of the Prince, his Wife, and Children. 
Also Bruges hath a stately Mint-house, with priviledge to 
coyne money. Ypre is the third member, which City I 
passe over, for feare to be tedious. The fourth member 
is Terra Franca, added to the rest (being but three at the 
first institution), by Phillip the Good, in the yeere 437, 
with intent to bridle the power of Bruges, which Citie 
then much repined at the same, and never ceased to raise 
tumults, till Marie, wife to the Emperour Maximilian 
abolished this fourth member, which Charles the fifth their 
Grand-child shortly after restored to that dignitie. 
Among the Magistrates some of them doe properly 
belong to the Princes affaires, namely, the Legall Chamber, 
consisting of the Princes Counsellers, and being (as it 
were) the head of other Courts, the meeting and number 
whereof is at the Princes pleasure, but commonly the 
meeting is at Ghant, and they consult of waighty affaires, 
(which since have beene referred to the Princes Privy 
Counsell, or to the counsell of Flaunders, seated at Ghant). 
And to the same are referred all controversies touching 


fees, and appeales from feoditary Courts, which are judged 
without appeall, in the presence of the Earle or his Baily, 
there being a chaire, cushion, and Sword of estate. Also 
the chamber Hastredeninga, that is, the supreme court 
of accounts, consisting of hereditary treasurers, yeerly 
meeting at Lile for three daies, who judge without appeale 
all things touching Receivers, with personall and reall 
actions belonging to the Princes patrimony, and give 
oathes to new Treasurers and Feodaries. The third court 
of accounts, established at Lile, consists of a President, 
foure Masters, five helpers, and two clarkes. It examines 
the accompts of revenues by rents of lands, woods, 
customes at gates, confiscations, Fines, goods left to the 
Prince, as by shipwracks and Bastards dying without 
children, by homages, Pensions, and like profits, and all 
hereditary treasurers, and the two generall Receivers, give 
accompt in this court. Phillip the bold gave this court 
great authority, but John his sonne, removed the 
counsellers thereof to the oPfice of Justice in Ghant, and 
left the court at Lile to register the Princes edicts, and 
Priviledges granted by him. Fourthly the court called 
the Counsell of Flaunders, which I said was removed from 
Lile to Ghant, and seems chiefe in dignity ; first instituted, 
partly by litle & litle to draw Flaunders from the jurisdic- 
tion of Paris, in imitation of Brabant, Hennault, and 
Holland; for which howsoever the Princes did homage 
to the Emperor, yet they belonged not to the jurisdiction 
of the Empire, homage and jurisdiction by nature and in 
themselves being much different. But the chiefe cause 
of the institution, was the long absence of Phillip the bold 
in France, during the infirmity of the French King, in 
whose time this court formerly kept in divers places at the 
Princes pleasure, was setled at Ghant, and to this court are 
referred all things belonging to the Princes right and 
authority, & the controversies of Coiners, of the Church, 
of the Province and of Cities among themselves and with 
others, and appeales from Magistrates, and ratifying the 
Princes pardons for crimes. The Counsell consists of a 




President (of a Knightly degree by vertue of his office) 
eight Counsellors (having yeerly stipends) foure Com- 
missaries (having part of the profit by informations) and 
for Assessors, the Procurator & the Advocate of the Prince, 
the Treasurer of the revenues, a Secretary and a Notary. 
Besides these courts and this said Counsell, Marchantius 
mentioneth a court of Justice highest and without appeale 
over all Netherland, instituted by Charles last Duke of 
Burgundy in the yeere I473 at Mechlin, (as being in the 
Center of Netherland) and it judgeth after that is equall 
and good, in imitation of the Parliament of Paris; so as 
suiters ,leeded not to follow the Earles Court. And the 
Prince was chiefe head of this Counsell, or in his absence 
the Chancellor, he being not present, the Bishop of 
Tornay, with two Presidents, ten Lay and nine Clergy 
Counsellors, six Masters of Requests (who were com- 
manded to ride on horseback to the Senate, clad in Purple.) 
But Mary the daughter of the said Charles, fearing the 
French and Civill war, commanded the ceasing of judge- 
ment in this Court, which Phillip her son restored, and in 
the yeere 493 reestablished that court at Mechlin, but 
lesse a,d more weake, as it still remaines. 
And this shall suffice of the Magistrates belonging to 
the Princes affaires. Others belong to the subjects in 
severall Countries and Cities. Such are the Scabines and 
the Bailies. Scabines are so called of a German word 
Schaffen (that is to dispatch, or of an Hebrew word (as 
the Germans say.) These defend the rights and privi- 
ledges of the people, determine controversies by the 
Statutes and municipall customes, or for want of them, by 
the written Law, and are present when any are tortured, 
and judge capitall causes, the pardoning whereof is rather 
permitted to the Prince, then much used by him. And 
these Magistrates are diversly named in divers places, as 
Voegte (Tutor) Portmeister, (Officer of the Port or 
Haven), Lanthouder, (that is, Keeper of the Land,) 
Kourcher (that is, chosen Lord), and Burgerrnaster (that is, 
Master of the Citizens). Under them are the Treasurers 


or Receivers in each City, and aswell they as the Scabines, 
are chosen by the Commissaries of the Prince. Next are 
the Baylies, so called of a French word, as Tutors and 
Keepers; and they are diversly called in divers places, 
namely Schuldheten, as Judges of debts : and they differ 
from the Scabines, in that the Scabines Judge, the Bailies 
execute their Judgements and the Princes Edicts; they 
have stipend, these are paid out of the Fines; they are 
changed after one or two yeeres, these continue long in 
Office; lastly, they respect the rights of the people, these 
of the Prince. In the Villages they have Officers called 
Ammans, who proclaime the Edicts of the Magistrate, and 
warne Debters to make payment, and upon longer delay 
then is permitted by the Municipall Lawes, sell their goods 
at the outcry. They have a supreme Judge of capitall 
causes, whom they call Soveraigne Baily, instituted in the 
yeere 374, to apprehend murtherers and banished men, 
and to put them to death, or otherwise punish them, with 
the assistance of two Gentlemen having fees, or being 
Feodatory Clients to the Prince. And to this Officer 
authority was lately given & confirmed by the Emperor 
Charles the fifth, to release banishment, and for theeves 
and manslayers by chance, or upon their owne defence, 
and like offenders, upon satisfaction made to the next 
Kinsman of the man-killer, and to him that was robbed: 
not onely to give them safe conduct to passe for forty 
dales, but also to pardon their crimes, so as the Mulcts 
or Fines be gathered for the Prince, not to his behoofe; 
and the Counsell of Flanders approve the confessions of 
the offender to be true. But in case the Magistrate of 
the place where the offender dwelt, require him to be there 
tried, it cannot be withstood. And this Office is of such 
dignity, as Knights for long time have executed the same. 
Many Tributes were of old granted to the Prince, as 
perpetuall Tributes of the Fields, of Corne, Oates, Cheese, 
and Larde ; which things for foode, have long time beene 
redeemed with money, the price being yeerely set diversly 
by the Counsell of accounts seated at Lile. And no 


wealth of the 
protected by 
the Queene of 


doubt through troubles and civill warres, from the begin- 
ning to this day, all like burthens are greatly increased 
both in number and measure, which may more easily bee 
conjectured, by that which shal be said of this subject, in 
the discourse of the united Provinces. 
Flanders is most ruled by municipall Lawes and 
customes of Townes and Cities, and for want of them by 
the Civill Lawes. The Lawes of Flanders forbid any man 
to give in Legacies by his last Will and Testament, more 
then the thirds of his goods, (wherein are comprehended 
Lands in Fee); or that any stranger should beare the 
office of Magistracy: yet strangers may there inherite 
their Kinsmens goods, contrary to the custome of France, 
England, and Scotland, where the Kings have the goods of 
all strangers dying intestate, and having there no children. 
In Flanders no man is deprived of his mothers inheritance 
for bastardy, no not the children of a noble woman being 
a concubine, except some municipall Statute made by the 
Princes, doe in some places prejudice them. The Citizens 
of Curtrac about the yeere  557, and those of Ghant some 
sixe yeeres after, have excluded those who are borne in 
adultery or incest from their mothers inheritance : but the 
provinciall Counsell of Flanders in the yeere I532 , gave 
sentence, that a Bastard should succeed in the fee of his 
mother, with priviledge of age and sex, even where the 
Parents leave Children lawfully begotten. 
I returne to the foresaid Provinces, which I said to be 
united in mutuall league for their defence against the 
Spaniards. The said Provinces, at the first breaking out 
of the civill warre, when Antwerp was besieged, humbly 
and instantly besought Elizabeth Qeene of England, to 
undertake their patronage and defence, and to encourage 
and give her more power, offered her the Soveraignety of 
those Provinces; but the most wise Qeene with grave 
counsell, and for weighty reasons, refused to take them for 
Subjects. Perhaps (among other reasons of greater 
weight) fearing lest undertaking that warre as Qeene of 
the Provinces, most part of the burthen thereof should 


fall upon her English subjects, thinking it probable, that 
the Netherlanders, being a people which had often taken 
Armes against their Prince, of all other things least bearing 
new taxes and impositions, (which they professed, next the 
persecution for Religion, to be the chiefe cause of this 
warre), would alwaies be apt to stir up sedition when her 
Majesty as their Prince should impose but half the 
tributes & customes, which themselves by general consent, 
& for love of liberty have imposed & born with incredible 
patience, during this warre. And howsoever her Majesty 
desired their liberty should be preserved, yet the peace 
betweene England and Spaine, howsoever shaken by many 
injuries on both sides, provoking desire of revenge, not- 
withstanding was not yet fully broken. And it seemes 
probable to me (not knowing those counsels but by con- 
jecture), that her Majesty being a woman, the King of 
Spaine being powerfull, and some of her Subjects being 
alienated from her for the reformation of Religion, 
thought it more wisdome to suffer warre for her just 
defence, then her selfe openly to beginne the same: yet 
would shee not altogether neglect the afflicted people of 
those Provinces, but resolved with the States thereof, that 
they should make Count Maurice sonne to the Prince of 
Orange, Generall of their Army, governing their owne 
affaires, and her Majesty should professe the defence of 
that afflicted people, with whom England alwaies had strict 
league of trade and amity, till meanes might be used for 
restoring them to the King of Spaines favour. Where- 
upon at the instant suite of the States, the tenth of August 
in the yeere 585, her Majesty granted them an aide of 
five thousand Foot, and a thousand Horse, to whom her 
Majesty was to give pay during the warre, yet so as the 
Provinces were bound to make restitution of all her 
expences, when the warre should be composed; and for 
pledge of performance, should give into her Majesties 
hands the Towne of Vlishing in Zealand, with the adjoin- 
ing Castle of Rammekins, to be kept with a Garrison of 
seaven hundred English foote, and the Towne of Brill 

I605-I 7. 

[llI.iv. z84. ] 


with some adjoining Forts, to be kept with a Garrison of 
45c) English Foot, the said Provinces being bound (as I 
said) to make reall satisfaction to her Majesty at the end 
of the warre, for all expences, aswel of the said Forces, as 
of these Garrisons, which amounted yeerly to the summe 
of one hundred twenty six thousand pounds sterling. And 
her Majesty (or the safety of her neighbours bore this 
intollerable burthen, till the yeere 1594, at which time Sir 
Thomas Bodley Knight, her Maiesties Ambassadour for 
those Provinces, by a new transaction diminished those 
great expences, the wealth of those Provinces being then 
much increased, aswell by the concourse of Merchants 
leaving desolate Flanders to dwell in that flourishing State, 
as because they had brought many Countries by right of 
warre to yeeld them contributions, namely, all the Sea 
Coast of Brabant, some part of Flanders, with the Countries 
vulgarly called, Ommelands, Drent, Twent, Linghen, 
Limbrough, and Walkenbrough, and had greatly increased 
their tributes, aswel in Holland, Zeland, Freesland, and 
Utrecht, as in Guelderland, Zutphan, I)landt over Ysell, 
and lastly, had taken many strong Townes of no small 
moment, namely, I)eventer, Zutphan, Nimmenghen, Ston- 
wicke, Bredaw, Hulst, Steneberg, and Groninghen. The 
state of those Provinces being (as I said) thus increased, 
and her Majesty being (orced for many yeeres to keepe 
a strong army at home, to subdue the Irish Rebels, her 
Majesties Ambassadour at the (oresaid time made a new 
transaction with the States, for diminishing the charge of 
the English Forces serving them. And this helpe so long 
given by her Majesty to the united Provinces, cannot 
seeme of smal moment: For howsoever the Q.een did 
not alwaies keepe the full number of the said Forces, and 
sometimes called home, or cashiered part of them, yet shee 
did alwaies maintaine the greatest part, decreasing or 
increasing the same according to the necessity of the 
present affaires, and imploied the Forces called home, 
onely in voiages by Sea, profitable aswell to the united 
Provinces, as to England, and that for a short time of 

wealths of 


any other; but the wheele of the publike State is turned 
by the Senate of the generall States residing at Hage, yet 
so, as they doe not take upon them to determine difficult 
matters, without some diffidence, till they have the consent 
of their particular Cities and Provinces, except they be 
made confident by the concurring of eminent men, who 
can draw or leade the people to approve of their doings, 
or in such cases as by long practice they fully know not 
unpleasing to the people. So wary are they, notwith- 
standing the Provinciall States from their Communities, 
and the generall States at Hage from them, have most 
ample power and absolute commission, in expresse words, 
to doe any thing they judge profitable for the Common- 
wealth. And it is a remarkeable thing, to observe their 
Art, when in difficult cases they desire to protract time, or 
delude Agents, how the generall States answere, that they 
must first consult with the provinciall States, and 
they againe answere, that they must first know the 
pleasure of their Communities, before they can deter- 
mine, and each of them hath nothing, more in his 
mouth, then the consent of his superlours, (for so 
they call them). Whereas if businesse were so to be 
dispatched, no doubt great difficulty would arise in all 
particular actions. In the Senate of the generall States, 
besides the States themselves, Count Maurice hath (as I 
thinke) a double voice, yet I never observed him to be 
present at their assemblies. The Ambassadour of England 
hath likewise his voice, and Count Solms (as I heard) 
because he married the widdow of Count Egmond, and 
for his good deserts in the service of the united Provinces, 
hath for himselfe and his heires the like priviledge. Thus 
the Commonwealth in generall is Aristocraticall, (that is, 
of the best Men), save that the people chuseth the great 
Senate, which rules all. 
Touching the Commonwealths of particular Cities. 
Amsterdam is the chiefe City of Holland, where the great 
Senate consists of thirty sixe chiefe Citizens, whereof one 
dying, another is chosen into his place; and this Senate 


yeerely chuseth foure Consuls, who judge civill causes; 
and have power to appoint ten Judges of criminall causes 
(vulgarly called Skout), though they be not of that Senate. 
The other Cities are in like sort governed, but according 
to the greatnesse of the City or Towne, they have greater 
or lesser number of Senators. 
The Tributes, Taxes, and Customes, of all kinds 
imposed by mutuall consent, (so great is the love of liberty 
or freedome) are very burthensome, and they willingly 
beare them, though for much lesse exactions imposed by 
the King of Spaine (as they hold) contrary to right, and 
without consent of his Subjects, they had the boldnesse 
to make warre against a Prince of such great power. Yet 
in respect of the unequal proportioning of all contribu- 
tions, they are somewhat at ods among themselves, & many 
times jarre, so as it seemed no difficult thing to breake 
their concord, had not the common Enemy & the eminent 
danger of Spanish revenge, together with the sweetnesse 
of freedome once tasted, forced them to constant unity. 
This I dare say, that when they humbly offered them- 
selves vassals to the Qeene of England, in the first infancy 
of their Common-wealth, if her Majesty, or any other 
Prince whosoever, undertaking their protection, had 
burthened them with halle the exactions they now beare, 
it is more then probable, that they would thereby have 
beene so exasperated, as they would have beene more ready 
to have returned under the obedience of the King of 
Spaine, whose anger they had highly provoked, then to 
endure the yoke of such a Protector : For each Tunne of 
Beere (which they largely swallow), they pay into the 
Exchequer sixe Flemmish shillings (each shilling being 
sixe stivers), I meane of Beere sold abroad, for they pay 
onely foure shillings for such Beere, as men brew for the 
use of their private families, which frugality few or none 
use, except perhaps some brew small Beere for their 
Families, and indeed I doubt they would find small 
frugality in brewing other Beere for themselves, if the 
Cellar lay open to their servants. And howsoever the 

[Ill.iv. 286.] 


Tunnes be of divers prices, according to the goodnesse.of 
the Beere, namely of two, three, route, five, or slxe 
Guldens, the Tunne (though at Leyden onely the Brewers 
may not sell Beere of divers prices, for feare of fraud in 
mixing them), yet there is no difference of the Tribute. 
They have excellent fat pastures, whereof each Aker is 
worth forty pound, or more to be purchased, and they 
pay tribute for every head of cattle feeding therein, as two 
stivers weekely for each Cow for the Paile, the great 
number whereof may be conjectured, by the plenty of 
cheese exported out of Holland, and the infinite quantity 
of cheese and butter they spend at home, being the most 
common food of all the people: For Oxen, Horses, 
Sheepe, and other Beasts sold in market, the twelfth part at 
least of the price is paid for tribute, and be they never so 
often by the yeere sold to and fro, the new Masters still 
pay as much. They pay five stivers for every bushel of 
their owne wheate, which they use to grind in publike 
Mils: And since they give tribute of halfe in halfe for 
foode and most necessary things, commonly paying as 
much for tribute as the price of the thing sold, the imposi- 
tion must needs be thought greater, laid upon forraigne 
commodities, serving for pleasure, pride, and luxury: 
besides that, these tributes are ordinary, and no doubt 
upon any necessity of the Commonwealth, would be 
increased. French wines at Middleburg the Staple 
thereof, and Rhenish wines at Dort the Staple thereof, are 
sold by priviledge without any imposition, but in all other 
places men pay as much for the Impost, as for the wine: 
Onely in the Campe all things for food are sold without 
any imposition laid upon them: And some, but very few 
eminent men, have the priviledge to pay no imposition 
for like things of food. Each Student in the Universitie, 
hath eighty measures of wine (vulgarly called Stoup) 
allowed him free from imposition, and for six barrels of 
Beere, onely payes one Gulden and a quarter, that is, two 
shillings six pence English, being altogether free from all 
other tributes, which priviledge the Citizens enjoy in the 



Armes of the sea within land, passing by their cities, the 
innumerable waters (though for the most part standing, or 
little moving), which by made ditches carry boats and 
barkes to all their Cities, (being there more frequent then 
in any other part of the World), and to all their Villages, 
and compasse almost all their pastures, yeeld no small 
commodity to their Common-wealth. For they having 
little of their owne to export, and wanting Corne, Wood, 
or Coales, and many necessaries for their use, yet by this 
onely benefit, and their singular industry, not only most 
abundantly injoy all commodities of all Nations for their 
owne use, but by transporting them from place to place 
with their owne ships (whereof they have an unspeakable 
number), make very great gaine, being delighted in 
Navigation by nature (as borne and bred in the midst 
of Seas and waters), and having by warre, heating their 
Flegmaticke humours, attained to such skill therein, as for 
trafficke they saile to the most remote coasts of the world, 
and in processe of time being growne so bold sea-men, 
as they will scarcely yeeld in this Art, to the English for 
many former yeeres excelling therein. So as their tributes 
imposed on Merchants commodities, must needs be of 
exceeding great moment. 
And not to weary nay selfe with the curious search 
thereof, I will onely adde for conjecture of the generall, 
one particular related to me by credible men. That in 
time when Italy suffered dearth, and was supplied with 
corne from these parts, the tributes of one Citie Amster- 
dam, in one weeke, exceeded the summe of ten thousand 
pounds sterling, whence the revenew of all tributes in 
all the Havens and Cities, may bee conjectured to be 
excessively great. So as adding the impositions upon 
domesticall things, and the great contributions paid by the 
enemies subjects upon the confines in time ot warre (to 
purchase the safety of their persons and goods, with free- 
dome to till their grounds from the rapine of freybooting 
souldiers), a man may well say, that the united Provinces are 
no lesse able, then they have been daring, to doe great things. 


This Common-wealth is governed by particular lawes 
and customes of divers places, and by the publike edicts 
upon divers new occasions made by the States of the 
Provinces, and these wanting, by the Civill law. The 
particular Cities are governed after the manner above 
named. And particularly at Leyden, my selfe have 
observed the inhabitants of Villages, called by writings set 
upon posts in the publike streets, to have their contro- 
versies judged by the Magistrates of the city, not at any 
set time of the yeere, but according to the occasions of 
other affaires, at the Judges pleasure. High injuries and 
maimes of any member, are punished by the law, which 
passeth over lighter injuries, not giving such ample satis- 
factions to the wronged even by word, as the constitutions 
of the Sweitzers give; so as with them no lesse then in 
England, quarrels and brawlings are frequent, and often 
breake out into man-slaughters, wherein those who will 
revenge themselves by force, first agree betweene them- 
selves, whether they will strike or stab ; and then drawing 
out long knives, which they ordinarily weare, they wound 
one another by course, according to their agreement, either 
by slashes or stabs (which they call schneiden and stecken.) 
They commonly allow mony to be put out to use, and to 
the end poore men upon pawnes may borrow small summes 
for a short time, they admit an Italian or Lumbard 
(vulgarly so called) in each Citie, who taking a pawne, 
lends a gulden for a brasse coine called a doigt by the 
weeke. But this Lumbard in the French Church 
there, is not admitted to receive the Communion. 
The pawne useth to bee worth a third part more then 
the mony lent, and one yeer & a day being past after 
the mony is due, the usurer hath the pawne to himselfe : 
but before that time, the debter at his pleasure may at any 
time have his pawne, first paying the borowed mony, with 
the use to the day of paiment. And the common report 
then was, that the States would take this as a publike 
Office into their owne hands, to help the poore not able 
to pay, by selling the pawnes to the owners best profit. 

I605- 7. 
The Lawes. 

[III. iv. z88.] 


by authority, but onely for the defence of the City or 
Towne wherein they dwell: except these reasons thereof 
may bee approved, that the watery Provinces breed 
flegmaticke humors, which together with the mens 
excessive drinking, may disable them to beget Males; or 
that the Women (as I have heard some Hollanders con- 
fesse) not easily finding a Husband, in respect of this 
disparity of the Sexes in number, commonly live 
unmarried till they be thirty yeeres old, and as commonly 
take Husbands of twenty yeeres age, which must needs 
make the Women more powerfull in generation. And the 
Women not onely take young Men to their Husbands, 
but those also which are most simple and tractable: so 
as by the foresaid priviledge of Wives to dispose goods 
by their last will, and by the contracts in respect of their 
Dowry, (which to the same end use to be warily drawne,) 
they keepe their Husbands in a kind of awe, and almost 
alone, without their Husbands intermedling, not onely 
keepe their shops at home, but exercise trafficke abroade. 
My selfe have heard a Wife make answere to one asking 
for her Husband, that he was not at home, but had newly 
asked her leave to goe abroade. Nothing is more fre- 
quent, then for little girles to insult over their brothers 
much bigger then they, reproving their doings, and call- 
ing them great lubbers, whereof when I talked with some 
Schollers my companions, as a fashion seeming strange to 
mee, they were so farre from wondering thereat, as they 
told me, it was a common thing for Wives to drive their 
Husbands and their friends out of the doores with scolding, 
as if they consumed the goods wherein they had a property 
with their Husbands. I should be too credulous, if I 
should thinke all Families to be sicke of this disease; and 
I must confesse, that in few other Nations all Families are 
altogether free from like accidents : but I may boldly say, 
that the Women of these parts, are above all other truly 
taxed with this unnatural dominering over their Husbands. 
The Nobility or Gentry hath long been rooted out by 
the people (as Junius witnesseth, and experience shewes) 

[III.iv.z89. ] 


in the same coffin with the man he killed; and if perhaps 
he cannot bee apprehended, but escape into some forraigne 
parts, he may perhaps, but very rarely, obtaine pardon, if 
he can first bee reconciled with the friends of the man 
shine by him : but in case he be apprehended, they cannot, 
or at least use not, to scandall Justice by pardons. But 
wilfull murtherers, according to the circumstances of the 
person killed, or of the more or lesse wicked manner of 
the act, are put to death with more or lesse torment, and 
hang in iron chaines till the bodies rot, for terror to others. 
Coiners of money have their bones broken upon the 
wheele, a death more usuall in Germany for hainous 
crimes: but in all torments they commonly mitigate the 
severity of the Law, more then the Germans doe; for 
I have seene some executed in this manner, who were 
first hanged, and so had no feeling of the paine. Hee 
that burnes private (and much more publike) houses, and 
bee that purposeth or threatneth to burne them, though 
hee never doe the act, is himselfe burned by tier, with a 
marke upon his head if the act were done ; upon his breast 
if it were onely purposed ; or upon his mouth, if it were 
onely threatned. An offender escaped by flight, howso- 
ever hee live long in forraine parts, yet if hee ever returne, 
bee the distance of time never so great, he escapeth not 
unpunished. My selfe have seene a man-slayer, who 
having lived six yeeres in forraigne parts, and then for 
love of his Country returning home, was then beheaded, 
as if the crime had been newly committed. No man will 
apprehend any malefactor, nor hinder his flight, but rather 
thinke it a point of humanity to helpe him, only the 
hangman and base fellowes appointed for that office, lay 
hold upon capitall offenders, so as very many escape by 
flight. Neither can any so base or poore man be found, 
excepting the hangman and his said companions, who for 
any reward will bee hired to do the Office of an execu- 
tioner, both these actions being infamous here, as in 
Germany. Among the apprehenders, the chiefe are called 
Provosts, and they of old had power to hang vagabonds, 

I6O5-I 7. 

Jill.iv. 9o.] 

Of their 
warfare in 


till abusing it to revenge and rapine, it was taken from 
them. Upon the rumour of any crime committed, these 
men with their servants armed, are sent out into the 
country, to apprehend the malefactors. 
It was credibly told me, that the Emperor Charles the 
fifth, having suddenly commanded a man to be hanged, 
who after, by an others confession of the fact, was found 
guiltles, upon this error made a decree, that no hangman 
should ever live at the Hage, or neerer the court then 
Harlam, to the end, he being not at hand, the Magistrate 
might lesse offend in deliberate or protracted judgments. 
For as in upper Germany, so in Netherland, there is litle 
or no distance of time, betweene the offence committed, 
and the execution of judgment; whereas in England, 
these judgments are exercised at London once in six weeks, 
& for the Country, at two or foure set times in the yeere. 
No man is put to death without confession of the fact, 
neither doe they as in Germany, force confession by 
torture, but they condemne upon one withes, where 
probable conjectures concur to prove the malefactor 
I thinke (saving the judgment of the better experienced 
in these affaires) that the military discipline of the States 
Army is very commendable: For since those cornmon- 
wealthes are most happy, where rewardes and punishments 
are most justly given, surely the States neither detaine nor 
delay the paiments due to the soldiers, nor leave un- 
punished their insolencies, nor yet their wanton injuries, 
either towardes the subjects, or the Enemy yeelding upon 
conditions. In the camp all things for food are free from 
all impositions, so as a man may there live more plentifully 
or more frugally then in any of their Cities. And besides 
the soldiers pay duly given them, all sick & wounded 
persons are sent to their Hospitals, vulgarly called Gast- 
hausen (that is, houses for Guests) where all things for 
health, food, and clenlines of the body, are phisically, 
plentifully, and neately ministred to them ; of which kinde 
of houses fairely & stately built, they have one in each 


Of their 
navall power. 

[llI. iv. z9. ] 


use of Horse, which makes them commonly sell these 
Horses in forraigne parts, using onely Mares to draw their 
Waggons and for other services of peace, which Mares 
are very beautifull and good. 
The Inhabitants of these Provinces, by nature, educa- 
tion, and art, are most fit for Navigation; & as in the 
exercise of all Arts, they are no lesse witty then 
industrious, so particularly they have great skill in casting 
great Ordinance, in making gunpowder, cables, ankers, 
and in building ships, of all which things and whatsoever 
is necessary to navall warre, they have great abundance, 
the matter being bought in forraigne parts, but wrought 
by their owne men at home: So as they are most power- 
full at Sea, neither hath any King a Navy superior or 
equall to theirs, excepting onely the King of England. 
And for conjecture of their generall power at Sea, I will 
be bold to adde what I have credibly heard: That one 
City of Amsterdam at this time had some hundred shippes 
for the warre, (or men of warre), and some foure hundred 
ships of Merchants well armed for defence, besides (as 
they said) some ten thousand Barkes, or without all doubt 
an uncredible number. 
Therefore if perhaps the united Provinces forgetting 
their old league with England, and our late merit in 
defending their liberty, shall at any time resolve to have 
warre with England, (which for the good of both Nations 
God forbid), then are such bloody fights at Sea like to 
happen as former Ages never knew. Yet the course of 
those times whereof I write, gave small probability of any 
such event like to happen, fbr many reasons combining 
our minds together. First the happy amity that hath 
beene time out of mind betweene our Nations. Next the 
bond of love on our part, towards those wee have pre- 
served from bondage, and the like bond of their thanke- 
fulnesse towards us, which howsoever ambition may 
neglect or despise, yet never any Nation was more obliged 
to another in that kind, and so long as the memory 
thereof can live, it must needs quench all malice betweene 


us. Besides, that they being not able to raise an Army 
of their owne men by Land, aswell for want of men, as 
because it must consist altogether of voluntaries, no man 
being bound to serve in the warre, except his Towne be 
besieged, and his owne Magistrate leade him to the walles ; 
they have hitherto happily used, and may ever so use, 
our men for souldiers, (wherein Britany aboundeth above 
all other Nations, neither doe they by much so esteeme 
the auxiliary bands of any other Nation as of ours). 
Lastly, in that they wanting many necessaries of their 
owne, and yet abounding in all things by trafficke, cannot 
long subsist without the freedome thereof; and nothing 
is so powerfull to diminish their wealth, and to raise civill 
discords among them, as the barring of this freedome, 
which then seemed more easie or lesse difficult to the King 
of England, then to any other neighbour Prince, or (I will 
boldly say) to all other neighbour Princes joined together 
against them, (they having strength of their owne to 
maintaine that freedome by Sea, and being able with the 
onely support of Britany, to defend themselves by land 
against all other Enemies). For they had onely three 
passages to Sea, one by Vlishing in Zeland, another by 
Brill, upon the South-west Coast of Holland, and a third 
narrow passage by the Iland Fly, to the Tassell, on the 
North-east side of Holland, whereof the two first were 
guarded by the said two strong Cities, with the Forts 
belonging to them, all kept by Garrisons of English 
Souldiers, and the stopping or restraining of the third, 
seemed lesse difficult to the Navy of Britany, then to the 
power of any other Enemy. At this time when I passed 
through these parts (of which time I write) the united 
Provinces much complained of the English for taking 
their goods at Sea, & hindering their free traffick : wherein 
they should have considered, that they caused the warre 
with Spaine, which we bore onely to second them. And 
if our Merchants were forced to leave the trafficke of 
Spaine, where they had great freedome and amitie onely 
for their sakes, how could they thinke it just and equal, 

I6O5-t 7. 

[III.iv. 292. ] 


that they should freelie supplie Spaine with food and 
necessaries for warre? so as the very commodities of 
England could not then be vented into Spaine, but onely 
by Flemmish (and some few Scottish) ships and Martinets, 
except they desired to make the warre Eternal_l, by which 
they onely grew rich, in which case our project was more 
just, who for a time made war, that we might after live 
in peace. And whereas they then complained that not 
only prohibited wares carried to prohibited places, but also 
other their commodities carried to friends, were spoiled 
by our men of war, (which perhaps through the insolency 
of Captaines and Souldiers, might sometimes happen) ; no 
doubt these injuries were rare, and never borne with by 
the Q.geene or inferiour Magistrates; and they could not 
bee ignorant how hardly the insolency of Souldiers can be 
restrained by land, & much more by sea. For all good 
Englishmen I may professe; that they abstaining from 
prohibited traffick, no good Englishmen wished .go.od 
successe or impunity to any English ships exercising 
piracy, especially against so neare confederates. These 
complaints I well remember to have been at that time 
frequent in those parts, I know not how since appeased or 
continuing. And because the Q. of England had dis- 
bursed much treasure for their safety, which they were 
bound to repay at the end of the warre, and threatned to 
deduct these spoiles out of the same, many then feared, 
lest this difference might in processe of time breed discord 
between England and those Provinces. Also because the 
Townes and Forts given to the Q.geene as pledges for 
money disbursed, were then kept with weake Garrisons, 
over-topped in number by the very Citizens, it was then 
thought, that the States might take them by force, if our 
Governours had not watchfull eye upon their dessignes, 
and changes of counsell. In generall, good men on both 
sides are to wish the continuance of Peace betweene 
England and these Provinces, by which both Common- 
wealths have long had, and may still have unspeakable 
benefit, and that the rather, because we never yet had 


warre but perpetual amity together, neither can any war 
prove more bloudy or mischievous to either part, then that 
betweene our selves. To conclude, happie be the makers, 
cursed the breakers of our peace. 



white, p. 5, 1. 36, r. marto, p. 64,1.4, r. for the. P-74,1. 7, r- 
Vindelicia. p. 8o, 1. 7, r. they buy, and 1. 35, r. pay them, and 1. 53, 
r. linnen clothes, p. 85, 1. 54, r. sip one. p. 88, |. I4, r. meate if it be. 
p. 9 I, 1. Io, r. hath these, p. o5, 1. 4-7, r. Spoleto, and 1. 5o, r. 
Lavoro. p. o, 1. 3, r. of Isthmus, or neck of land. p. i4 , 1. I7, r. 
exporting, p. 149, 1. 35, r. taske me. p. 58, 1. 3, r. Shannon. 
x56, 1. 43, r. humiditie, p. 6o, 1. 55, r. large Havens. p. 6, 1.4 , 
r. for part. p. 164, 1.  , r. Cowes. p. 68, 1. 48, r. Noblewomen. 
p. I7O, |- -}-5, r. trouses, and 1. 49, r. collers, p. I77, 1. 4 z, r. broad. 
p. 78, 1. , r. stuffes. P- 79,1. iz, r. Likeis. p. 81,1.47, r. in 
France. p. 84, 1. 5, r. borne the. P. 93, 1. 9, r. Dietaes, and 1. 
r. Dietaes. P. 97, 1. , r. Schwaben. p. I98 , 1. 5, r. French at. p. 
99, 1. 53, r. consisting, p. o, I. 3, r. of sixteene, p. o8, 1. 45, 
r. Coiners. P. 3, 1. 37, r. das. p. 4 o, I. 47, are chosen the. p. 4, 
1. , r. sixe Plebeans. P- 44, 1. 4, r. this Senate. 


464; at Kinsale (I6OI) III. 
(Sergeant-Major) his skirmish with 
the Spaniards, 51 ; death of (16o2) 
i78; Sir John, governor of Con- 
naught 0600) 11. 348; and Tyrrel's 
men (i6oi) 412; his victory over 
rebels, 4x2; commander in the 
North, 445- 
Barkshire, see Berkshire. 
Barnewell, Sir Patricke (i6oo) 
Barton, Edvard, English ambassa- 
dor at Constantinople (1597) n. 91 ; 
his kindness to Fynes Moryson, 
Barxvick, see Berxvick. 
Basle (Basel, Bazell, Bazil), Fynes 
Moryson at, his journey from 
Schaffhausen to (592) I. 51; de- 
scription of, 56; etymolqgy of, 57; 
university at, 58; death of Eras- 
mus at (153I) lol ; Fynes Moryson 
at (595) 394; Canton of, iv. 386, 
4o ; government of, 432 ; division 
in tribes, 433 ; courts of justice, 435- 
Bastile, built in i369, in Paris, 
L 407 . 
Bathe, Tyrone's agent, sent to Scot- 
land (I6ol) lI. 462. 
Baths, at Baden, I. 54; near Naples, 
243; Caracalla's, Rome, 285 
Diocletian's, 293; of Julian the 
Apostate in Paris, 42. 
Bavaria, former name of, Iv. 8. 
Bavaria, family of the Dukes of, 
Iv. 349; pedigree of, 350-353 . 
Bedfordshire, description of, iv. 149. 
Beds in Scotland, IV. 184.; in Ire- 
land, i98 , 202. 
Beer, trade of, in Germany, iv. 21, 
40; English, 62; in Ireland, 2oo; 
tax on, in Saxony, 346; tax on, in 
Netherlands, 463. 
Beere haven, see Berehaven. 
Beggars, few, in Germany, iv. 3o3. 
Bellarmine, Cardinal, Fynes Mory- 
son and (1594) L 3o3, m. 413 . 

Bell, of the Cathedral of Paris, i. 
414 . 
Bembus, and Dante's epitaph, I. 207 ; 
epitaph by, 24i. 
Berehaven, given over to the Eng- 
lish (16o0 III. IO4; fort built at 
by the Spanish, I13; taken by Sir 
George Carew (16o2) 188, 193. 
Bergamo, description of, I. 381. 
Bergen-op-Zoon, description of (5q3) 
I. o 3. 
Berkshire, description of, iv. I46. 
Berne, description of, I. 391 ; Canton 
of, iv. 386, 4Ol; government of, 
427; courts of judgment at, 429 . 
Berry, Sir Benjamin, at Carlingford 
(16OO) lI. 34o; sent to Cork (I6OI) 
464; Mountjoy's lieutenant (6o2) 
IlL I67. 
Berwick, Fynes Moryson at (1598) 
II. 116. 
Bethany, Fynes Moryson at, m 15. 
Bethlehem, monastery of, n. 20, 2i. 
Bethphage, historical interest of, 
II. 18. 
Beza, Theodore, Fynes Moryson's 
meeting with 05%) I. 390. 
Bible written by Esdras, kept at 
Bologna (1594) I. 202. 
Bienna town, league of, Iv. 388; 
government of, 44o. 
Billingarry, Castle of (I6O3) Ill. 312. 
Billings, Captain, at Carlingford 
(I6OO) II. 34 o. 
Bills due to soldiers, the nev coin 
and (16o2) III. 228; abuses of the, 
Bills of exchange, II. I27. 
Bingham, Sir Richard, governor of 
Connaught (1589) Ii. 8I; return 
home of (I596) 2OI; as Marshall 
of Ireland (1598) 2i 7 . 
Bingley, Captain Ralph (1598) Ii. 
Bishop, Boleslaus, King of Poland, 
and the, i. 144. 
Bishoprics on the Rhine, In. 453- 



Canary Islands, IV. I I 9. 
Candia, Fynes Moryson at (1596) 1. 
457; II. 72; description of, 79; 
fertility of, 83; Venetian money 
used at, i59. 
Canterbury, Archbishop of, and Lord 
Essex's trial (I6OO) II. 3II. 
Cantyre, in Scotland, IV. 179. 
Cantons, of Switzerland, IV. 385, 
4oi ; situations of the, 4Ol; cities 
of the, 441. 
Capitol, in Rome, I. 297; statues 
in, 298. 
Capitolinus, Mount, description of, 
I. 267. 
Cappadocia, description of, IV. io8. 
Caravan, description of a, II. 53. 
Carbery, revolt of (16o2) m. 286; 
Florence MacCarty and Captain 
Flower at (16oo) I. 36i. 
Cardiganshire, description of, 
Cardinal, title given by churches in 
Rome, I. 283 ft. 
Carew (Carey), Sir Gorge, Earl of 
Totnes, Lord President of Munster 
(i599) H. 280; treachery plotted 
against (16oo) 3o0; at Waterford, 
360; Mountjoy's letter to 
427; letter from the Queen to 
(16ol) 449; his portrait, m. I88; 
and MacDermott's escape and sub- 
mission (16o2) 223 ; going to Eng- 
land, 272, 28o, 289; treasurer at 
wars in Ireland (I6o3) 31o; Lord 
Deputy in Mountjoy's absence, 335- 
Carickfergus, Sir Arthur Chichester, 
governor of (16oo) II. 307, 326; 
forces sent to (i6oi) 431; officers 
left at (6oi) hi. iI; forces at 
(I602) I50 ; foot at (16o3) 340- 
Carinthia, wens common in, i. I44; 
description of, iv. 7- 
Carlingford, fight at (i6oo) n. 339- 
Carlow, Mountjoy at 06o0 lI. 448; 
county of, iv. I87. 
Carrara quarries, I. 354. 

Cashel, religious troubles at (i6o3) 
iiI. 334- 
Cashiering of soldiers, danger of 
(6o2) m. 258. 
Castle, meaning of the word in 
Italy, I. 205. 
Castle Haven, Spanish ships sent to 
(I6o0 m. 55; Spanish ships sunk 
at, 58; O'Donnell at, 61 ; given 
over to the English, Io4; occupied 
by Captain Harry, i25. 
Castles or forts in Turkey, IL 97; 
names of, Io5. 
Catacombs, I. 278. 
Catnesse, see Caithness. 
Cat of the Mountain, scented, I. 321. 
Cats, hunters of serpents at Cyprus, 
I. 460. 
Catterlogh, see Carlow. 
Cattle, in Netherlands, IV. 54; in 
Italy, 83 ; in Syria, I21 ; in France, 
136; in England, i68. 
Cavallo Monte, description of, [. 292. 
Cave-dwellers, iv. i18. 
Cave of the Dog, poisonous grotto 
near Naples, I. 242. 
Cavan county, IV. i9o. 
Cecil, Sir Robert, Queen's secretary 
(I6OI) II. 412; Mountjoy's letter 
to, 423, 429, 442 , 454, 459, 462; 
Spanish news sent to Mountjoy 
by, m. 27; his letter to Mountjoy 
(I6o2) i72, 189; philosophy of, 
I91 ; his letter to Mountoy, 2o2. 
Cedron, Brook, description of the, 
II. I2. 
Celius, Mount, description of, L 268. 
Cephalonia Island, Fynes Moryson 
at (I596) I. 455- 
Chairs, used instead of vehicles in 
Naples 0594) L 239; in Genoa, 36o. 
Chair of the Oneales, stone, broken 
by Mountjoy 06o2) m. 205. 
Chalcedon, Council of, IV. lO8. 
Chaldea, province of Asia, xv. i13. 
Chalons, Fynes Moryson at 0595) 
I. 4oo; description of, 4oi. 



history of the building of, 97; 
moneys used at, i6I. 
Consuls, election of, in Switzerland, 
Iv. 437- 
Contarini family, inscription con- 
cerning the, I. 145. 
Contreres, Juan Hortesse del, taken 
prisoner at Kinsale (16o0 In. 17. 
Conway, Captain Foulke (i598) m 
Cooke, Richard, Mountjoy's envoy 
to Court 06o3) IlL 3IO. 
Copenhagen, Fynes Moryson at 
(I593) I. I2I. 
Corfu Island, Fvnes Moryson near 
(I596) I. 455; strength and fertility 
of, II. IIO. 
Cork, Kingdom of, Henry l I. and 
(169) n. i66; forces gathered 
at (160I) 464 ; necessity of 
strengthening, ili. i36 ; troubles 
in (I6O3) 313; religious troubles 
in, 316, 326; Mountjoy's letter to 
the Mayor of, 318, 325, 327; 
letter from the Mayor of, 323; 
Mountjoy at (I6O3) 332; foot in 
(I6O3) 339; county of, IV. I86. 
Cormock, Tyrone's nephew, taken 
prisoner 06oo) H. 349; sent to 
Dublin (16oI) 379; character of, 
Cornari, Anthony, epitaph of, at 
Venice, . 175. 
Cornaro, Ii, Island, dangers of, m 
Cornwall, description of, IV. I43; 
tin mines of, 164 . 
Coronation, Day of the, of Queen 
Elizabeth (i6ol) Ill. 38; ceremonies 
of the, in Austria, iv. 26o. 
Costi, sect of the, at Jerusalem, H. 
32 . 
Costnetz (Constance), John Hus's 
death at (i414) I. 48; Jerom de 
Prage's death at, 49. 
Cotton, quality of, in Tripoli, It. 5 I. 
Council of Trent, see Trent. 

Council of Flanders, governing 
body, Iv. 454- 
Courcy, John de, rebellion of (I2O4) 
. 67. 
Courts, Four, in Irelnnd (598) 
22 s. 
Cows, Irish, 
Cracow, description of (593) I. I30. 
Cranmer, George, Mountjoy's secre- 
tary, killed (t6oo) ii. 34 i, 344- 
Crawfield, Captain (i6o2) m. 66. 
Creditors, and the laws of inheri- 
tance, in Germany, v. 315 . 
Cremera brook, I. 3o5. 
Crcmona, Fyncs Moryson at (594) 
. 368. 
Crete, see Candia. 
('romarty (Cromer), v. o. 
Crossing the English Channel, cost 
of (5o5) L 422. 
Cross of Christ, made of the ood 
of the bridge of Cedron, 1I. 12; 
made from a tree, 24 . 
Crown of feathers, sent to Tyrone by 
the Pope (i599) I1. 259. 
Cruelty, of northern and southern 
people, m. 429 . 
Cumn, antiquity of, I. 255. 
Cumrlnnd, Lord, and Lord Essex's 
trial (16oo) II. 3Ix ; spch of, 323 . 
Cumberland, description of, IV. I6O. 
Curiosity, danger of, while travel- 
ling, IIL 400. 
Currant trade, in Cephalonia, I. 456. 
Cilicia, situation of, IV. lO 9. 
Cypher for use in Ireland (16Ol) II. 
389; used by Mountjoy and Sir 
Henry Dockwra, 398. 
Cyprus, Fynes Moryson at 0596) I. 
458; description of, 459; money 
used in, II. I59. 

Dacia, or Transilvania, description 
of, IV. IO 7. 
Damascena, in Syria, IV. iii. 
Dams, use of, in Holland, L 94- 
Denmark, Fynes Moryson's journey 



Dogs, English, iv. 69. 
Dolphiny, see Dauphiny. 
Donati, Nicolao, Fynes Moryson's 
letter to 0596) IX. 76; his letter 
to Fynes Moryson, 77- 
Donboy (Dunboy), castle of 06o2) m. 
i82, x94; surprised by O'Swillivan 
Beare, 284; captured by the Eng- 
lish, 285 . 
Donegal, forces at (16o2) m. I5o; 
county, Iv. x9o. 
Done, Master (16oo) I. 269, 341. 
Dorington, George, English consul 
at Aleppo (596) tx. 59. 
Dorses, Island of (i6o2) m. 285. 
Dorsetshire, description of, xv. x44- 
Dort, Fynes Moryson at (I593) x. 
Dort, Staple of Rhenish, iv. 464 . 
Doves, used as letter-carriers in 
Egypt, tx. 52. 
Down, county, Iv. I9o. 
Down Patrick, taken by Sir R. 
Moryson (I6m) IX. 399. 
Dowry, laws concerning, in Ger- 
many, Iv. 32i ; of a princess, 322. 
Drake, Sir Francis, glory of, Iv. 144- 
Dresden, description of, . i8; the 
four gates of, x9; Fynes Moryson 
leaves (I59I) 28; fortified by 
Christian, elector of Saxony, 
339, 34- 
Drinking, habits in Germany, 
29 ff', 35, 2o5; in Switzerland, 
45; customs in Friesland, 62 ; in 
Denmark, 67; in Poland, 73; of 
Turkey, 129 ; in England, I76; in 
Scotland, 185; in Ireland, 97. 
Drogheda, Mountjoy at 06o3) 
297; Tyrone's submission at, 3o8. 
Druids in Anglesey, iv. 6. 
Drunkenness punished in Sxvitzer- 
land, v. 413 . 
Dublin, Essex lands at (x599) IX. 229 ; 
Mountjoy returns to (i6oo) 332; 
rebels near, 349; headquarters for 
army ammunitions, 447; county 
Of, IV, I8 7. 

49 t 

Ducking, punishment for theft in 
Germany, v. 298; for mis- 
behaviour, 299. 
Duels forbidden in Switzerland, 
Dulness, advantages of, m. 423 . 
Dunagali, see Donegal. 
Dunaiong, English forces at (6o) 
Ix. 389. 
Dundalk, Sir Richard Moryson, gov- 
ernor of 06oo) II. 328; muster of 
the English army at, 334-336 ; foot 
at (16o2) 11I. I48. 
Dungannon (6o) I. 423; Sir. R. 
Moryson at (6o2) m. I66. 
Dunkellin, Lord, loyalty of (t6oo) . 
297; resignation of, 3o. 
Dunkirk, pirates of (593) . 15- 
Dunsany, Lord of (6o0 II. 437- 
Durham, bishopric of, Iv. 59- 
Dyngen, see Phillipstowne. 

Earthquakes at Basel (346, 356) x. 
57; prophesied at Vienna, I4I ; in 
Italy (i538) 248. 
Edinburgh (Edenborough), descrip- 
tion of (1598), m 117; houses of, 
III. 497, xv. 177. 
Egerton, Captain Charles (I598) n. 
Egmond, Earl of, beheaded by the 
Duke of Alva, iv. 446- 
Egypt, fertility of, i i6. 
Election, of Emperors of Germany, 
Iv. 255 ; of consuls of Switzerland, 
Electors, of Emperors of Germany, 
IV. 256, 264 . 
Elizabeth, Queen, her picture at 
Florence, I. 322; letter to Essex 
(t599) tI. 248-253 ; letter to Mount- 
joy, a83, 356; proclamation con- 
cerning mixed moneys (16oi) 382; 
letter to Sir George Carew (i6m) 
449; letter to Mountjoy (x6o0 m. 
20, I22 ; commendation of Clan- 
rickard and Thomond, i24 ; letter 


famine in, 208; state of (I6O2) 
273 ; state of (I613) 343 ; buildings 
of, 498; situation of, Iv. i85; 
climate of, I9I ; apparel of, 236. 
Iron, crown of, at Milan, L 366. 
lschia, I. 256. 
Island or city of Paris, description 
of, I. 4o3 . 
Islands of England, IV. 161; of 
Scotland, 8o. 
lsola, 1', description of, I. 262. 
lstria, description of, Iv. 8o. 
Italy, Fynes Moryson's journey to 
(I593) i. I37; Fynes Moryson in, 
I45 ; moneys of, II. I54, I55 f. 
miles of, t62; cities of, proverbial 
speeches on, m. 455; different 
nations of, 456, 45q ; travelling in, 
472; bridges, 487; cities and 
houses of, 492; situation of, IV. 
74 ; climate of, 8o ; fertility of, 
84; wines of, lO2; apparel of, 
lvie, Paul, engineer (16oi) m. lO 5. 

Jackals (Jagales) at Scanderoon, II. 
Jacob, Hans, captain of Freebooters 
(592) L 84. 
James I., accession of (6o3) I11. 3o2 ; 
his proclamation in Dublin, 3o3; 
in Ireland, 311. 
Janiculus, Mount, description of, I. 
269 . 
Jealousy of northern people, 1II. 433- 
Jehosaphat, meaning of, II. 12. 
Jephson, Captain John (i598) . 218, 
(1599) 245. 
Jerom of Prage, death of, at Con- 
stance (1414) I. 49- 
Jersey, IV. I64. 
Jerusalem, Fynes Moryson starts for 
(I595) I. 429; he arrives at (1596) 
467 ; description of, I. I-I 5 ; Fynes 
Moryson leaves (1596) 47 ; moneys 
used at, i6o. 
Jews, privileges of, in Mantua (1594) 

I. 37I; costume of, in Turkey, 
Joachim, Abbot John, I. 7 I. 
Joan, Pope (854-856) I. 349. 
Job's house and city, H. 54- 
John, Laurance, inventor of the first 
printing press, x. 96. 
John Baptist, cave of, II. 23. 
John Baptist, the, Fynes Moryson on 
(I596) II. 7 I. 
Joppa, description of I. 462, 463. 
Jordan, river, n. 7- 
Jordane, a warder (I6Ol) II. 400. 
Jordanus hill, description of, L 269. 
Judea, mountains of, II. 40; descrip- 
tion of, IV. I IO. 
Judgments, capital, in Germany, v. 
287 ; civil, 299 ; in Switzerland, 
41 , 429, 434 ; in Netherlands, 47o. 
Juliacum, duchy of, description of, 
IV. I2. 
Justice, example of Roman (1594) I. 
334; palace of, in Paris, 415. 

Kardiganshire, see Cardiganshire. 
Keating, rebel (I6OO) II. 33. 
Kells, army at (I602) III. I48. 
Kent, description of, IV. 47- 
Kerne, Irish, pay of 0598) II. 228. 
Kerry, Sir Charles Wilmot, governor 
of (6oo) II. 364; and the rebels 
(i6o2) ni. 286; castle of, 32I. 
Kerry, county of, Iv. I86. 
Kildare, county of, v. 87; fertility 
of, I88. 
Kilkenny, Mountjoy at (I6OI) II. 446; 
Council held at (I6OI) lIl. I40 ; 
army at (I6o2) I48 ; religious 
troubles at (16o3) 313 ; Mountjoy's 
letter to the Sovereign of, 317; 
county of, IV. 187 ; fertility of, 
Kings, first, of Rome, I. 272. 
King's County, IV. 187 . 
Kingsfeld, monastery of (I592) I. 56. 
Kinsale, Spanish fleet landed at 
(I601) II. 451; taken by the 
Spaniards, 458; siege of (16oi) m. 



Mac Rory, submission of (16o) 
Mac Swine Bone, submission of 
(16Of) II. 380. 
Mac Swine Fannaght, submission of 
(I601) lI. 380. 
Mac Swinedoe, Owen Oge, submis- 
sion of (I6OI) II. 380. 
Madagascar, products of, iv. II 9. 
Madness of southern people, m. 434 ; 
of Italians, 456. 
Magdeburg, siege of, i. 
Magistrates, names of, in Nether- 
lands, IV. 456. 
Mahumet II. (I453) iv. 241. 
Malta, knights of, iv. 327 . 
Man, Isle of, products of, IV. i62; 
history of, 62. 
Manners, good and bad, on the Lesse 
Lyon (i595) I. 448; foreign, IIl. 
422; table, in Germany, iv. 30; 
in Italy, 98; in Scotland, i83; of 
Irish at meal time, 200. 
Mansfield, mines at, i. 436. 
Mantua, Fvnes Moryson at (1594) I. 
369; birthplace of Virgil, 37 o. 
Map of Europe, price of, in Holland, 
I. 120. 
Marble in Ireland, v. I94. 
Marburg, university of, iv. 36I. 
Marchantius, quotation from, IV. 449. 
Marforio, statue of, I. 288, 297. 
Margaret, Queen of Denmark, and 
Albrecht, King of Suetia, I. 
Marie of Burgundy and Bruges 
(I437) iv. 454; and Mechline, 456. 
Market place at Rome, L 289; of 
Rialto in Venice, 19o ; of Florence, 
320; in Paris, 405. 
Market prices in Italy, iv. 97- 
Markham, Francis, letter from 
Fynes Moryson to (I592) I. 76- 
Marline, the, and the Spanish ships 
in Ireland 06oi) hi. 58. 
Marmarica, province of, IV. 
Maronites, sect of the, at Jerusalem, 
Ii. 34. 

Marphorius, see Pasquin. 
Marriage, latvs of, in Germany, tv. 
318; ranks considered in, 325; in 
Netherlands, 469 . 
Martyrs, Mountain of the, legend 
of, I. 417 . 
Mass, Roman, L 368. 
Massovia, description of, iv. 68. 
Masterton, Captain Henrie 0598) IL 
22 ; wounded (I6oo) 329 . 
Mauritania Cesariensis, in Africa, 
IV. 1I S. 
Mauritania Tingitana, in Africa, iv. 
Mauritius, elector of Saxony, iv. 243 ' 
33o; religion of, 362. 
Maximilian, Emperor, lost in a 
wood, i. 441. 
Meade, the Recorder, imprisoned 
(16o3) IlL 333- 
Meals, in Germany, length of, IV. 
27 . 
Measures of miles in different parts 
of the world, II. 162. 
Meath, kingdom of, Henry II. and 
(II69) H. 167; divisions of, iv. 89. 
Mechlenburg, duchy of, iv. 
Mechlin, Dominion of, iv. 443; court 
of justice at 0473) 456. 
Meinow Island, L 49" 
Meissen, described 059 i) I. 17. 
Melancthon, Philip, I. 15. 
Mellifant 0603) llI. 298. 
Melvin, Port of, Fynes Moryson at 
(1593) I. I29. 
Men, famous, of Padua, L I56; of 
Venice, 95 ; seen by Fynes Mory- 
son, III. 372. 
Mentz, Archbishop of, iv. 256, 360. 
Merchants at Bruges, v. 56. 
Meridian, description of, IV. i. 
Merionethshire, description of, v. 
Mesoptamia, in Syria, iv. 
Metz, description of, I. 396- 
Michael Angelo, sepulchre of, at 
Florence, I. 326. 



illness of (602) 42; recovery of, 
ISI ; a short account of his 
generalship in Ireland, i52 ff. ; his 
letter to Queen Elizabeth, 198 ; 
his letter to Lord Cecil, 2oo, 21i; 
takes the field, 2o2 ; his kindness, 
214 ; his letter to Sir Oliver Lam- 
bert, 214; a letter to, from the 
lords in England, 217, 239, 267; 
his journey to Connaught, 235 ; 
his letter to Lord Cecil, 29o ; his 
letters to the heads of the Irish 
provinces (16o3) 314-325 ; his letter 
to Sir Ch. Wilmot, 32I; his 
interview with Dr. White at 
Waterford, 329; at Cork, 332; 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 335; 
rewards of, 336; death of (16o6) 
337; work of, in Ireland, 337- 
Mountjoy fort (16o2) IU. 167; lands 
grant to, 302. 
Mount Norreys fort (16oo) u. 338; 
forces left at (16ol) 4o2; forces 
sent to, 432; army left at (I6O2) 
m. 49 ; Captain Atherton at, 224. 
Moyrye, fight of the (t6oo) u. 3o5; 
fort built at (I6Ol) 399; army at 
(I6O2) IlL I48 ; fort built at (6Ol) 
Mulberry trees in Florence, I. 316. 
Mulct for murder in Germany, v. 
29o ; for loss of one or more limbs, 
294 ; court of justice for, in Swit- 
zerland, 435- 
Mulhusium, league of, IV. 388. 
Munster, rebellion in, instigated by 
Tyrone (t598) Ii. 218; pay of the 
Queen's officers in, 227, (I599) 
278; rebellion in (599) 235; Sir 
George Carew, president of, 28o; 
affairs of (x6oo) 3oo; pardon for 
the rebels of, 353; submission of, 
365; peace in (i6oI) 377; martial 
law recalled in, 4o5; affairs of 
(I6OI) 448; Tyrone in (I6o) 
o 3; rebellion in, xo5; army in 
(x6o2) I47 ; Spaniards expected in, 

i81; horse wanted for, 94; Cap- 
tain Tyrell, rebel, leaves, 255 ; 
affairs of, 284, 289; Mountjoy's 
letter to the Commissioners of 
(I6O3) 32I ; horse in, 338; foot in, 
339; divisions of, iv. i86. 
Murano Island, Venice, glass-mak- 
ing at, . 93- 
Murder, punishment of, in Germany, 
IV. 29o ff.; of a child, 3oo; 
punishment of, in Switzerland, 
4o9, 413; in Netherlands, 47o- 
Murrey Frith, see lIoray. 
Mussendine, Faith, IX. I65. 
Muster of the army at Dundalk 
(i6oo) n. 334-336. 
Musters, Commissaries of, pay of 
(I598) II. 228, (599) 279, (I6OO) 
295 ; fraud of the, uI. 24 I. 
Names of English officers in Ireland 
(1598) II. 218, 221, (1599) 253, 
(I6OO) 290 ; of Commissioners of 
Lord Essex's trial, 31i; of rebel 
officers in Tyrone's command, 
422 ; of officers in the army in 
Ireland (i6ox) Im 1, (x6o2) 46; 
at Kinsale, 4o; sent to Ireland, 
4 ; superfluous, in the army in 
Ireland, 226; names of, in the 
army (t6o2) 249 ; names oI general, 
provincial, etc., 345- 
Namur, county of, description of, 
v. 5o; county of, 443. 
Nancy, Fynes Moryson at (1595) . 
395 ; victory of Switzerland, over 
Charles of Burgundy 0477) v. 393- 
Naples, kingdom and city of, Fynes 
Moryson at (1594) I. 223; at 
Naples city, 232 ; haven of, 236 ; 
names of, 238. 
Narbonensis, divisions of, v. i34. 
Narni, peculiarity of the soil of, . 
Nassau, William, Count of, gover- 
nor of Friesland (1592) I. 9 o. 
Naumberg, league of (i589) v. 34 o. 



proclainled rebel, 197 ; his promises 
(I596) 200; execution of 0597) 207. 
Ostend besieged by the Spaniards 
(i6Ol) m 42o; Sir Edward Nor- 
reys, and the garrison of, iv. 47. 
Ostia, Fynes Moryson at (1594) I. 
O'Swillivan Beare, Donboy castle 
surprised by (6o2) nl. 284. 
Otho llI., Duke of Saxony and 
Emperor (984) IV. 239. 
O'Tooles, the, rebel family (i6oo) H. 
349; submission of the (6Ol) 379- 
Owen, Richard (6o0 m. 1 4. 
Oxfordshire, description of, IV. 48. 
Oyster Haven, English forces landed 
at (o) uI. 5- 

Pacuvius, epitaph of, at Padua, I. 
Padua, Fynes Moryson at 0593) I. 
47; history and government of, 
i5o; shape of, 5; epitaphs in, 
53; university in, 56; Fynes 
Moryson at (x504) 373- 
Palace, of the dukes at Venice, I. 
189; of the popes, at Rome, 279; 
of the Cardinal de Medicis, 29 ; 
of the Cardinal Farnese, 3oo; di 
Pitti, Florence, 319; of the kings 
of France, 4o9, 414; of Fontaine- 
bleau, 4t9; of Caiphas at Jerusa- 
lem, it. 7; of King Herod, io; of 
Lazarus, i6; of the Greek Turk 
at Constantinople, 93- 
Palatine, Count, of the Rhine, elec- 
tor, v. 256, 348; pedigree of the 
counts and electors, 35o-353; 
Frederick, 354- 
Palatinus, Mount, description of, I. 
Pale, complaints of the, iI. 332; 
ol'ficers left in the (i6oi) III. i2. 
Palestine, provinces in, v. io; 
climate of, **9- 
Pamphilia, chimera mountain in, IV. 
Io 9 . 

Pantheon, become a Christian 
church, I. 288. 
Paper used for windows, at Bologna, 
I. 203. 
Paphlagonia, IV. lO8. 
Paradox, v. 94- 
Parallels, description of, v. 2. 
Pardon, conditions of, for Tyrone 
0598) H. 24; for Munster rebels 
(16oo) 353; granted to many 
rebels (6o0 377; granted to 
Munster rebels, 39o; conditions of 
Tyrone's 06o0 m. 4; condi- 
tions of, for rebels 06o2) 69; 
conditions of, for MacGuyre, 8o; 
Queen Elizabeth refuses Tyrone's, 
Paris, Fynes Moryson's journey 
wards (i595) i. 397 ; name of, 4o2 ; 
increase of, 4o4; description of, 
4o6-4i 9; IV. I33. 
Parishes, government of, in Switzer- 
land, v. 442. 
Parma, Alexander Farnese, Duke of, 
governor of Netherlands, xv. 446. 
Pasquin, statue of, . 288; and the 
criticisms of the Pope's politics, 
IV. 242. 
Pass, soldiers to be discharged by 
a (I02) III. 242. 
Passage, under the Pausilippo moun- 
tain, . 24o. 
Passports against infectious ill- 
nesses used in Italy (1593) L I45, 
 58; reform concerning(16o2) III. 222. 
Patmos lsland, II. 86. 
Pavia, description of, I. 362. 
Pawnbroker's shop, see Mountain of 
Pawning in Netherlands, iv. 467 . 
Pay, of the officers in Ireland (I598) 
I. 222 ; of the officers of the four 
courts, 225; of the officers at 
Leinster and Munster, etc., 227; 
of the officers in Ireland (1599) 
276, (I60o) 360, (I6OX) 369; of the 
soldiers 06o0 m. 99; of Irish 


soldiers, 146 ; former rate of, re- 
sumed (1602) 162; full, twice a 
year, I63; full, after war-time, 
248; of the elector of Saxony's 
soldiers, iv. 341 ; of his pensioners, 
etc., 342. 
Peace, conference for, requested by 
Don Jean d'Aguyla 06Ol) 11I. 89; 
articles of the, signed (1602) 93; 
Mountjoy's reasons for composing 
with the Spaniards, Io9; possible, 
between England and Spain, i39. 
Pearcy, Sir Charles, colonel in Ire- 
land (1598) I1. 22i; at the Moyrye 
(i6oo) 3o6. 
Pearl fishing in the Arabian Gulf, 
iv. 113. 
Pedigree, of Emperor Rodolphus, 
IV. 246-249; of the dukes of 
Saxony, 334 ; of the dukes of Bav- 
aria and Counts Palatines, 35o ; of 
the Marquises of Brandenburg, 
356; of the Landgraves of Hesse, 
36I; of the dukes of Brunswick 
and Luneburg, 374. 
Peloponesus, Fynes Moryson at 
(I596) I. 457- 
Pembroke, William, Earl of, Dedi- 
cation of Itinerary to, I. xvli. 
Pembrokeshire, IV. I56. 
Pensioners, in Ireland, pay of (15o8) 
II. 228, (I599) 279, (I6OI) 372. 
Penthesilea, Castle of, iI. 69. 
Percy, Sir Richard, Spaniards re- 
pulsed by, at Kinsale (16Ol) m. 
16 ; strength of his regiment, 75- 
Perfidiousness of northern people, 
m. 43 I. 
Perian, Lord, and Lord Essex's trial 
(I600) II. 3II. 
Perkins, YVilliam, III. 416. 
Perrot, Sir John, Lord Deputy (I589) 
II. I80. 
Peterhouse, in Cambridge, Fynes 
Moryson at (c. 1591 ) I. 1; his 
gratitude to the master and fellows 
Of (16OO) II. 343. 

Petition of Fynes Moryson at Lindau 
(1592) I. 46. 
Petrarch, Francis, monument of, at 
Arqua, I. 374; house of, 375- 
Pewter ship, kept at Hamburg, I. 
Phenicia, IV. I I I. 
Philip, king of Spain, possessions 
of, Iv. 445- 
Phiilipstown, fort, victualled (6oo) 
II. 3o3 - 
Phoenix, IV. 113. 
Picardy, description of, IV. 133. 
Piccenum, description of, IV. 78. 
Pictland, in Scotland, Iv. 177. 
Pikeman, Captain, phenomenon ob- 
served by (I6OI) III. 76. 
Pilgrims, from Venice to Jerusalem, 
It. 35- 
Pincius Hill, description of, i. 260. 
Pirates, of Dunkirk (i593) I. 115; 
Turkish, 1I. Io8; Turkish, and 
Italian ships, Iv. 9 I. 
Pisa, description of, I. 3ii. 
Pistoia, description of, I. 3o9- 
Plus II., Pope, University of Basel 
founded by (1459) I. 58. 
Plus IV., Pope, and the Inquisition, 
IV. 445- 
Plague, hospital for, at Milan, I. 
Planting of Ireland, nI. 279. 
Pledges, promised by Aguyla (I6OI) 
Ill. 133, 134. 
Plot, mismanaged, for Tyrone's 
head (16oo) II. 354; against the 
Earl of Desmond's brother, 362; 
and the Earl of Desmond, 363; 
against Tirrel (i6oi) 445. 
Podolia, description of, IV. 69. 
Poland, Fynes Moryson in (i593) i. 
i33 ; moneys of, II. t53 ; miles of, 
I64; travelling in, hi. 47I; cities 
and houses of, 492; situation of, 
iv. 67; climate of, 69; products 
of, 69; food in, 7o; drinking in, 
73 ; apparel of, 215. 



Vaticanus, Mount, description of, I. 
269 . 
Veils worn in Netherlands, IV. 2i 3. 
Venice, description of (1594) I. 16o; 
past history of (42i) 16I; govern- 
ment of, i62; various names of, 
162 ; churches in, 165; nunneries 
in, I77; schools in, I84; library 
of, I87 ; mint house of, 188 ; duke's 
palace, 189; glass making in, 
I93; population of, I94; Fynes 
Moryson again at (1595) 444; rate 
of exchange at, n. 131 ; moneys 
of, 155 ; Rialto bridge at, III. 487 ; 
trade of, Iv. 123 ; apparel worn in, 
Vere, Sir Francis, in Ostend (16Ol) 
II. 420. 
Verona, description of, I. 376; his- 
tory of, 377- 
Verses written in praise of astro- 
nomers at Wheen Island, I. 126. 
Vesuvius, Mount, description of, I. 
233, IV. 77- 
Vetturine, description of a, I. 212. 
Vicenza, description of, I. 376- 
Victuals, abuses of, in Ireland (16o2) 
III. I86, 217 f. ; perishable, to be 
sold to the poor, 22o; commis- 
saries of, 243; expenses of, 244; 
possible miscarriage of, 246. 
Vienna, description of (I593) I. 14o. 
Villages swallowed by the sea in 
Brabant, I. lO 3. 
Villamont, on the Loretto Chapel, I. 
214 ft., 249; on the pope's licence 
for a journey to the Holy Land, 
447; on the French miles, IL 163. 
Viminalis, Mount, description of, I. 
Vindelicia, description of, IV. 7- 
Vines, growth of, in Venice, L I97. 
Virgil, quotation from, I. 221; tomb 
of, at Naples, 24i ; quotations 
from, 25o ; Mantua, birth-place of, 
Virgin's sepulchre, XL 13. 

Viishing, see Flushing. 
Volhinia, description of, Iv. 08. 
Vuovo, Castel' del', at Naples, !. 237. 
"Vages, payment of, by the Emperor 
Rodolphus, IV. 255. 
XValkenburg, county of, Iv. 443- 
,Valmesley, and Lord Essex's trial 
06oo) H. 3I; speech of, 32. 
Walsh, Sir Nicholas (i6oi) II. 455- 
Warbeck, Perkin, rebellion of, 
169 . 
Ward, see Constable. 
Ward, Captain, at Kinsale (6oi) m. 
Wards, minority of, in Germany, v. 
Warders, pay of (I598) L 228, (1599) 
279, (6o) 371 ; names of, in Ire- 
land (c. 1613) m. 346 . 
Warfare, in Germany, IV. 272, 274 ; 
in Switzerland, 415 ; in the Nether- 
lands, 472 . 
Wars, Irish, cost of (I598-6o3) m. 
341 ; Swiss, v. 393 ; spoil of, 423, 
416 ft. 
lVarspite, the (I6OI) II. 58. 
War-tax in Germany, v. 27o. 
Warwickshire, description of, 
Watch in German towns, Iv. 271. 
Water, laid in Lubeck (i59i) I. 7, 8; 
conduit of, in Dantzic, 13I ; fresh, 
near the sea at Venice, 183 ; medi- 
cinal, near Bologna, 2o 4 . 
Waterford, Sir George Carew at 
(I6OO) ii. 36o; reinforcements 
landed at (i6oi) nI. 52; religious 
troubles at (16o3) 312 ; Mountjoy's 
letter to the citizens of, 314 
Mountjoy's letter to the Mayor of 
(I6o3) 324; Mountjoy at, 328; ex- 
amination of the men of, 33o; fort 
at (i6o3) 339; county of, iv. 186. 
Weights, English money, II. I34, 
136; Scottish money, 136; Ger- 
man money, 143. 


Year, Italian, begins in January, 
I. 158. 
Yorke, Captain (16oi) Ill. 43- 
Yorkshire, description of, iv. 58. 
Ypres, privileged city, iv. 454- 

Zacharias' house, historical interest 
of, II. z3. 
Zante, Fynes Moryson at (596) I. 
457; English residents at (57) 
1. to7; Fynes Moryson driven 
back to, io; Venetian money 
used at, 59- 
Zeland, description of, Iv. 48 ; county 
of, 443- 
Ziska, buried at Chassel, i. 33. 

Zones or girdles, description of, 
Zouch, Lord, and Lord Essex's trial 
(6oo) it. 3 tI; speech of, 323 . 
Zug, Canton of, iv. 386, 4oi; gov- 
ernment of, 424, 425. 
Zurich, Fynes Moryson at (592) I. 
53, (505) 386; Canton of, v. 386, 
4o ; government of, 432 ; tribes 
of, 433; courts of judgment, 434- 
Zutland, description of, Iv. 65. 
Zutphan, county of, IV. 443; joined 
to the Netherlands (159I) IV. 50. 
Zwinglius, against mercenary war- 
fare, Iv. 4oo.